the article is Statistical Literacy—Misuse of Statistics and Its Consequences what i
the article is
Statistical Literacy—Misuse of Statistics and Its Consequences
what i have learned
Reading, understanding, and oral and written communication are all essential components of statistical literacy, and it also necessitates the development of more advanced cognitive abilities such as the ability to interpret, forecast, and think critically. If pupils are to become well-informed individuals, they must be taught how to critically analyze data and disprove arguments. Here, we have proposed an unique seminar on statistical literacy as a way to solve this difficulties and reduce statistics education. Students and lecturers alike will benefit from this seminar’s variety of aims, which include investigative work as well as the creation of both a press release and an evaluation report, in addition to raising their statistical literacy understanding. A basic understanding of descriptive and inferential statistics is all that is required for participation in the suggested seminar.
In 2007, toothpaste company Colgate produced an ad suggesting that 80 percent of dentists recommended their products. Depending on the advertisement, many buyers felt Colgate was the greatest choice for excellent dental health. And this wasn’t entirely true. In truth, this is a perfect illustration of deceptive statistics.
reason why you think the statistics were reported that way
Statistics can deceive the untrained eye into believing something different than what the facts actually reveal. If you’re trying to learn something new, don’t get sucked into the fake statistics trap. Colgate commissioned a research agency to conduct annual surveys of dentists and hygienists on a broad range of topics, and it appeared that all dentists and hygienists participated voluntarily in the surveys. Colgate apparently informed survey respondents that their responses could be utilized in advertising materials, among other things. A copy of the survey questions and results was supplied to the ASA to substantiate Colgate’s claim that the survey findings supported the assertion made in the advertisements.
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Reasons for Financial Literacy in Schools
It is very crucial to impact the knowledge of financial literacy in students while in a certain grade level. Financial literacy is highly recommended because it is one of the channels that will equip the students the knowledge on how to plan and calculate expenditures in the appropriate ways hence reducing income inequality as per the research. It is a skill to facilitate good financial stability thus boosting the economy.
Right from high school graduation, it is advisable for a student to acquire credit card loans to start making financial decisions to acquire the important financial concepts such as the credit source which facilitates the credit card or loans either big or small which can positively improve and impact the teenager’s lives strongly whereas poor credit sources are hard to leave behind.
For college students, massive debts are one of the things they mostly encounter since they have to search where to acquire some money to pay for their tuition and even plan on their living expenses that is why it is very important for a student to have the knowledge on how financial aid works so as to settle the debts which can cost their finances even beyond college. However, knowing how to consolidate debt should also be considered to guide the ones struggling with debt to make payments more manageable.
It is essential for teens to have financial literacy since they shall also have retirements hence, they shall be needed to understand retirement saving products. Saving and investing are among the skills that promote healthy retirement savings. For better retirement gain it’s something that one needs to plan earlier and it’s something that can be adopted from the financial literacy class offered in different institutions.
With skills in financial literacy, one will be able to understand how he/she earns or spends, the knowledge of market budgeting will be impacted the students which is one crucial way to establish a true understanding of your income and expenses. Once one has a budget there is an ease in maintaining a good expenditure and regular revisitation of how many things have been achieved in a certain period of time.
The knowledge of paying and avoiding debts will also be induced through financial literacy in schools. If you have debts, it will enable you to switch to the right method to get out of the debt either through help from reputable experts or with your own efforts. One will be able to conduct better planning and manage to settle every debt and even have some savings to pursue a comfortable life.
Protecting yourself from bankruptcy and debts, financial literacy will enable you to manage and the debt building which is creating an emergency saving account. A person who is financially literate will have an idea of creating a way to coup up with the situation at hand when it comes to debt settling and equipping oneself with little to move on with a financial lifeline thus, this will promote the control economy of the country.
One should take it positively that the knowledge impacted in schools for financial literacy is very crucial and should be facilitated in all institutions for a proper financial lifestyle maintained at an early age.
PHARMACOLOGY CLINICAL ASSIGNMENT 6 Pharmacology Clinical assignmentStudent’s Name Department, Academic AffiliatioProfessor’s Title
PHARMACOLOGY CLINICAL ASSIGNMENT 6
Pharmacology Clinical assignmentStudent’s Name
Department, Academic AffiliatioProfessor’s Title and Name
Course Code and Name
Introduction on Polypharmacy
Patients who take multiple medications may be at increased risk of medication errors, incomplete or inappropriate treatment, or adverse drug reactions. Multiple medication are frequently used by older people with chronic diseases to assist them in managing their present ailments, prevent future problems, and enhance their quality of life. While doctors usually recommend these drugs, older persons will occasionally utilize over-the-counter medications, especially if their diseases worsen. This explains why polypharmacy is common among the elderly and why the majority of them have pharmaceutical loads. I intended to interview a 65-year-old client with type 2 diabetes and urinary inconsistency to better understand why most Americans take many drugs and for what reasons. This educational article will teach you about the risks of polypharmacy and how to manage it when it occurs.
Findings from the Interview
Some of my interviewee’s drugs include Insulin Detemir, Ditropan XL, and Sertraline. The client stated throughout the interview that she did not know how long she had been taking his drugs, but it had been more than five years and that he knew why she was taking them. The client stated that the insulin injections reduced her blood sugar, while Ditropan XL reduced urine inconsistence. On the other hand, sertraline assisted her in overcoming her depression. Furthermore, except for Insulin detemir, most of the drugs he obtained were over the counter. The client also stated that he did not like taking several prescriptions and that she takes the medication in the morning and before night.
The client injects insulin via the skin, while all of the other medications are taken orally as tablets. The client states that it was difficult injecting insulin since her hands were tingling, and that she needed assistance from her grand-daughter in law school to help her. The client stated that when she began insulin injection, she would have rashes on her body but she was given a cream to rub that eventually cleared them. She did not discontinue the insulin injection, and after a while, the effect disappeared completely. The client also affirmed that she was not consistent with the medication and would miss the pills from time to time.
The insulin brand the client is taking is Levemir, which controls hyperglycemia in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Levemir belongs to the anti-diabetic drug class and is administered through subcutaneous injection (Apollo Pharmacy, n.d.). The patient has injected a dose of 100ml per pen-injector before breakfast and evening meal. Possible side effects for this medication are pain, redness, and irritation at the injection sites, thickening of the skin surrounding the injected areas, headache, flu symptoms, sleepiness, rapid heartbeat, and impaired vision (Apollo Pharmacy, n.d.). The customer also takes Ditropan XL, classified under antispasmodics. The medication reduces the urge inconsistency by calming or relaxing an overactive bladder (WebMD, n.d.). This medication is taken orally in the form of pills. It comes as a five-milligram tablet that should be taken twice a day. Its side effects include dizziness, headache, blurred vision, dry eyes, nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, and sleeplessness (WebMD, n.d.).
Lastly, the client is taking sertraline, which is sold under the brand name Zoloft. This medication is used to boost the patient’s mood and thereby help her overcome depression (MedlinePlus, 2022). It corrects chemical imbalances in the brain that cause low emotions and, depression. The medication is categorized as an antidepressant and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Sertraline is in the form of tablets thus taken orally. It comes in a 50 mg dosage that should be taken once a day, depending on the severity of the depression. The possible side effects of this medication include headache, muscular soreness, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, dizziness, and tingling sensations (MedlinePlus, 2022).
While polypharmacy rates in the United States remain high, most medications are available over the counter, and people seldom seek information about them. My client acknowledge that she did had difficulty injecting insulin and would also miss the pills from time to time. As a result, patients may be in danger, as there is a significant risk of under-dosing or overdose while taking numerous drugs. Despite this, the elderly are the most vulnerable group, as they suffer from various ailments. Some of these medicines may interact with one another. To avoid the negative consequences of polypharmacy, nurses must question clients about their medical history and any other medications they may be taking.
The goal of the Teaching Plan
After studying and comprehending the situation of polypharmacy in the United States, it is evident that most patients need to be taught about numerous ailments, prescription doses, classifications, and side effects. The discussion also revealed that patients had difficulties taking medications and sticking to regimens, highlighting the importance of patient education. As a result, creating a teaching plan when educating such a patient will enhance the overall delivery of patient education and reduce the possibilities of missing important polypharmacy information (Rankin et al., 2018). One of the objectives of a teaching plan including the interviewed client would be to provide the patient with information about the various drugs she is getting in order for her to comprehend why she is taking them (Rankin et al., 2018). According to the interview, the client does not know why she is taking the medications. She just knows they’re for particular situations, therefore it’s up to you to explain why he’s taking them and what they do in her body.
One resource that might be utilized to collect information for teaching the patient about her medication is the DailyMed. The website offers a database on information about marketed drugs and medication in a standardized and up-to-date format (OHSU, 2022). It provides labelling found in the medication package inserts. Another resource is Davis’ Drug Guide for Nurses (OHSU, 2022). The book contains important information about numerous medicines, including ones she is taking, and defines what they do, making it a valuable resource for teaching the client. Micromedex is another useful resource that provides a collection of different drug databases including Martindale, the physicians’ desk reference, DRUGDEX, DISEASEDEX, POISONDEX and other alternative medicine databases (OHSU, 2022). This resource will be useful as the client can search for drugs trade, name generic names, get information on dosage, drug interaction and poisoning control information.
The MedlinePlus website is another possible resource. It includes verifiable information on various medications, their doses, and what they do in the body, implying that the resources on the website will assist the customer in better comprehending why she is taking the drugs (OHSU, 2022). Finally, another educational resource that might be used in training the customer is the Drugs.com website. It gives information on numerous drugs that the client uses, implying that its resources will assist the client in better understanding why she is taking the medications.
Teaching Strategies and Specific Client Instructions
One of the most important teaching strategies would be to use plain language. The interviewed client is 65 years old and may not fully comprehend medical terms when explaining what the drugs do in her body and why she is taking them. Another teaching method would be to show animated movies of what the medications do in the body after they are taken and how they help improve the problems that she may be experiencing. This would give her a better grasp of why she is taking the drug. To reduce irritation and swelling, the insulin injector-pen should be set at a 45° angle when injecting insulin detemir. However, if her tissue is thick, the injector pen should be at a 90° angle. Besides, she should ensure that the injector pen gets into the skin to avoid itching (Tandon et al., 2015). In addition, the client should hold the injector pen for 6-10 seconds after the needle has passed through the skin to ensure that the whole dose is obtained. However, the client should be aware of potential side effects such as discomfort and swelling around the injection site, apply cold packs and antipruritic lotions to the region, or take antipruritic pills.
Medication Adherence and Family Involvement
One variable that impacts medication adherence is suboptimal health literacy and ineffective communication and information about the adverse effects (Brown & Bussell, 2011). My client affirms missing a medication from time to time due to her lack of information about medication adherence. The client needs to be educated on the medication she is taking, the possible side effects and the risks of overdose or underdose. To ensure that the client is on an appropriate and safe medication regimen, her family should be informed about her medication hours and dosages so that they may remind her and monitor her medication administration. The family should also be kept up to speed on check-ups and clinic dates to ensure that the client sticks to them and does not miss them. Finally, the client’s family should be taught about the necessity of medication adherence to inspire the client to continue and stick to treatment.
Brown, M., & Bussell, J. (2011). Medication Adherence: WHO Cares?. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 86(4), 304-314. https://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2010.0575
Ditropan XL Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing – WebMD. Webmd.com. Retrieved 24 April 2022, from https://www.webmd.com/drugs/2/drug-16864/ditropan-xl-oral/details.
Levemir 100IU/ml Flexpen 3 ml Price, Uses, Side Effects, Composition – Apollo Pharmacy. Apollo Pharmacy. Retrieved 24 April 2022, from https://www.apollopharmacy.in/medicine/levemir-flexpen-100iu-injection.
LibGuides: Nursing: Other Resources. Oregon Health & Science University. (2022). Retrieved 24 April 2022, from https://libguides.ohsu.edu/nursing/other.
Rankin, A., Cadogan, C., Patterson, S., Kerse, N., Cardwell, C., & Bradley, M. et al. (2018). Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people. Cochrane Database Of Systematic Reviews, 2018(9). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd008165.pub4
Sertraline: MedlinePlus Drug Information. Medlineplus.gov. (2022). Retrieved 24 April 2022, from https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/meds/a697048.html.
Tandon, N., Kalra, S., Balhara, Y., Baruah, M., Chadha, M., & Chandalia, H. et al. (2015). Forum for Injection Technique (FIT), India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015. Indian Journal Of Endocrinology And Metabolism, 19(3), 317. https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.152762
Modern Middle East Development Name Institutional Affiliation Course Title Instructors name Date
Modern Middle East Development
Oil Discovery in the Middle East
The Middle East has experienced the world’s ancient civilizations and cultures. The countries experienced major pre and post Islamic empires and colonialism that shaped them into what they are today. For many years, numerous parts of the Middle East became a battleground for the Iranian Safavid dynasty and the Ottomans. After the Ottomans were pulled out of Hungary Kingdom, power against the Middle East shifted to Western countries (Grugni, 2012). The French empire controlled Syria and Lebanon, and the British colonial empire influenced the Persian Gulf. The Kingdom of Italy controlled the Dodecanese island and Libya. To compete successfully against the European powers, the Middle East rulers decided to modernize their states in the late 19th Century and the beginning of the 20th Century. The discovery of oil in the Middle East became a game-changer and turning point for them. Oil was first discovered in 1918 in Persia. It was later discovered in 1938 in Saudia Arabia, Algeria, and Libya.
Oil in the Middle East
In the early 19th Century, as Egypt and Syria were working towards gaining independence, the Soviet Union, the French and the British left the numerous regions of the Middle East after the second world war. The creation of Israel, the departure of the European country’s controls from the Middle East region, and the significance of the petroleum industry led to the establishment of the modern Middle East (Grugni, 2012). The Middle East region is currently the largest oil producer and embraces huge reserves. The Middle East supplies a huge part of oil consumed worldwide. The richest economy per capita in the region due to oil exportation are nations in the Persian Gulf: the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain.
Oil production in the Middle East started in Iran, which was formerly known as Persia, at the beginning of the 20th Century. Oil was viewed as a strategic resource after the first world war. The European power was competing to control regions where oil existence was suspected. The Persian Gulf nations and Saudi Arabia were forced to search for water sources in the desert due to the Great Depression, but this was a blessing in disguise as they did not find much water but instead found a lot of oil (Wagner, 2008).
Oil in Iran
In 1909, George Bernard Reynolds, a geologist, discovered oil in the Southwest of modern-day Iran after years of diseases, overwhelming debt and dry holes. He created the Anglo-Persia oil company (APOC) that produced oil and sold shares to the public. For decades, Iran became one of the biggest oil producers accounting for 6% of worldwide production. The industry belonged to and was operated by a British company. Oil revenue was shared between the APOC and the British government with a small token paid to Iran government as royalty. Mohammed Mossadegh, the Iranian prime minister, removed the British technicians in Abadan and nationalized the oil industry. Some historians explained that control over oil was the major reason Great Britain and the United States planned to take over the Mossadegh government in August 1953 (Clawson, 2015). Mohammed Reza Pahlavi succeeded Mossadegh and established energy production as the country’s major economic focus. Iran started generating massive revenue from oil production, with most of the income channelled to military programs, industrialization and modernization. Oil production escalated to over six million barrels per day (BPD) in 1974 (Yergin, 2015). Iran currently produces over three million BPD. Iran has natural gas in plenty due to its partnership with Qatar with the South Pars field in the Persian Gulf, forming Iran’s second energy industry producing over seven million cubic feet (tcf) annually.
Oil in Saudi Arabia
In 1938, oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia by Americans at modern-day Dharan. This discovery revealed the biggest source of crude oil globally (Wagner, 2008). Oil revenue became a significant source of wealth for the king because he did not have to depend on earnings from visits to Mecca. The main factors motivated the oil search in Saudi Arabia in 1938. They include;
Increase in oil demand during the second world war. During the war, oil was foreseen to become a vital resource on the battlefield. Germany’s inadequate oil supply prevented its capabilities to create engines, automobiles and aircraft. German associates took this to their advantage and created thousands of vehicles to assist with the war. Another example was when General Gallien commanded the Paris taxi fleet to transport the military to the front of the battle. These scenarios proved the need for oil in war. The country had foreseen a source of generating income.
Oil discovery in 1908 at Masjid-i-Sulaiman in the north-western modern Iran mountains by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company triggered the Saudi Arabian’s urge to search for oil in their country (Wagner, 2008). There were also speculations of an oil outflow at Qatif, in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
The Great Depression forced Saudi Arabians’ to search for water sources in the desert. Before the depression, income was mainly generated by taxes paid by guests to visit holy cities. After the onset of the depression, the number of pilgrims dropped drastically. This drop greatly affected the economy as the country heavily depended on them for taxes, and hence there was a need for an alternative source of income. The Ibn Saud was forced to be aggressive in their search for oil.
Oil is Saudi Arabia’s key cornerstone of economy and development. The peak in the early 2000s led to a strong Saudi Arabia economic growth of 5%, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) tripled in size. Because of this, Saudi Arabia’s economy moved from the 27th largest to the 19th worldwide (Yergin, 2015). The oil industry accounts for 40% of the GDP. Saudi Arabia is currently the world’s largest oil producer and exporter and produces an enormous sustainable capacity of over twelve million barrels per day.
Oil production, utilization, and exportation have enhanced the Middle East’s economic modernization. This production is the main source of foreign exchange in the Middle East through exporting oil globally. Earnings from foreign exchange escalate the capital base to develop other segments in the countries, such as commerce, infrastructure and trade. These developments have largely contributed to the modernization of the Middle East. Energy and power can be utilized for different purposes like running vehicles, machinery, manufacturing plants and mining. Many people in the Middle East have secured jobs, education, and homes due to oil. Oil has improved the economy and amplified wealth in countries like Kuwait, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Iran (Yergin, 2015).
Clawson, Patrick. “Iran’s Post-Deal Economic Stagnation Challenges Rouhani.” Washington Institute, PolicyWatch. 8 October 2015 http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/irans-post-deal-economic-stagnation-challenges-rouhani
Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Parolo, Silvia; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; et al. (2012). Kivisild, Toomas (ed.). “Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians”. PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e41252. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…741252G. doi:10.1371https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-020-09776-xILO./journal.pone.0041252. PMC 3399854. PMID 22815981.
Society, National Geographic (20 February 2014). “Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia”. nationalgeographic.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
Wagner, Heather Lehr (2008). Saudi Arabia. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60413-023-2.
Yergin, Daniel (2015-01-23). “Who will rule the oil market”. New York Times. Retrieved 2019-04-07.
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