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What is a criminological issue that is affecting the state of Ohio right now? For example, gang violence, juvenile Essay

What is a criminological issue that is affecting the state of Ohio right now? For example, gang violence, juvenile delinquency, drugs, law officer misconduct.
Search for anecdotal information about your paper topic. In this case, you are introducing the topic (criminological issue) of your paper by discussing timely news stories about it. The news stories do not have to cover the topic comprehensively. They can serve as examples of the themes that you will address in your paper.
Search the newspaper to find articles about the issue affecting Ohio. As a last resort, use news stories drawn from alternative weekly periodicals. You are also welcome to consult magazine and social media content, provided that it is news-related.
Also look for news stories in your local African American newspaper. You can identify this publication by searching the National Newspaper Publishers Association website:
NNPA | Black Press of America. Click on the About the NNPA tab, then look under Current Members in the drop-down menu. You are welcome to find TV and radio stories posted by members of the National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters:
NABOB l National Association of Black Broadcasters You can also review the information found in the member media outlets of the National Association of Hispanic Publications:
Summarize each article in one paragraph. Provide a citation for each one including the author’s name, the title of the article, the name of the publication or media agency, the page number, if applicable, and the date of publication. Also provide a link so that I can view the article, and all of the sources or articles found and cited throughout the paper.

Financial Management for Business College Name Table of Contents The Gender Pay

Financial Management for Business

College Name

Table of Contents

The Gender Pay Gap: Scale, Facets and Solutions 1

Introduction 1

Statement of the Problem 1

Significance of the Study 2

Scope of the Study 2

Review of Theoretical Literature 3

a. Causes 3

b. Merits of Gender Parity 4

Evaluation of Empirical Studies 5

a. The Scale of GPG 5

b. Facets of GPG 6

c. Corrective Measures to the GPG 7

Limitations of the Study 8

Conclusion 8

The Gender Pay Gap: Scale, Facets and Solutions


The Gender Pay Gap (GPG) is a characterization of the existent difference in average earnings by one gender with respect to the other. Given the prevailing pay inequalities for women; the GPG is evaluated as the ratio (Eq. I) of median earnings for women, in full-time or part-time work, relative to the median earning for men in comparable work set-ups. The GPG can also be presented as the actual median pay gap (Eq. II) evaluated by the differences between the two genders relative to a given gender (Hill, 2011).

(Eq. I)

(Eq. II)

Statement of the Problem

In 2015; the average annual median earning for men in the US workforce was US$ 51,212 compared to women’s US$ 40,724 despite both genders providing full time, all year round work (Hill, 2011). An earnings ratio of disparity of 20.5 percent. In 2018; women in the UK labour market earned about 17.9 percent less than their male counterparts for similar work (Pyper, 2018). The statistics get more troubling as one navigates from the developed to developing and underdeveloped economies. In 2009; the gender wage gap was 26.8 percent in Singapore, 29.2 percent in China, 43.7 percent in Ethiopia and 45.6 percent in Zambia (UNDP, 2013). Although this may be data from the labour market, it points to more unsettling social disparities where gender-based inequalities limit opportunities to other factors of production including access to credit facilities, wealth (inheritance) as well as land ownership rights.

It is therefore imperative for this study to identify the GPGs and their magnitude in our immediate society, in order to facilitate the development of remedial measures to correct the disparity. It is evident that if left uncheck; GPG would spiral out into other forms of social inequalities which are contrary to the global agendas for sustainable development.

Significance of the Study

For the individual; gender pay parity will enhance the disposable income for women, and with an increasing number of households being led by women, or contributing at least a quarter of the total household income, then clearly households would gain from pay equality.

For employers; the associated cost of increasing women’s annual earnings to eliminate GPG would more than likely be offset by the benefits realized from their increased productivity. GPGs demotivates women at the workplace as its lowers the opportunity cost of staying away from paid-work, and this negatively affected their productivity.

The elimination of GPGs translates to higher societal standards of living as more women will join, or stay longer, in the workforce. Similarly; local governments will be able to collect more in personal income taxes, for the betterment of society.

Scope of the Study

This study was limited to Americas and Europe for two main reasons: 1) there was adequate, reliable data over a longer period of time collected from their labour markets, and 2) the GPG issue was being actively addressed in the regions. The literature was sourced from published works and reports from reputable agencies covering the period between 2010 to date.

Review of Theoretical Literature


Some of documented causes of GPG included:

Career Choices and Occupation

In the selection of education majors; men have been observed to have an inclination towards STEM courses. In contrast; women favour humanities and education courses. Unfortunately, most of the women-dominated courses led up to occupations and careers that lowly paid relative to the male-dominated careers fields in STEM. AAUW’s position was corroborated by US Bureau of Labour Statistics. In 2015; out of the estimated 149 million full and part-time workers in the US labour market, 53 percent of them were men. More so; the men and women preferred different kinds of occupations. There was a disproportionately large number of women in health care, education and administrative support sectors, whereas the same was replicated for men in the construction and manufacturing sectors (Hill, 2011).

Parenting and time away from work

In a 2007 educational report; AAUW drew attention to that fact that only ten years into their careers (after graduation); 23 percent of women had dropped off the labour market compared to a one percent in men, and another 17 percent worked part-time compared to a 2 percent part time work in men (Hill, 2011). This trend negatively affects earnings for women due to the time taken off employment and related skills development as well as employers have consistent preference for traditional, year-round work experience.

In its 2018 briefing; the IEA (UK) examined the ‘motherhood factor’ as a critical element that contributed to the GPG increase after the age of 39, as most women take some time off the labour market to tend to parenthood. The motherhood factor also explained the low numbers of women in top management roles, and the top pay quartiles (Andrews & Jessop, 2018). Interestingly though, women CEOs in the US were observed to earn slightly higher than their male counterparts. There was also evidence, amongst the female workforce, that pointed to an earnings disparity between mothers and non-mothers, with the former (mothers) having an hourly wage opportunity cost of 5 percent per child relative to non-mother wages.

McGuiness observed low GPGs for full-time employees in the 20-30 age bracket. The pay disparity was evident for employees in the 30-40 years’ age bracket, as most women took time off paid-employment to take care of their families. At 40 and above; the pay gap was even more pronounced due to the lost professional experience and earnings opportunities (Pyper, 2018).

Pay quartiles

Traditionally; there are four pay subgroups – the upper, upper middle, lower middle and lower quartiles. In its GPG report; the University of Oxford established that there was a disproportionately higher number of men in the upper pay quartiles, whereas women constituted the bulk of the low and lower-middle pay quartiles (University of Oxford, 2018). The labour market at Oxford is indicative of the general situation in Europe and the Americas, and as such, the higher number of men in higher pay brackets had the effect of pulling up their (annual) median earnings relative to women.

Gender discrimination and bias

At times; stereotypes and gender impact pat parity. Whereas the #MeToo campaign may have lifted the lid on sexual harassment and discrimination against women at the workplace, it was the surge in reported gender discrimination cases at the Federal Commission on equal opportunities and employment (EEOC) that confirmed the magnitude of the problem. Part of the earnings disparity and absence of women in top leadership position was attributable to gender and sexual discrimination at the workplace.

Merits of Gender Parity

The UNDP affirmed that gender pay parity improved the individuals’ overall well-being in a multi-dimensional approach. Pay parity enhanced the objective (material) dimension of earnings, skills development and mental health. Similarly; it also empowered the women and elevated the girl-child plight which subjectively enhanced their well-being as well (UNDP, 2013).

Addressing the issues of gender pay inequalities should be a collective societal effort spearheaded by women, and supported by their male counterparts, advocated for by the non-governmental agencies and promoted and enforced by State agencies. But the question remains, why should it matter? The elimination of GPGs would be a solid positive step towards the prevention of other social ills including sexual harassment at the workplace, racism & ethnicity, and age-ism. Hill (2011) observed that GPG distorted gender identity in women as more female workers preferred to identify themselves as ‘transgender or no sex’ in their employment records. The pay inequality also increased the incidence of social and mental breakdown (depression), and thus addressing GPGs is crucial.

In a report by the Economic Policy Institute on ‘Women’s work’; it was evidenced that gender pay inequalities hurt women more by suppressing their annual earnings, and distorted their work-life balance. The report called for a serious examination, and address, of the unequal opportunities handed to women at the onset of their careers, as it later had a negative impact on their earnings and career progression (Schieder & Gould, 2016).

Evaluation of Empirical Studies

This section interrogates the available theoretical literature in light of published empirical studies across the developed and developing economies.

The Scale of GPG

Thought the GPG has been on a downward trend; the current rate of decline is still unacceptable. Some quotas estimated that at the current rate, gender pay parity would be achieved in 2059 (optimistic view) or 2152 (pessimistic view) (Hill, 2011).

By April 2018; GPG for UK’s full-time workers stood at 8.6 percent. Interestingly; there was a -4.4 percent GPG for part-time workers as women were disproportionately represented in this category than men, with a 39 -12 percent ratio (Pyper, 2018). Overall; the GPG in the UK stood at 17.9 percent (Andrews & Jessop, 2018)

Across Europe; the EU-28 had an average GPG of 16.4 percent, with Denmark (17%), Spain (19%), the UK, Germany (22%) and Estonia (30%) being amongst the 10 nations above the EU-28 average. Croatia (7%) and Belgium (10%) were the best performers in pay parity, but their labour markets were not without certain issues that still affected women negatively (Bergmann, et al., 2016).

In the US; only 23 out of their 52 states paid women workers more than the national average of 80 percent. New York registered the lowest GPG with women earning 0.89 cents for every dollar earned by men. Wyoming was the worst performing state with a pay inequality of 64 percent in favour of men (Hill, 2011). Across the Oceania; Australia’s GPG as adopted by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) was 15.4 percent, with disparities in the private sector being 8.5 percent larger than the public sector (Guest, 2018).

According to the United Nations (UNDP, 2013); GPGs were more pronounced in developing and under-developed economies based on their economy-wide pay gap surveys (pg.188-189). Their under-development could partly be attributed to the lost opportunities in women productivity due to associated inequalities.

Facets of GPG

There are different forms of the GPG problem:

Organizational-level GPG

GPGs were analysed in the organizational setting. Whereas pay inequalities were manifested, it was more attributable to the disproportionately higher number of men in senior managerial roles (upper pay quartiles) than to gender-based pay discrimination (University of Oxford, 2018). A critical leadership gap was identified at Oxford -indicative of other EU institutions- where women were unable to move up the corporate ladder into better paying roles.

Equal value GPG

This second form of GPG considered work that is of equal or comparable value, and evaluated the pay inequality between men and women undertaking similar work, with similar work hours (full or part-time). Equal value GPGs were observed to have the least disparities once the organizational leaderships gaps were addressed (McElhaney & Smith, 2017)

Functional-level GPG

This third form of GPG evaluated inequalities across the different functional units in an organization. It extrapolated on the disproportionate concentration of women in office support, human resource and administrative functions while men were concentrated in field-work and other technical roles that paid much higher in hourly earnings

Corrective Measures to the GPG

In seeking new solutions to the old GPG problem; the EU funded ‘Project Progress’ advocated for a number of initiatives to reduce the pay inequality (Bergmann, et al., 2016):

Establish laws and policy regulations that would guide equal hourly earnings for equal work, promote GPG reporting and enforce gender equality Acts and pay days.

Enhance wage comparability through online tools to further the equality and fairness agenda

Promote projects that advocated for gender pay parity, and collective bargaining campaigns that enhance overall earnings for all

The Wage-Gap reduction initiative advocated for the assignment of different roles to the different stakeholders in addressing GPG: State Agencies would lead, educate and support the initiatives; the employers ought to participate and publicize their efforts; and the public to gain awareness, advocate and participate in positive reinforcement efforts. The ILO equally advocated for a concerted and collection action plan involving all stakeholders from Governments to Trade unions, NGOs, Employers and the employees (Rubery & Koukiadaki, 2016).

Limitations of the Study

This study was limited to secondary data sources. As such, the methodologies and collection mechanisms could not be adequately mitigated for in this report outside reliance to published works from reputable agencies and institutions.

Conclusion and Recommendation

The GPG is an actual problem that hurts women, and the households they support, by denying them their fair earnings and subsequent disposable incomes to netter their living. The primary causes of GPGs have been attributed to the element of motherhood and leadership gaps associated with an absence of more women in the higher pay quartiles.

Remedial measures should incorporate efforts to break the institutional barriers and corporate ceilings that hold women back, as well as promoting more productive work-life balance schedules. More sensitivity campaigns should be targeted to employers and the general public to lift the lid on the matter, and encourage more voluntary participation.


Andrews, K. & Jessop, J., 2018. The Gender Pay Gap: 2018 Briefing, London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

Bergmann, N., Danzer, L. & Sorger, C., 2016. Gender Pay Gap: New Solutions for an Old Problem. Developing Transnational Strategies Together with Trade Unions and Gender Equality Units to Tackle the Gender Pay Gap, Vienna: PROGRESS (Programme of the EU).

Guest, R., 2018. The Real Gender Pay Gap. Policy, 34(2), pp. 3-7.

Hill, C., 2011. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap, Washington DC: The American Association of University Women (AAUW).

McElhaney, K. & Smith, G., 2017. Eliminating the Pay Gap: An Exploration of Gender Equality, Equal Pay, and A Company that is Leading the Way, Berkeley: University of California.

Pyper, F. M. D., 2018. The Gender Pay Gap, London: House of Commons Library.

Rubery, J. & Koukiadaki, R., 2016. Closing the Gender Pay Gap: A Review of the Issues, Policy Mechanisms and International Evidence, Geneva: International Labour Organization.

Schieder, J. & Gould, E., 2016. “Women’s work” and the Gender Pay Gap, Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

UNDP, 2013. Humanity Divided: Confronting Inequality in Developing Countries. In: Gender Inequality. New York: United Nations Development Programme, pp. 162-190.

University of Oxford, 2018. Gender Pay Gap Report, Oxford: University of Oxford Press.



NV1600E Interactive Learning Skills and Communication Assessment A Research Project Assignment Task

What is a criminological issue that is affecting the state of Ohio right now? For example, gang violence, juvenile Essay Political Science Assignment Help NV1600E Interactive Learning Skills and Communication

Assessment A

Research Project Assignment Task Description:

You are going to research, plan and write up a project in an essay format of 2,000 words (+/-10%) based on a topic from the discipline that you are planning to study at University. The aim of this research project is to find and read academic books and journal articles focussing on a specific topic or research question and then write an essay that combines your own ideas and views with information, data and arguments that you have discovered in your background reading. This coursework has a weighting of 40% towards the final grade. Students are required to achieve an overall grade of 50% in order to pass this module.

You should choose a working title from the list provided by your lecturer, do some background reading, prepare a plan and then start to work on your first draft. Your tutor will guide you through each of the stages of preparing the essay.

The essay can analyse a significant problem that exists within your discipline area, identify the causes of the problem, propose solutions to the problem and evaluate the effectiveness of solutions that have already been applied to rectify the problem.

You will be assessed on:

Task response & criticality

Structure & organisation

Use of sources

Language & coherence

For the breakdown of the marks refer to marking scheme on Moodle.

Submission Details:

The lecturer will announce the assignment due date for each task during the semester as follow:

Week 3 Title and plan to be confirmed

Week 7 First draft to be submitted for feedback

Week 9 and 10 Presentation to peers (Assessment B)

Week 11 Second draft to be reviewed for feedback

Week 12 Final draft to be submitted

All assignments must be uploaded to Moodle as well as printout submission to the lecturer before the deadline.

All documents must be written using Microsoft Word and must include the student’s name and LBIC student id.

Use an appropriate file name such as LBIC ID along with the title of the assignment (for example, ABC123 Assignment A)

NV1600E Assessment A

Effects of digital cuture 2 EFFECTS OF DIGITAL CULTURE Introduction Digital culture

Effects of digital cuture 2



Digital culture is a broad concept that depicts how the idea that the internet and technology significantly shape people’s interactions, behavior, thoughts, and communications in a society. It is a result of uncontrolled information access and pervasive technology. It includes cyber ethics, privacy, security, internet, social engineering, trans-humanism, policy, and modern psychology. Digital culture nowadays uses social media as people’s interaction mode with others. This facilitates sharing every time of our life on social platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. It is a powerful means that modern society uses not only for communication but also for entertainment and education. The use of digital platforms has increased rapidly in recent years. For example; according to the United States Department of Commerce, the number of people in America using digital tools in their lives were increasing rapidly (Tapscott and Berry, 2009, p. 306). These digital platforms have influenced individuals’ social lives their relationships with each other in different environments. As such, this essay discusses how Facebook as a digital platform has shaped people’s social dynamics and relationships.

Effects of digital culture on social dynamics and relationships

Facebook is a digital platform founded by Mark Zuckerberg with more than one billion users worldwide. People use Facebook for instant connection and communication with relatives and friends. Most people spent most of their time on Facebook platform forgetting their everyday activities and this has impacted their lives and social relations with their families and friends. Facebook was purposely created as a means of communication and interaction between individuals, but its purpose has changed and many are using it in the wrong way. The Facebook platform is a social network made up of many strong ties to the user. The strong ties are the friends of a person on the Facebook page. It also has a fan page which includes members of a community most of which are weaker ties to the Facebook user or may have no tie at all. On any social network, the stronger ties usually compete with the weaker ties for attention by the user. On a fan page, people not closely related to the user compete with the relatives of the Facebook user for the user’s attention. A person’s relationship is weaker with their identified brands and stronger with other users on the platform. The relationship of people closely related to the Facebook user on a fan page is stronger than that of other users in the fan page. Facebook use has both positive and negative impacts on our social dynamics and relationships.

A theoretical study shows that social interactions affect psychological well-being. There are several theories that try to explain online interactions, social support, and relationship maintenance. A study done on more than two thousand Facebook users users linked well-being to counts of respondents FB activities. Communication within relatives and friends was associated with improved well-being, but viewing fan pages with the wide audience does not always bring out this aspect of interaction (Meirowitz, 1986, p. 67). The meaning of this is that people get benefits from online relationships as long it comes from close ties. Humans have an important need to feel comfortable by belonging to a specific group. Therefore, a social relationship should promote well-being by satisfying those interacting by making them feel happier and more satisfied. If communication is between people well known to each other, satisfaction will be greatest.

Positive effects

Social media has changed the way leaders govern people. For instance, the use of Facebook has enabled civic participation and people are well engaged in allowing them to come up with initiatives, plans, and ideas on how they should be governed. The participation has allowed transparent governance as those in power are able to reach their constituents in an easier way. Nowadays politicians are using digital platforms to interact with their constituents instead of traveling to their respective areas they represent (Keck, and Shikkink, 1999, p. 56). By this Facebook provides a platform for bringing out ideas on developments. Also, people are able to raise their concerns where they feel the government is mistreating them by overtaxing or poor service delivery. Through airing out their complaints on Facebook platform, the challenges affecting them are solved by the governing authorities. Previous studies on elections show that the rise of Facebook has had a positive impact on political interests and political participation that leads to many voters performing their democratic right of voting.

Using Facebook strengthens the ties between individuals and families through sharing specific information such as the location of a certain shop selling specific goods at a cheaper price or sharing a family photo and allowing others comment on it (Hull, 2003, p, 67). One is able to get to know the whereabouts of their loved ones who are far away from them. For example, a person working in far areas can communicate with their loved ones and this brings them closer as they are able to share photos and videos. Also, advertisements of goods and services have been made through this platform making it easy for a seller to reach potential customers (Kline, 2003, p. 343). By 2010, Facebook had become a marketing strategy platform. Most brands have developed fan pages on the Facebook platform in order to tap the power found on social media. This has boosted the level of trade among individuals hence facilitating economic growth.

With the use of Facebook as a social digital platform, disasters have been handled in a better way. Facebook has a safety check that enables those in areas prone to disaster to report their safety. Such information has helped disaster managers to respond to disasters faster. The disaster managers have digital platforms where people can report in case of any natural disaster on human catastrophe. These digital responders are helping deal with worldwide disasters in a significant way. Facebook has also helped in tackling some of the biggest challenges in the world ranging from climate change to violations of human rights. A good example is the Arab spring where digital platforms like Facebook helped deal with these challenges. Facebook has been used to bring activists together while helping them to take into account all violators of human rights. Any content posted on Facebook can be used as evidence during wartime to know the violators of the law and put them into account. Videos taken during wars and conflicts can be used as evidence before a court of law. The evidence enables justice to take its course.

Facebook also brings together like-minded people and this has helped fight climate change. Through this platform, the public participates to help come up with environmental decisions for the government and corporations to act in solving the challenge. In this way, people are able to connect the challenges affecting the environment locally and come up with solutions that ultimately affect the entire global community. Additionally, Facebook has been used by the health industry to change the way it works. The health sector carries out digital health campaigns and advertisements of upcoming health camps in a specific area. The sector has created digital pages on Facebook that helps groups of patients having the same disease condition to stay connected and share their challenges (Tapscott and Barry, 2009, p. 354). The sharing helps the patients feel better and this has proven to raise their hope of getting well. Also, people are able to share information regarding health and health-related benefits. Information pertaining to diseases outbreaks is shared faster and this helps further spread of the disease.

Also, some parents who are separated from their children due to some reasons such as migration, education or any other reasons are able to connect with one another and take care of each other using the platform. The connection improves one’s mood by being able to share with people in faraway areas. This brings about joy among the family members regardless of their distance. People are also able to share photos with their loved ones. Facebook provides a platform where people can post matters of national importance and discuss such topics which help bring ideas together. This helps create an informed society on matters of health, safety, development, and matters pertaining to national importance. It helps young people to have self-identity since it is a ground for face to face interaction and this helps to improve their communication skill and be able to relate well with other people.

Facebook also make new relationships easily accessible. It helps the newly bonded partners stay connected after their first face to face interaction. This makes it easier and faster for people to know their partner’s interests and strengthens their compatibility bond. Also, one is able to filter out incompatible partners since you have a platform to know each one’s interests and dislikes. It also allows romantic partners to communicate with their people. For a relationship to work successfully there must be continuous communication and work, Facebook provides the medium for nurturing the relationship. Partners are able to pass their assurances, commitment, and love declarations through this platform to ensure continual relationship. Also posting statuses promoting the bondage is satisfying to either party in a relationship and this brings about self-esteem and joy. Facebook is also a good way of meeting and making new people because it allows one to add thousands of friends and therefore bringing several people together. Also, you get to know friends of your friends as they comment on your status and with this, a conversation may strike leading to good friendship. Also, shy people are able to start a conversation within the platform something that would have been hard in face to face interaction. It also helps those who can’t speak totally to express themselves.

Negative effects

Facebook can be a source of conflicts and confusion for many love relationships. When the lovers decide to make their love affair official on Facebook platform, other Facebook users may take advantage and try all ways possible to try to frustrate the relationship. The users may decide to post silly comments on the wall of either party. Such comments may upset the parties on the love affair. Women mostly feel that making a relationship official on digital platforms means that it is serious contrary to men who take the advantage of the commitment and continue to make other relationships because men are less attached to their Facebook status. Such can lead to distress and disagreements that result to dissatisfaction and eventually break-up. Young people addicted to Facebook may end up having other psychological disorders. They may develop anti-social behaviors leading to less interaction with their parents and guardians resulting in a misunderstanding within the families (Buckingham, 2013, p. 35). Such misunderstanding may lead to arguments and fights among families which affects their past good relations with one another. Also, depression, abnormal anxiety, and excessive aggression may occur among many teenagers. Emotional problems may occur where the teens get pressure from the posts of their friends. The problems may be due to their bodies, looks and their self-image in comparison to their peers making them to develop inferior feelings. Such feelings make them keep away from social interactions. A survey of more than one thousand people conducted showed that young people, females, and those in a less serious relationship were the common Facebook users. People who use Facebook often are linked to greater shyness than non-users.

The use of Facebook profiles mostly exposes our genuine selves thus raising privacy issues. It is believed that high degrees of narcissism lead to more deep self-disclosures and higher self-promotional content in the messages Facebook users post. Lonely individuals tend to disclose more of their private information. Facebook distracts learning leading to low grades among the learners. This is because most of the learners tend to spend most of their time viewing their friend’s photos and posts instead of reading. Students who use Facebook for long are at high risk of failing their exams since they study for a shorter period. Mostly the students use the platform for entertainment, passing time and as a way of relaxing. Additionally, using Facebook has made teenagers vulnerable and susceptible to outside manipulation. One may end up making relationships with strange people who may have negative impacts on ones live. The strangers may be harmful to the teenagers and this puts them at a great risk of their personal lives (1abdulahi, 2014, p. 5). Also, most teenagers end up looking for cash by whatever means possible even if it means stealing to buy bundles for purposes of surfing through Facebook. This becomes a habit and is dangerous to their lives.

Facebook use has landed many people to unhealthy sexual interactions since there is no physical meeting. One person may decide to take advantage of the other and try to post nude photos and sex messages which may affect the psychological being of the others. Due to uncontrolled information posted on the Facebook platform, teens are vulnerable to unhealthy posts and photos at their tender age hence affecting their moral values and their usual way of life.

Although greater use of social networking such as Facebook is associated with connecting to close friends, only offline interactions are linked with less loneliness. Facebook also fuels envy since one becomes more jealous of their Facebook friends after viewing their profiles which leads to peer pressure. The pressure may lead to depression and some kind of self-denial since one feels bad after comparing their life to others. Many relations on Facebook are somehow ambiguous because it is not easy to know most of your partner’s friends on Facebook and the type of relationship they have. Facebook allows easy accessibility for one to survey your profile which increases the possibilities of jealousy.

Excessive use of Facebook can terminate relationships. The reason for this is because with Facebook you get to know many new friends with some of the opposite gender who may decide to send sex messages and photos to your profile and sometimes proposing that you meet them. Such behavior has a great impact on families as it may lead to cheating and hence break-ups. Facebook can also make you feel that you never married the right person since you come across partners who seem to be well attached and materially blessed and if you are envious then this may make you develop a dislike attitude towards your partner. The negative attitude changes the way you interact with your family and hence your social life changes drastically. Also, your Facebook friends may not be happy if you make your relationship open on Facebook. People mostly dislike those who like posting their relationships on digital platforms (meirowitz, 1986, p. 76). In the event that the relationship does not lead to marriage, such people may have problems in getting new mates since their past relationship is well known to many people.

Most people are so addicted to Facebook that they still surf it as they walk along. The addiction may lead to accidents as one is focused on the phone rather than on the road. People have been hit by vehicles as they walk glued to their phones and other electronic gadgets. Facebook has also lead to isolation where one has no relation with people close to them since they spent most of the time on the digital platform. The isolation makes one shy and incapable of speaking or expressing themselves in front of people. One will only communicate on digital platforms and this affects the ability to communicate efficiently. Facebook has also led to child neglect by the parents leading to moral decay of the society in general. Parents have no time for their children as the parents are glued on their smartphones just surfing Facebook. Children are left alone to take care of themselves and there is no one advice and counsel them on how to live a positive life. The child neglect has led to increased levels of unlawful and immoral acts within a given society. Also, parents leave their children to use their phone thus being exposed to various digital platforms that sometimes contain contents that are not good for children. The children are exposed to early adult contents such as watching nude contents and dirty messages. With this, the children forget their studies and indulge in such immoral activities with no one to warn them (Mazer, Murphy and Siphods, 2007, p. 65) The American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers did a study in 2010 and found that 81 percent of divorce lawyers have found out that increased Facebook use has been one of the key contributing factors to most of the family breaks that are being experienced in the society. Cyberbullying can also occur very easily to people using the platform. This can be in terms of appearance, intelligence, or racial discrimination. Facebook has no moderators and any term can be used since no monitoring goes on. Some images and videos displayed on certain pages are quite annoying and lack moral discipline.


With the upcoming new technologies, most old things will always get lost as new things are experienced. Our social lives will always be saturated with media which will always influence our family relationships and social dynamics. Traditionally, families used to eat together in the evening as they shared stories, something that has long gone. These sessions were used by the parents to advise their children on how to become useful men and women in the society. In this essay, it is evident that the use of digital platforms like Facebook could have both advantages and disadvantages. It is therefore good to use the digital platforms in a positive way and avoid being addicted to them as this has adverse impacts on the way of living among communities. It is important to take into account not only the use a platform but also how it is used and the purpose for its use. It is clear that teenagers are at higher risks to the effects of digital platforms and it is, therefore, necessary for parents to make a follow up of their children’s digital interactions. Self- systems of Facebook users are vital in making bridging and attaching social interactions as well as producing social capital impacts. According to a study done in India in 2000, self-esteem didn’t have a significant effect on social relationships. Without a doubt, Facebook has enhanced how we connect and communicate with our relatives and friends. It does a good job of sharing important information and maintains relationships. Unfortunately, this has negative effects on the development of lesser strong ties. 


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ESSAY QUESTIONS Evaluate the extent to which information and communication technologies, such


Evaluate the extent to which information and communication technologies, such as the mobile phone and internet, change the way we perceive ourselves. Use examples (e.g. a platform, a website, an application) to provide a balanced overview of characteristics and implications of the mediated self in contemporary societies.

Using a platform of your choice, discuss how the digital shapes social dynamics and relationships. With reference to theoretical and empirical evidence, discuss the potentials, limits and risks of the digital for interactions and communities.

Early internet studies theorized the web as a gender- and race-neutral space. However, latest developments in technology use and consumption are said to have created spaces where social inequalities can easily proliferate. Contextualise a case study of your choice (e.g. a videogame, a news story, an IT development) within today’s new communication system and the rise of communication power.

Papacharissi (2010) claims that in the digital era our privacy is becoming a luxury commodity. Do you agree with this statement? Consider how the boundary between public and private is changing in light of current events and social media surveillance models.

Discuss ‘surveillance capitalism’ and its implications for everyday life. Use at least two examples to ground your analysis.

With reference to academic sources and using a platform of your choice as a case study, discuss how users and producers co-create content in today’s political economy.

Digital communication tools offer citizens and campaigners the opportunity to express themselves, collaborate and coordinate action. Using a social movement, a campaign, a protest or a party of your choice as a case study, discuss how the digital has affected political participation and resistance.

Formulate your own question. You must focus on one of the weekly topics covered this semester. You must demonstrate a critical understanding of the topic and must clarify your essay question with the unit leader in advance.

12 Name Course Institution Date Introduction An insurance contract is an agreement







An insurance contract is an agreement between parties where one party pays an amount of money to the other for the purposes of indemnifying him or her when certain risks occur. The money paid, known as premium, is paid on a regular basis. The party paying the premium is referred to as the insured person. The person receiving the premium is known as the insurer. Indemnity refers to the act of being restituted or being returned to the original position or situation that one was in before the occurrence of a certain event. Things capable of being insured include property and people. Insurance contracts are aimed at reducing risks.The laws on insurance are built upon the laws of contract. This means that the laws of contract must be enshrined and upheld in the execution of insurance contracts.

Types of insurance contracts include: life insurance, motor vehicle insurance and health insurance. Insurance contracts have proven to be effective in reducing risks. Several principles govern insurance contracts. They include: subrogation, indemnity, utmost good faith, warranties, return of premium, proximate cause, assignment and nomination and insurable interest. Insurable interest refers to interests or rights that can be protected in the person or property being insured. It means therefore that the insured must possess some rights capable of being insured in the subject matter of the insurance contract. This means that if the subject matter is destroyed, the beneficiary of the insurance is likely to suffer some economic loss or harm. The insurable interest property distinguishes insurance contracts from mere wagers.

A Life Insurance contract is an agreement entered into by a party to ensure that a third party is compensated upon the death of the party. The party paying the premium is the insured party. The premiums paid act as consideration for the contract. The party set to get compensation is the beneficiary. Death is a risk that may affect third party. It is a contract that creates a binding legal relationship between a party to a contract and a third party. The third party in this case is the beneficiary.

Automatic insurable interest refers to insurable interest that is usually presumed to be possessed by certain individuals. It mostly applies in cases of life insurance. It mostly applies to individuals who have a close relationship with the person being insured. It is assumed that the death of the insured will lead to automatic economic loss or harm to the individual. The law therefore does not require that they be named beneficiaries of the contract. They are automatically presumed to be beneficiaries. The insurance company will therefore have the legal obligation to compensate them in the event of the death of the insured.

Natural affection refers to mutual love and affection that exists between people who are closely related. It refers to the close bonds that arise from family relationships. It is a bond that occurs naturally. It results in close and dependent relationships. It is very strong and members with natural affection feel allied and tied to one another. It brings life to the adage that blood is indeed thicker than water.

A bill was passed stating that there are only two categories of people who have automatic insurable interest in each other due to natural affection. The first category is persons who are and treated as a child or grandchild of insured. The second category is persons who is or lives as a spouse or civil partner of the insured. Are these two categories enough for the purpose of establishing automatic insurable interests due to natural affection? Should these categories be added or expanded? This paper seeks to carefully analyze the repercussions of the proposed bill and if any amendments should be made.


Death is an occurrence that is bound to happen to every human. It heavily affects relatives and dependants of the deceased. They have to make funeral arrangements. These arrangements are usually expensive. It is therefore best that one be prepared for it. One of the ways people do this is through execution of life insurance contracts. Execution of Life Insurance contracts started becoming common during World War II. During this period, many people died and its effects were devastating to those left behind. Therefore there was a need to prepare for death. These kinds of contracts ensure that close relatives and dependants of the deceased are compensated. It reduces the financial burden bestowed upon them .It therefore reduces the pain caused by death to some extent. Over the years, the demand for life insurance contracts has been and is still vastly increasing. This is because the causes of death are increasing day by day. There is therefore the need to analyze and develop the laws governing execution of Life Insurance contracts.

Usually in Life insurance contracts, the beneficiaries are nominated and stated in the contract by the insured. The compensation is a way to indemnify or bring some restitution to those nominated by the insured upon his or her death. In some instances, beneficiaries are not nominated by the insured. The insured may also leave out his or her dependants accidentally. Life Insurance contracts being governed by the law of contracts would only recognize people nominated. This ended up disadvantaging dependants of the insured. It defeated the whole purpose of Life Insurance contracts. There was therefore need to cure this defect in law. Presumptions of insured interests were developed to cure this defect. Presumptions are assumptions of facts made by law. This means that presumptions are facts that do not require proof to be established. Presumptions of insured interests are therefore established insured interests that do not require proof. They are assumed to exist.

Presumptions of Insured interests are not standard and vary from one country to the other. It adds beneficiaries to Life Insurance contract. This rule was developed to encompass close relatives and dependants of the insured. They are people who are presumed to suffer some economic loss upon the demise of the insured. A bill was drafted to identify two categories of persons to possess automatic insurable interest. The first category is persons who are and treated as child and grandchild of the insured. The second category is persons who are and treated as spouse or civil partner of the insured.

In the first category, a child and grandchild are justified to have automatic insurable interest. This is because they have a close relation with the insured. A child is any person who has not attained the age of majority. A child in this context however, is a person who has insurable interests in the life of the parents.This is mostly experienced when the child takes care of the parents in old age. The financial resources he or she puts to achieve this will be lost in the event the parent dies. Parents take care of their children when they are young. In their old age, the children reciprocate the same care to their parents. The law however, does not give a child the right to insure the life of a parent. The child and parent must have legal obligations towards each other. This was established in Harse V Pearl Life Assurance Co Ltd. In the case, a son took out insurance on the mother for the purposes of funeral expenses. The mother used to maintain his house. It was held that there was no legal obligation for the son to take care of expenses to bury his mother. The mother was also under no obligation to maintain his house. The application failed on grounds of absence of insurable interest.

A grandchild is an offspring of a person’s child. These two relationships with the insured are ones of dependency and closeness. The child and grandchild are most of the time dependants of the insured. They are also close in line in the family tree of the insured. They should therefore possess automatic insurable interests in Life Insurance contracts.

The second category involves spouses and civil partners. A spouse refers to a person who is party to a valid marriage contract. The spouses are usually of opposite sexes. For Instance, if person A is spouse to person B, person A and B are of opposite sexes. A civil partner refers to a party to a valid marriage contract. The civil partners are usually of the same sex. It applies to same sex unions. For Instance, if person A is a civil partner to person B, person A and B are of similar sex. Spouses and civil partners enjoy a close dependant relationship with the insured. Marriage contracts usually embody the doctrine of coverture that binds the parties to be one. This means that the parties are close and dependent upon one another. It is therefore justified that spouses and civil partners possess automatic insurable interests in Life Insurance contracts.

In my opinion, the above drafted bill takes a very narrow approach to the interpretation of automatic insurable interests. The purpose of automatic insurable interests was to cater for dependants of the deceased. It only recognizes two types of dependants of the insured. The insured may have other relatives who are heavily dependent on him or her. They too stand a chance of economic loss and hardship upon the death of the deceased. The above drafted bill excludes them.

I believe a wider approach to the interpretation of automatic insurable interests should be adopted. This will create an avenue for more dependants to be covered by the life insurance contracts. This will also help effectively achieve the purpose of automatic insurable interests, which is to benefit dependants and people with close relations with the insured.


Human beings are social beings and their lives are usually governed by many social relationships with other human beings. The basic unit of social life is the family unit. The family comprises of two types of settings. There is the nuclear family setting and the extended family setting. These are very important in one’s life. They often lead to close and dependent relationships. This means that most family members are dependent upon each other. The above drafted bill only recognizes part of the family. It leaves out other members of the family. These members in their own right deserve automatic insurable interests in Life Insurance contracts.

A typical nuclear family setting comprises of a father, a mother and siblings. It is considered to be the most basic family setting. Members of the nuclear family have legal obligations to each other. Several relationships also arise as a result of it. There is parent and child relationship, sibling and sibling relationship and spousal relationship. Spousal relationship has been catered for in the drafted bill.

The parent and child relationship has only been recognized partially in the bill. It recognizes children of the insured. It does not however, recognize the parents of the insured. The parents include the father and the mother. Parents nurture their children to maturity. A close bond between parents and children develops naturally. Most parents invest a lot of financial resources in caring for their children. They take care of all their financial needs. This puts them in a possibility of financial loss in the event their children die. Upon death of their children, they are left disadvantaged. This is because they depend on their children to take care of them in old age. The bill should therefore include parents in its provisions

There is no right under law for a parent to take insurance on the child. There must be legal obligation binding the parent and child. This was demonstrated in the case of Halford V Kymer. In this case, a father insured his son on grounds that in the event of the death of his son, the chances of receiving care in his old age would be greatly diminished. His application failed on grounds that the parish was under obligation to take care of him in his old age.

Siblings refer to one’s brothers and sisters. Siblings grow up together. Most of the time a close bond results between them. The older siblings most of the times take care of their younger siblings. This is mostly experienced in situations where their parents have passed away. If one of them is not doing well financially, naturally the other sibling steps in to help. These are just two examples of the many instances that sibling relationships become dependent ones. The drafted bill does not give provisions for siblings to have automatic insurable interests. It is therefore a huge disservice to them. They are excluded from benefiting from Life Insurance contracts despite their clear dependency on the insured person. It should therefore be amended to include them.

The extended family is a wider family setting compared to the nuclear family setting. It has so many members. Some members of the extended family include uncles and cousins. Being family members, their bond is also strong. Some may even become close and dependent upon each other. An example of such closeness and dependency is when a person supports his or her cousin through law school. This means that he or she has put in financial resources for the education of his or her cousin. In the event of the death of the cousin, he or she will suffer financial loss. The drafted bill does not recognize members of the extended family as close family and dependants of the insured person. This is a clear exclusion of people deserving of that benefit. The drafted bill should be amended to include members of the extended family who are dependent on the insured person.


Automatic insurable interest is an important aspect of life insurance contracts. They are aimed at guaranteeing close relatives and dependants of the insured of indemnity upon the death of the insured person. This is in case they are not named as beneficiaries in the life insurance contracts. The drafted bill recognizes automatic insurable interests. It recognizes people who are or treated as children or grandchildren of the insured person. It also recognizes people who are spouses or civil partners of the insured person. It leaves out other close and dependent relationships such as relationships between siblings.

It therefore gives a narrow interpretation to it. The law should be just. It should also ensure equality and eliminate discrimination. It should not be a tool for exclusion and injustice in society. A broader or wider interpretation should therefore be adopted. This will ensure that it encompasses all the other close and dependent relationships of the insured. It should include parents, siblings and members of the extended family who are dependent on the insured person. They too deserve protection from the law. This will ensure that the purpose of automatic insurable interest is achieved effectively.

The drafted bill should therefore be amended.


Primary Sources


Halford V Kymer (1830) 10 B&C 724

Harse V Pearl Life Assurance Co Ltd (1904) 1 KB 558



Children and Families Act, 2014

Secondary Sources

Francois Ewold, ‘Insurance and risk’ (1991) LJ 197

Gupta P., Insurance and risk Management ( 2011 Himalayan Books)

Hugh Fegan, ‘Notes on the Development of the Doctrine of Insurance Interest’ (1919) Geo. LJ 1

Jacob Loshin, ‘Insurance law’s hapless busybody: a case against the insurable interest requirement.’ (2007) 117 Yale LJ 474

Li Donghui, Fariborz Moshirian, Pascal Nguyen and Timothy Wee, ‘The demand for life insurance’ (2007) JRI 637

Lionel Macedo, The Role of the Underwriter in Insurance ( first published 2009 The World Bank 2009) Emeric Fischer, ‘The rule of insurable interest and the principle of indemnity: are they measures of damages in property insurance’ (1980) 56 Ind. LJ 445

Mark Browne and Kim Kihong, ‘An international analysis of life insurance demand’ (1993) JRI 616

The Law Commission and Scottish Law Commission, ‘Reforming insurance contract law; Updated draft Insurable Interest bill for review’(2018) 9 LC

201/SLCDP 152

The Law Commission, ‘Insurance Contract Law: Insurable Interest’(2015) 119 LCCP

Oxford Dictionary of English ( 3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2010)1067