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Reflection 7 REFLECTION Student Name Course Professor Institution Location of institution Date

Reflection 7


Student Name




Location of institution


Initial thoughts and feelings about teamwork

I have always had this feeling that working in a team will make me a better person. Everything that I thought about being a part of a team was confirmed during my initial engagements with the team that I was assigned on joining college. The interactions that I had while interacting with my team mates was fair, despite not being in a position to communicate in fluent English. On top of the language problem that I had with my team mates, most of us came from different cultural backgrounds, something that contributes significantly towards making our initial interactions interesting as we tried to learn how these varying cultures could be put together for purposes of bettering our operations in the team. Due to our diversity, the operations of our team were smooth, though we had some difficulties when diving what we were offered amongst ourselves. For me, I was not comfortable handling any paper that required me to use so much English because I was still learning how to be fluent in the language. I therefore preferred having most of the work done by the other team members.

Despite the challenges that we had in assigning our team members with the tasks offered to us, we finally went through the challenges and aligned our team practices with the tasks that had been assigned to us. To overcome the language barrier issues, I made my plight very clear amongst the other team members that my English was not good and was still working towards making it better and more effective for presentation. Fortunately, one of the team members volunteered his services to help me with my English skills, provided I took my team role perfectly. I therefore benefitted a lot from the team because it was through the team that I advanced my English speaking capabilities while at the same time learning more about the cultures of the other team members. I also benefitted from the team activities significantly because each member of the team was willing to work with the weaknesses of the other team members.

Participating in the team also contributed significantly in helping us prepare for the next lesson in a big way. Being a part of my team helped me to get prepared on what we were going to discuss in our next class. The reading and consultations that we made during the teamwork equipped the team with important information and knowledge that could not be attained by any other means. The discussions that we did in the team were also highly detailed compared to any of the discussions that we have had in the class. Being a part of the team also contributed significantly towards improving our level of control in the class while at the same time learning how to balance our class work by ourselves because we had to finish our assignments by ourselves. Participating in the discussions also improved my ability to present and converse with the other members of the class, thus making it one of the best experiences that I had in the class. Everything that I had thought concerning my team just happened as I had anticipated.

Critique of Film Noir

Our main aim as a group was to critique the Film Noir, one of the major French label movie that is characterized by some strong American film elements that make it to have a blend of both the American and the French characteristics (Silver, Ward, Macek, Porfirio, and Ursini, 1992). The tem Noir in the movie is used to mean black, and the movie tries as much as possible to demonstrate the beauty of blackness throughout its scenes. The movie has been considered as one of the perfectly crafted movies whose flow cannot be compared to any other movie of its nature (Krutnik, 2006). The producer of the movie makes sure that the colors and language use in the movie flow are in line to the main themes (Silver, Ward, Macek, Porfirio, and Ursini, 1992). Additionally, the choice of character in the movie is also considered one of the best things that the movie producer and director did towards making sure that his message reaches the audience in the best way possible.

One defining characteristic of this movie is in how the content is present and how it conveys it conveys its message to the audience. In relation to how the movie communicates to the audience, the movie can be termed as a genre because it relies upon a system of some perfectly defined expectations and conventions that make it to appear just like any other movie in the genre category like Greenberg and Higham (Krutnik, 2006). The other reason why this movie considered a genre is because of its close links to how Hollywood produced and advertised in the 1940s (Silver, Ward, Macek, Porfirio, and Ursini, 1992).

Additionally, the movie can also be considered a series. The reason why the film is considered a series is linked to the fact that there are cycles that demonstrates some form of aesthetic movement within the film (Dussere, 2006). These cycles are perfectly demonstrated within the movie scenes despite the process of identifying the boundaries being considered very complex and difficult for the movie viewer. The viewer is therefore supposed to be keen in determining where the movie scenes cross as a way of identifying its cycle (Krutnik, 2006). It is also very important to understand that every scene within the movie is perfectly put to depict a certain specific theme that is common in the society and the producers wanted to get the message to his audience (Dussere, 2006).

Critics of the movie have however cited some biasness in how the movie connects with the audience due to its mixed target audience and cast that was made up of individuals with both American and French accent. The mixture of cast therefore makes it impossible for the producer to assign some specific roles to the actor, more so if the role played is from the culture different from that of the actor (Silver, Ward, Macek, Porfirio, and Ursini, 1992). Despite this challenge, the message of the movie was perfectly delivered and effectively taken by the target audience.

3. Reflect on the team tasks

I had one of the best experiences while discussing the article with the other team members. I however limited my role in the team to only what I was capable of doing without any struggles. Some of the experiences that we had as a team during our planned discussions included having our different styles conflicting because we had all come from different cultural backgrounds and learning institutions, and all members of the team embraced the thinking and experiences of their colleagues without any form of discrimination. We all supported the ideas and opinions that were given by each of the team members concerning our discussion. The support came from our initial engagements that made us understand our cultural variations.

Our interactions were also characterized by high levels and incidences of creating awareness, interacting, and developing empathy amongst ourselves. By being aware of what we needed and what the other team members needed, our levels of connectivity improved, thus making us to connect with the ideas put forth by each other better and more efficiently. Knowledge on each individual in the team led to the development of trust amongst us, thus improving our levels of connection and effectiveness in our discussions.

To carry out our team tasks better and more effectively, we first established a basic framework of mutual understanding, trust, and agreement that made us complete all our tasks better and more effectively. We also characterized our activities with high levels of creativity that made it easy for us to go through all the team tasks with ease and a lot of effectiveness. Each member of the team took a leadership role within the group, something that contributed significantly towards making sure that everything in the team happened as required. By all members having some responsibility in the group, we all developed some level of individual and mutual accountability in the organization. Finally, we encouraged each member of the team to embrace open-ended discussions while at the same time setting active problem solving meetings that helped significantly towards dealing with any form of disagreements that arose during our discussions.

Most of the things that we did during the discussion therefore contributed significantly towards making our team activities smooth and effective, thus making us to attain our group results without any issues. Importantly, we valued the contribution of each team member and build our presentation from what each of the member contributed towards the team. The results were attainment of the group results within the stipulated time and using the available resources. Being in a position to understand the character of each of the team member was effective in helping us understand the level of coordination required amongst the movie cast.


Dussere, E., 2006. Out of the past, into the supermarket: consuming film noir. FILM QUART, 60(1), pp.16-27.

Krutnik, F., 2006. In a lonely street: Film noir, genre, masculinity. Routledge.

Silver, A., Ward, E., Macek, C., Porfirio, R. and Ursini, J. eds., 1992. Film noir: An encyclopedic reference to the American style (p. 372). Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press.

SWOT Analysis in Making PowerPoint Presentations In this modern age of information;

What I mean by fitness center is a facility that offers a gym and personal trainers, a pool and Business Assignment Help SWOT Analysis in Making PowerPoint Presentations

In this modern age of information; persons and businesses are bombarded with information and date from all quotas, most of which is targeted at guiding their decision-making. However, critical information might be lost in the details hence the need for its presentation in a manner that highlights the primary concepts and key ideas. PPT presentations offer a more interactive way of conveying information and communicating ideas to a target audience in a more succinct, interactive and visually pleasing manner. It is therefore imperative to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in PPT making:


Its ready-to-use templates offer an easy to use structure which much compromise on quality or outlook of presentations

Technical skills in Microsoft Office suite enables the generation of PPT presentations with a strong visual and interactive presence

Multiple device support –PC and smartphones


PPT is a proprietary product from Microsoft Inc. and as such usage is limited to persons or businesses who have procured the software

PPT has limited themes and presentation tools compared to its peers. In particular; PPT has challenges with non-linear presentations


Properly done visual presentations can deliver more information and insights as a picture (info-graph) could be worth a thousand words


The emergence of open source or cloud-based presentation tools with more interactive tools and infographics’ support present exciting alternatives to the traditional PPT presentations. This presentation tools include Apple’s Keynote, Visme, Prezi and Projeqt.

Technical glitches with the presentation or output systems may inhibit effective PPT presentations

Condition Survey Report for Woodbrooke Building 28 Condition Survey Report for Woodbrooke

Condition Survey Report for Woodbrooke Building 28

Condition Survey Report for Woodbrooke Building

by Student’s Name

Code + Course Name

Professor’s Name

University Name

City, State


Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Importance 3

Objective of report 4

Technical details 4

Orientation 4

Pictures 4

Location of the building 4

Construction and Condition 5

Soakers, Flashings and Chimney Stacks 5

Roofs and Valleys 5

Roof 6

Rainwater Goods 7

External Walls and Elevations 7

Damp Proof Course 8

Sub Floor Ventilation 9

External Joinery 9

External Decorations 9

Ceilings 9

Internal Walls and Partitions 10

Fireplace, Flues and Chimney Breasts 10

Floors 11

Internal Joinery Including Kitchen Fitments 12

Cellar/Basement 12

Condensation 12

Timber Decay and Infestation 13

Thermal Insulation 13

Gas 13

Electricity 14

Cold Water Supply 14

Domestic Hot Water 14

Conclusion 14


The aim of the building survey is to bring on board the issues of concern to facilitate a good understanding on the property – both bad and good. The estate agent and vendor often give highlights about the merits of the property. It is not advisable to neither lose interest nor panic about the property when a new concern that is not anticipated for is brought to attention. In case of such like situation, the full picture of the property should be considered first, including property type, the location and age, and the selling price agreed upon. The survey report is first read in full before jotting down the questions that might have come up, at this point; the surveyor can be reached through phone to discuss the merits and the demerits concerning the property. The Building Survey Report follows a programed format; this is the reading of an introductory section and a General at that time. Afterwards, property examination follows. It comprises of a summary of both urgent and marginal defects. The report summary is not defective; therefore, reading of the summary alone is highly discouraged.

Table 1: Priori maintenance plan for Woodbrooke building

Priory grading

Time scale


Grading Condition




Soakers, Flashings and Chimney Stacks




roof and valleys




roof and valleys




External Joinery




external walls and partitions
















domestic hot water









Sub Floor Ventilation




external decoration








thermal insulation









external walls and elevations








internal joinery




timber decay and infestation









cold water supply




dump proof course



It is advised to spare some time and go through the full report, read the comments also, and taking notes in area that the person might need clarification later. all the same, the decision to buy the property is an individual’s choice but the surveyors only offer related advices to ease the decision making process.

Table 2:



total (£)


Soakers, Flashings and Chimney Stacks



roof and valleys



roof and valleys






external walls and elevations



dump proof course



Sub Floor Ventilation



External Joinery



external decoration






external walls and partitions









internal joinery









timber decay and infestation



thermal insulation









cold water supply



domestic hot water





Allowance 20%



Grand total




The report drives the buyer’s attention to certain areas that were not easy to inspect. The buyer is also advised and allowed to investigate the property widely before purchasing. the further investigation done by the buyer might lead to additional repairs that are likely to the price the property was set to be sold at first. The surveyors recommend that the buyer read the full report and together with their help consider the best course of action.

Objective of report

The objective of the report is to help the buyer,

Consider the best and informed judgment to either go on or do away with the purchase process.

Assess if the buying of the property is reasonable to them.

.Be sure of the actions and decisions taken before exchanging the constructs.

Technical details

This report provides the survey of Woodbrooke building under inspection. the findings are explained in plain English and avoid the usage of technical terms. also, where deemed necessary, the terms are defined.


Any reference to the right or left of the Woodbrooke building or the real that cannot be seen.


The repairs and maintenance are used to refer to the areas that need to be remedied to improve the condition of the building.


This report utilizes photographs to illustrate the state, features, and issues of the building.

Location of the building

The following is the address of the Woodbrooke building.

1046 Bristol Rd, Birmingham B29 6LJ, UK

Woodbrooke, Address

Wordbook study center is a Quaker college located in Selly Oak, Birmingham England. this is the only quaker study found in Europe. the building was founded in 1903 by Gorge Cardbury. between 1907 and 1914, the college was extended to include a new wing, a common room, and Holland House which was the hostel for male. currently the condition of the building is wanting leading to the need to conduct a condition survey and present a report on its state to determine area that need repair and maintanence to improve its condition. The report presents detailed interior and exterior condition survey, water system, electricity system, ventilation, paths, corridors, doors, windows, and roofing.

Construction and Condition

Soakers, Flashings and Chimney Stacks

The front elevation has a chimney stack that has been rebuilt. The property in place is sharable. Lead work construction has flashlights. The ground level lack significance defects that need immediate attention. Moreover, the chimney stack is built by a rear brick that is shared. The situation requires overhauling, incorporating the raking out as well as the re-pointing of vegetative growth and defective mortar joints, upgrading lead work after its checking and launchings as required. Building contractor to do all the work should be very competent. The fan aided flue from boiler discharges through the right side; the rear addition.

Roofs and Valleys

Traditional timber is used in making the roof frame and designing, it is a typical property in the current age and type. Tile fixings and battens are hidden from view due to roof slopes that are under-felted. The underlay in place seems generally serviceable, though the place perceived to be the first to perish borders the eaves and there are no chances of it being inspected. Consequently, future repair needs cannot be ignored totally. Distortion and undulation were noted on the rear added roof and intermediary supports are inevitable in the rear added purlin. Furthermore, the roof slopes on the front had a slight undulation, though it is considered usual or excessive to a property of this type and age. Several artificial slates were noted to have damages needed renewal. The human made slates fade and appear unsightly with the passing time apart from having varying quality. The slates are usually repaired periodically. However, the covering of the roof appears in a serviceable state without significant defects from the repairs. A ridge runs down the center of the elevated front roof slope that seems to curb the unevenness of the floor on the front double bedroom and distortion near the front bay and duo windows above. The cause of the movement is perceived as an inadequately distorted or sized Bessemer beam located directly below the two first floor windows. The roof and the front wall elevation are partly supported by the beam, despite it distorting and warping with age. Surprisingly, all the properties present in the same design like this property appears to have the same problem. Nonetheless, the possibility of strengthening or future renewal as required by local authority and the calculations of the structural engineers are inevitable. Ridge or hip tiles present on the front bay need re –pointing.


Void access in the main roof void is through the addition on the rear roof and its part of landing. The purlins are inefficient without intermediary support though they are likely to benefit from the re-bedding. Inspection done concerning the slope on the front roof was highly restricted and an added hatch on the front part of the property is of great benefit. It is not advisable to comment on the likelihood of unseen defects. Sealing of the firebreak walls is very crucial as well as the neighboring properties. A number of staining and general splitting of timber was observed, even though is a mere consistent in the current building age. Tile fixings and battens are hidden from view due to the under-felting of the roof slopes. Ventilation is very important to insulated roof voids that have under-felt in order to minimize the risks of timbers rotting and condensation.

Rainwater Goods

A mixture of cast iron and PVC are responsible for the formation of the rainwater goods. In cases of heavy hailstone challenges such as leaking joints and corrosion are very common. Therefore, sealing the joints is very important. Rainwater goods are prone on-going and regular maintenance. PVC replacement eventually benefits the cast iron sections. The situation often raised the need of rainwater goods overhaul.

External Walls and Elevations

Measurements obtained from the recess show that major walls are constructed from a mixture of solid brickwork and solid masonry, and also rat trap bonding brickwork. Externally, render and face stone mixture are the components that make the wall. Overstressed and undersized Bressumer beam is the reason behind the movement encountered on front elevation wall. Upgrading works in the coming days should not be ruled out completely though it is expensive. Interestingly, front living coverings don’t extend to the bay, probably showing past repairs. Matters are referred to the Conveyance present. Several open mortar joints are noted on front elevation which is beneficial to re-pointing. All the same, cement render and sand have been used in the pointing of the face stone unlike the lime mortar; it can result to damage and spalling to any stonework next to the wall. The elevation on the rear has cement rendered and smooth sand walls, but lower parts of the wall appear as if it has been renewed recently. The upper part of the wall is older and its life seems to be more limited. During the hacking off of any rendering, the chance should be maximized to enable lintels examination and repairs as necessary. Additionally, the front elevation has a band that runs across the wall on the front. The bands can cause damp penetration on the wall. The resultant penetrations on the wall could be prevented by a lead work lining that is a very of good quality.

The sills should be made in a way that they slope away from the walls. The case is to help in the process of discharging rainwater without getting onto windows and walls of the building. The construction is better when the building is constructed on a sub-soil that have varying seasons of expanding and shrinking as they could result to structural movement. The past buildings had inadequate foundation depths to withstand the movement and future damages that occur on a building at times. However, there is no valid evidence to show significance of structural movement, and main building had nothing to show that the foundation is inadequate or defective. Deflections and cracks are seen on the outer walls. The problem occurring on top of the wall and across the Bressumer beam on elevation of the frontal wall needed.

Damp Proof Course

The main walls to this house do not show any sign of damp proof. If it were present, however, damp proof can be easily concealed using external and internal wall surfaces. In comparison to internal floor levels, the external floor levels are too high which creates a risk of damp penetration. For the risk of damp penetration to be minimized, the levels of the internal and external floor should be reduced to a minimum of 150mm or 6 inches. Damp penetration could be further minimized by building boundary walls against the house while leaving a gap about 25mm or using a vertical damp course. For the basement, tanking works will have to be carried out. In tanking works, a vertical damp proof course is inserted within walls to prevent damp penetration. For the process to be carried out, there exists several methods and materials that can be employed. It is, however, crucial to note that tanking could be a disruptive and expensive venture and specialist advice should be sought.

Sub Floor Ventilation

The subfloors and basement area for this house do not have enough ventilation a situation which should be remedied.

External Joinery

The condition of Fascias and soffits which are of softwood construction is relatively challenging to establish from ground level. It is, however, recommendable that they are periodically rubbed down and decorated. The house lacks eaves on the rear addition back wall for the second storey which can create difficulties of water discharge from the main walls and in consequence cause damp penetration. This case is observable on neighbouring houses. The doors and windows to the house have a double glazed PVC with a presence of double glazed Velux skylight made of aluminium and timber. Double glazing is not recommendable due to the continuous corrosion of edge seals reducing its life. Because of the presence of gutters, the second or middle window is unable to open properly. For damp penetration to be reduced, waterproof seals should be availed between all doors, windows and adjacent walls. The quality of PVC frames varies greatly. Piecemeal repairs are not suitable for PVC frames and it is also difficult for stay mechanism and fixings to be carried out.

External Decorations

Although the external decorations are generally up to standard, the external joinery requires further rubbing down and redecoration.


The building’s ceilings are made up of plasterboard, lath, artex, papered with smooth finishes. Traces of asbestos are present in the artex hence the advice of a specialist is required when handling it to ensure safety. The lath and plaster used for the building’s ceiling are no longer in use today since they are highly susceptible to losing key thus resulting in their early collapse. Due to its low durability, it requires constant maintenance. However, minor repairs for such type of ceilings are in most cases challenging hence calling for a replacement. The building’s ceiling has slight irregularities and undulations, this is however expected in a building of this age and style.

Internal Walls and Partitions

The building’s internal walls and partitions are made up of mixed solid and lightweight materials, the finishes are majorly plastered. In some areas, the original mortar has been eroded thus requiring the reconstruction of the internal plasterwork. It is evident that in some cases the worn out areas on the original mortar had been skimmed over, this is a poor contraction practice thus will require reconstruction. There are also cases of uncalled for blockage on doorways. For example, the double doorways connecting the front and the rear reception lounge had been blocked using plasterboard. This blockage has made the access to the middle reception lounge to be from the third reception lounge, the building was originally designed in such a way that the middle reception lounge could be accessed from the front reception lounge which was more appropriate. Such blockages will need to be removed.

The building’s doorframes are generally not squired which may currently not be considered progressive and stylish although they are typical for a building this old. Although the curved door frames have no impact on the building structure stability, they may be changes for aesthetic reasons. The building also has minor cracks that need to be filled before the redecoration of the building.

Fireplace, Flues and Chimney Breasts

The house has fireplace features in the first living room, the breakfast room and the hindmost bedroom. Before usage, flues should have a proper lining and be in a safe condition. Use of fireplaces will also require regular sweeping and adequate hearths if they are to be put to use. Inspection of flues has not been done and subsequently, the adequacy of any linings cannot be ascertained. It is also recommendable that all other redundant flues be properly capped. Internal and external ventilation of these flues should also be done to prevent damp penetration.


The floors are made of a variety of materials. The basement floor is made of a mixture of flagstone, chippings and earth and may require some level of upgrading because flagstone has the characteristic of allowing damp penetration. The entrance to the porch has a quarry tile floor. Thermoplastic tiles are present on some floors and these may contain some traces of asbestos. If any upgrading is to be done, it is recommendable that specialist advice is sought to reduce the hazardous effects of dust. The rest of the ground floors are made using a mixture of suspended timber and solid construction. The upper floors to the house are also made of suspended timber construction. Some of the upper floors may require re-fixing

Built in damp proof membrane is lacking in most properties of nowadays, encouraging seeping of moist, hence making it important for renovation to be done. Herringbone strutting and new joists ends were used to identify previous maintenances on the cellar within the ground floors. In this case, it shows in the earlier times there was issues with the construction. It is majorly because of the dripping pipes, condensation and other causes that have led to wetness in the bathrooms and WC floors. The period in which the lifting of the covering is done is paramount for a thorough inspection to be conducted. Previously there was no lifting of floor covers hindering proper inspection on all floors except basement. So in days to come renovation can be considered.

Internal Joinery Including Kitchen Fitments

Although kitchen is seen as a small unit in the house, it requires serving to the window, doors to ensure smooth running of activities in the kitchen. There is need for replacement of old cardboards with the new ones mostly to the third bedroom. For security reasons, it is of extreme importance to replace the lightweight internal glazing with a tough glass. In addition, to boost the security measures, balustrading needs some upgrade.


Investigation was done in a basement with few headroom and staircase which is metallic. It was observed that the place was wet and stuffy necessitating for some aeration to be done. In addition, there was also a large invasion of beetles which may have spread to other obscured parts of the basement. Our investigation to the front room was hinder as we were unable to access the room. Instead there was a small opening on the wall through which we used a torch and camera to take photos. We observed 3.18 zones of wetness in the room. Corrective measures are therefore recommended from a specialist from the British Wood Preservation and Damp Proofing Association registered contractor on the property. It was recommended that experienced contractor should take care of the properties of this time and insurance of all work in the property. Lastly, another observation was realised in a secluded zone which was most likely caused by dripping pipes and this should be corrected.


During the period of investigation, It was found out that there was substantial condensation, however dry forms of heating and proper aeration helps to reduce this possibility.

Timber Decay and Infestation

A sample of wood was taken and observed while great care was taken into account; we cannot completely omit the possibilities of the hidden faults of the timber. Structures of today face dangers of decay and wood beetle, since they consist of walls which are made of visible timber making it easy for infestation infestation.[ (for example, timber lintels and any areas of panelling or dry lined walls) which most likely affects other areas like it was observed to the adjoin board in the third reception/dining room. Wood is mostly affected by wetness and may likely rot in the is therefore necessary to seek help and obtain a report and a quotation from a specialist British wood preservation and damp proofing association registered contractor in order to properly do an inspection of the property.


Thermal Insulation

There is low level of thermal insulation in the spacing of the roof. Authorities require at least 300mm (12 inches) of insulation quilt. For more enquiries on the energy performance on the property one is advised to have a look on the Energy Performance Certificate from the supplying representative. Other ways to find this information is acquiring after sell services which turn out to be more expensive.


The mains gas is turned on with the meter at the cellar. Authorities advocate safe measures to be taken by carrying out frequent check outs of installations by the right gas company.


Mains power source is fitted, with meter and consumer unit at the cellar. It was detected the installation of the wiring was modernized however the authorities encourage inspection of the electrical fitting after every five years or amendment of possession. In addition, one may be required to increase the level of units in the property.

Cold Water Supply

Plumbing requires legal experts especially on the mains water supply. Mostly plumbing is done in a mixture of lead and copper renewal is necessary since most of the pipework becomes worn-out. When doing a replacement for lead pipework in Alkathene, it is wise to seek advice from a plumber expert. In the earlier findings, sanitary installations were modern and reparable although were not thoroughly inspected. Some worn-out observations were noticed. The sanitary installation appeared to be of poor quality. To avoid water leakage, elastic sealants should be put at the meeting point of sanitary installations and surrounding surfaces. In order to reduce the possibility of frost destruction, sheathing should be properly done on the pipework at the cellar.

Domestic Hot Water

For hot water to be provided there has to be through gas which is preferably heated in combustion boiler which is located in third bedroom. Authorities advocate for confirmation of any history of maintenance for the hot water system. If not, a gas safe registered engineer should be consulted.


Currently, the designs used in building have drastically improved making this property fail to comply with the current standards in some aspects. However, the Woodbrooke buildinh seems to have been maintained well but with age, the building condition has detorieted naturally, thus the reason why some repairs are evidnt in the building. Therefore, to improve the quality and standards of the building, specialist timber and dump report is need to asses the condition and repair the defects. Also, it is important to not that repirs and atertions to parts of the building may be detrimental to as it can expose parts of the structure that are hidden from view. therefore, nseeen defects require that the budget includes an allowance to cater for the extra cost that may result from exposing condition of other parts of the building. Therefore, the repairs should comply with the 1996 Party Wall Act.


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Collection (CDC) programme. London: Education and Skills Funding Agency.

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Chinese Leadership Leadership is one of the most universally studied topics in

Chinese Leadership

Leadership is one of the most universally studied topics in management. A leader is a person responsible for the management of a business organization towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Leadership is a subject that have been in place since time immemorial. Leadership involves management and getting things done through people. The evolution of leadership has been an ongoing process with the traditional leadership styles changes daily in the contemporary world. Leadership is fundamentally forthcoming. In the Chinese management, transformational leadership and paternalistic leadership styles are the most used in the recent years. Transformational leadership is usually associated with empirical studies while paternalistic leadership is discussed with little empirical examinations. Transformational leadership is a communicative management style that hails as a modern leadership approach to efficient and effective management both in collectivist and in individualistic cultures. Transformational leadership has positive impact on the managerial effectiveness, interpersonal relationships and organizational incomes. Paternalistic leadership on the other hand is a traditional Chinese style of management.

Transformational leadership [p refers to the process in which a leader connects and engages with others consequently motivating them as a well as the leader himself. It is more of a follower oriented leadership program. The leaders in this system motivates their followers to exert a performance by raising the followers of the organizations goals. It also help in getting the followers get beyond their own interest for the sake of the team and the company. Moving of the followers to address a higher level needs such as realization of full potential. Transformational leadership is normally conceptualized in four dimensions, first is the idealized influence also known as charisma and describes the leaders who have a strong role model behaviors, are able of communicating sense and have people follow them, they also have a sense of mission. Second is the inspirational motivation, which is usually characterized by leaders who use persuasion such as emotional talks, rational arguments to inspire followers to become committed to the assigned tasks and to the moving of the organization to where it intends to be at a particular time. The inspiration leaders articulate the vision in such a way that it convinces the followers into working exceptionally hard.

Third is the intellectual stimulation is the leadership that stimulates followers to be innovative and creative. The followers are encouraged to participate in the decision making process of the firm and in finding solutions to the various tasks in the firm. Finally, the individualized consideration depicts leaders concerned with the individual needs of the followers. They consider their feelings and engage them in supportive communication giving them individual attention. In this form of leadership, they emphasize on empathy rather than sympathy in dealing with the problems of the subordinates. The employees who are the followers in an organization plays a critical role in the continuity of the firm. Their wellbeing translates to the success of the firm in that a healthy stress free individual is likely to be more productive than a stressed one. By ensuring the followers feel appreciated in an organization is critical as it not only depicts good leader follower relationship but also leads to work being done at the right time in the best way possible. Essentially, transformational leadership is where the leaders see employees as those with free choice and develop autonomy from the follower a realm under the vision of the firm. The leadership is more of employee empowerment than it is on dependence.

Paternalistic leadership on the other hand is a traditional leadership style historically dominant in the early capitalist businesses. According to previous studies on paternalistic leadership, the Chinese culture of paternalistic leadership was different from the same in western organizations. The managers in the Chinese culture were directive. Ambiguous about their intentions, centralized authority and excised implicit control keeping distance from the subordinates. The Chinese managers in the firms had the tendency of incorporating personal factors in decision making process of the firm and demanded personal loyalty from the followers. The authoritarianism in paternalistic leadership was accompanied with benevolence. Paternalistic leadership was fit for Chinese family businesses characterized by personalism, harmony, centralization and low formalization. Paternalistic leadership is highly applied in managerial contexts beyond the family businesses and it has been proclaimed as the traditional character in the organizations in the Chinese culture. The three dimensional paternalistic leadership style refers to the style as a typical leadership style in the prevalent Chinese organizations. The three dimensions are authoritarianism, morality, and benevolence. Authoritarianism is the practice in which a leader has absolute powers over the followers and makes and controls all the firms’ decisions and actions of the followers. Morality requires the leaders to demonstrate high values and morals, behaviors and set good examples for the self-discipline and personal virtues of the followers. Benevolence on the other hand shows a soft side of the leader. The leader cares about the followers’ wellbeing and shows personal concern for the followers. A benevolent leader can be termed a charismatic leader as he considers the followers as not only a follower but as part of the organization.

The three dimensions of paternalistic leaderships are rooted in the cultural values of the Chinese people. Authoritarianism comes from Confucianism and legalism. In the traditional Confucianism, a father has complete legal authority over his children and all the family members. According to the legalist school, political manipulation and control were highly valued nad emphasized in the imperial period in china. The authoritarian leadership was manifestation of the historical changes and development of the said Chinese values

Literature review

The idea of leadership has been a common interest to humans since time immemorial. During the early stages of human life, people would gather around those individuals that had particular expertise in hunting and gathering, later on in many communities, leadership depended on the family trees in which was believed had a special connection with the gods. In studying history, one gets a broader scope of the of what entailed leadership in the early days and what the leaders did and the reason behind their leadership. Wu, (2013), in his study explains the many myths surrounding leaders who were treated like heroes. The authors also present the religious and philosophical characteristic of leaders.

There is no universally recognized definition of leadership and have been defined in several ways. One of the definition of leadership is the act of an individual impacting others in a way that they can achieve a common set goal (Cao, & Li 2010). According to Chen, & Lee (2008), leadership can be defined as the process involving both leaders and their followers and the leadership situations. The leadership culture and the way the leaders partake their duties is far much related to the culture in the country. The harmony within groups in the collective societies is critical with the independence held highly in the societies (Cheung & Halpern 2010). The assumptions held in the various cultures has been the main problem in leadership with each fighting for a spot as far as the control of how leaders should lead the society is concerned. It in one way or another dictate the continuity of the society together with leadership as a whole. In the case of femininity and masculinity, they are usually linked with procreation and is strictly linked with either gender. In societies, however, many activities are considered more masculine or feminine with the cultural norms dictating the ideas. According to Hofstede Center (2017), the issue of masculinity and femininity has affected leadership in many countries among them China.

The literature reveals multiple competencies in leadership traits, behavioural attributes and styles. However, there is still no a generally accepted taxonomy or leadership pattern. According to past studies, there is unison with the fact that for leadership to be an effect, then there should be a correlation with subordinate behaviour. People define culture and leaders are the managers of the people, therefore, they manage the culture. According to Fenby (2013), leadership and culture are interrelated and determines how the leader operates his leadership role. The organizational structures which are characterized by the cultural diversity of the people create the leader in terms of what is expected of them (Yooyanyong &Muenjohn, 2010). As a leader, the trust from the subject is paramount. Leaders should ensure to establish public trust and build a consensus among other leaders and followers.

Leadership qualities are not mere genetics. However, leaders should possess the genetic attributes which a together with the acquired skills will enhance the development of leadership qualities. However, there are various studies that differ on the opinion of whether leadership is genetic. Although leadership may not be solely accredited on the genetic settings, effective leadership is a factor of efficient training (Yooyanyong &Muenjohn, 2010). Leadership is a universal phenomenon. However, only some certain forms of leadership are effective globally such as charismatic leadership. Leadership practices are cultural specific with different cultures enjoying their own leadership styles. According to Hofstede (2011a), leadership practice that is effective in one community is likely to fail or be unacceptable in another. For instance, the Chinese leadership style is different from the western leadership styles.

The Chinese leadership principles are broad depending on the field of leadership. In business leadership, the leadership principles follow the traditional Chinese approaches (Chen & Lee, 2008). Chang & Owen (2010), argues that the leadership styles are deeply rooted in the ancient Chinese philosophy. The Chinese principles are rooted in philosophy with the approaches linked with the social, political and commercial standards (Cao, & Li 2010). Leaders are required to lead their subjects in a way that can be emulated by others. The main focus of the leaders is to have a humanistic leadership with their target being improving the followers through individual and organizational developments. Leaders have different leadership styles and characteristics. They are differentiated by the designations by their ranks with ling Xiu being leaders who have already achieved their visions and ling dao for the leaders who act in stewardship role such as managers whose major focus is ensuring the job is done (Fenby 2013).

A leader plays a source of motivation and inspiration to his subjects. The leadership method used by the leaders such as persuasion instead of coercion, and the setting of personal examples by creating a simple living and promotion of equality enhances the relationship between the leader and the society. Xing & Sims (2011) argues that a good leader should exert minimal influence on his subordinates. The Chinese leadership ideologies although independent of each other share some commonalities and are interrelated (Wang & Chee 2011).

Leadership in the Chinese context can be grouped in various forms. The study on paternalistic leadership has been on the increase over the years. However most of the research on paternalistic leadership major on the conceptual model and the outcome of the leadership method. In research done by Wu, Huan, & Chan, (2012), paternalistic leadership can be defined as the type of leadership that commands both strong discipline and authority and moral integrity as held in the personal atmosphere. Another form of leadership is the transformational leadership. In this form of leadership, there is more of the modern forms than the traditional Chinese leadership methods. The transformational leadership is however compatible with the paternalistic as well as the traditional styles. Ismail, Reza, & Mahdi (2012) argues that transformational leadership occurs when the leading parties start to have different goals but later become fused and form a uniform leadership style. The leader not only leads his followers but is responsible for motivating and engaging them. The relationship between the leader and the subject becomes mutual, and besides the leader motivating the people, they also get to motivate him thus improving on his leadership skills. The process is paramount as it not only transforms both parties but also helps and makes it easier to achieve their common goal (Wu, Huan, & Chan 2012).

The many cultural values in China gained their roots in Confucianism. Confucianism is also the base of the patriarchal family models, a long time norm in China. Among the teaching is that of women heading supportive roles in the family and in many occasions treated as the invisible (Rosenlee 2006). In Confucianism, a person is viewed in relation to the relationship they have with others. The situation is mainly seen by the situation in which the women are defined by their relationship with other people in the family. For instance, their value is defined by the family relations. The collectivistic Chinese culture rarely sees a person as an individual, but rather it views the person in groups (Zhao 2007).

In the view of the cultural dimension of chines, the leadership pattern is more of a masculine job (The Hofstede Center 2017). This is in line with the ideology of Confucianism. However, women have risen above the glass ceiling in engaging in transformational leadership compared to their male counterparts (Heilman (2012). According to Miller, Le Breton-Miller, & Scholnick (2008), transformational leadership is linked to effectiveness and better outcomes. According to Klenke (2011), leadership styles in many organizations has been changing with many firms choosing a nonhierarchical structure.

Mao Zedong’s leadership (1893 – 1976), it emphasized the idea of women being capable of holding a leadership position just like men (Klenke 2011). Many countries including China are suffering the idea of communism and equality in leadership. In China, the idea of paternalism has been the norm for the longest time (Peus et al. 2015). The cultural mindset of women being subordinate to men has created a great barrier to the Chinese women in pursuing leadership positions (Zhu, Konrad & Jiao 2016).

China enjoys different eras of leadership with each era eminent from the names of the powerful men. Each of the powerful leaders in the Chinese leadership ladder holds the various generations of leadership. Mao Zedong’s era is known as the first generation; the second generation was headed by Deng Xiaoping, third generation by Jiang Zemin, Hu Jintao for the fourth generation and the current generation being headed by Xi Jinping (Wang & Chee 2011). Each of these leaders had a group of mandarins who filled the highest ranking offices in the states. All these leaders together make the leadership generations in China. The difference in the generation of leadership was mainly the age. As time passes the older generation passes or hands power to the younger generation. The generations are stated by a number from first to the fifth. However, they can also be termed based on the significance of the periods (Zhao 2007).

Mao Zedong – First Generation

Chinas first generation of leadership was headed by Mao Zedong. He was the great led the communist to triumph against the Kuomintang forces in the year 1949. He was later adored as a god by the people of China. Mao Zedong had a different form of leadership and brought about a new type in the Chinese leadership. He was popular among his subjects owing to his charismatic and strong leadership (Cheung, & Halpern, 2010). From that time Mao has been viewed as the father of the nation. There were other important figures in the first generation which included Zhou Enlai. In 1976, Tangshan north of Beijing was hit by a terrific earthquake which leads to the death of over 240,000 people (Wang & Chee 2011). In the same year, China was hit by the demise of their leader, Mao which literally led to the ruin in China as a major economy in the world. It is this that led to the second generation of leadership which was to salvage the nation and lead it to its future.

Deng Xiaoping- Second Generation

After the demise of Mao, there rose a power struggle between his widow and Deng Xiaoping. With the political skills learned from the Mao regime, Deng formed an alliance with the important people from the Mao regime uniting them against Madame Mao. By the year 1978, Deng had risen as the acknowledged leader of the new China generation (McGregor 2010). He was set in transforming China by raising it to its feet by creating open diplomacy with the world. He wanted to ring china to glorious riches by the open economy (Chen, & Tjosvold 2007). Regardless of not having a previous power position, Deng became a paramount leader.

The second generation of leadership was not as philosophical as the first. It was however committed to the idea of controlling the people of China. In the year 1989 following the crackdown at Tiananmen Square, there was the end of the development freewill western style in the republic. As age progressed, Deng was ready to transition from power to a new generation marking the first smooth transition to Jiang Zemin who in 1989 had was able to stop violence in Shanghai with little violence (McGregor 2010).

Jiang Zemin- Third Generation

The third generation of leadership was characterized by the merging of the conservative elements from the 70s and 80s. there was the fear that China would fall back to the stagnation of the economy and the people would return to poverty a situation they had experienced before in the 1970s when the then leader Deng wanted to change the economy that Mao had destroyed (McGregor 2010). The third generation of leadership was committed to ensuring that the nation restarted the economic reforms which would help in ending the fight with the conservatives. It is in this era that the nation abandoned political reforms, dictatorship and there would be the expansion of the entrepreneur class. Jiang worked tirelessly after the death of Deng which cemented him as the paramount leader of the nation (Fu, Wu, Yang, & Ye 2007). He brought about reforms in the economy by marketing the enterprises owned by the state and systematization of laws to encourage foreign investors in the country. In 2003, after a successful era, it was time to pave the way for a new generation of leaders, the fourth generation (Fenby 2013).

Hu Jintao- Fourth Generation

The second smooth and peaceful power transition saw the rise of the communist party of China general secretary, Hu Jintao to the head of state position in people’s republic of China. Hu Jintao served as governor in numerous provinces before his appointment. He was a leader of the Tuanpai faction formed from the members of the communist youth league. The faction was considered the more conventionally left wing of the two factions in the state (Fenby 2013). There was large-scale privatization of enterprises owned by the state which were stopped leading to the introduction of large social policies for the rural people such as health insurance. It is in the fourth generation of leadership that China experienced some of the largest events in the world such as the Beijing Olympics in 2008 and the SARS outbreak. China also rose among the largest world economies with the GDP increasing with an average growth of 10%. In 2012, there was the transition of power from the fourth to the fifth generation being the first generational power transition in China that lacked the approval of Deng. The party selected Xi Jinping as Hu Jintao’s successor and Li Keqiang as the premier (Du, & Choi 2013).

Xi Jinping- The Fifth Generation

Xi Jinping is the present leader of the people’s republic of China. Over the years, there have been various changes in the leadership system with the main reforms experienced in 2012 when Xi a rival, was chosen as the successor of Hu Jintao. Xi Jinping was from the princelings a communist party member who came from the lineage of previous leaders. It was considered the rightest wing compared to Tuanpai. In the fifth generation, there was a reduction in the number of the cabinet from nine to seven members (Fenby 2013). Although many scholars predicted the fifth generation of leadership to be among the best from the rest, it has proved to be different. Some scholars predicted the form of governance to be more open only to be proved a wrong year later. There have been purges in the government under the allegation of corruption, economic nationalism, increased restriction son information and liberty (Hasel 2013).

China has long struggled with the creating of a good leadership image abroad. Since the Olympics in 2008, where a new era was created, it has since had the opportunity to show its new economic status in the modern world (Du, & Choi 2013). Since his presidency, Xi has continued building on the foundation of creating an image of China as a compassionate leader through various projects. He has since directed the chines people to embrace traditional value viewing the nation as one big family with the president being their father. Perhaps the presidents use the strategy to enhance national unity and helping China shake off past humiliations. China has been over the years tried to reclaim and reconcile its old greatness as the middle kingdom. With its new position and the increasing economic leadership, China enjoys a unique leadership style (Jung, Chan, Chen, & Chow 2010). However, despite the efforts that China is putting for soft power both at home and abroad, it is still failing with the country being viewed with suspicion. The announcement on term limits for the presidency has sparked debates globally.

The most critical points in the analysis are the overall leadership in China. From the history of Chinese leadership, Confucianistic leadership style has partly influenced the contemporary leadership styles. Women in the society have since been marginalized in terms of leadership roles. However, some women have decided to invade the male-dominated field of leadership (Mohr, & Wolfram 2008). From the generations of leadership, it is evident that there has been an evolution of leadership with each leader putting his foot forward towards providing the best leadership in the republic.

The literature materials used were derived from peer-reviewed journals and books with relevance to the topic. The selection of materials for reference was done with special interest on materials not older than 10 years. The materials used were helpful in finding information on the topic. However, there were some disadvantages in the selection of reference materials as some of the information that I found relevant to the topic were from older texts. Despite the hurdles in the selection, there was still enough information that has enabled the compilation of eth literature.

The field of leadership is broad, and from the previous researches, there is still more that needs to be done. Atopic on leadership in regard to gender has not been properly tackled. China has been experiencing a gender imbalance in leadership roles with women in the society being marginalized. Further studies should be done in an attempt to bring more light on the issue while paving the way for more research on the same.


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BUSINESS REPORT Business Report Executive summary A specific environment can be referred


Business Report

Executive summary

A specific environment can be referred to as the external organizational forces that have a direct influence over the actual management and business undertakings (Child, 2015). They may include factors such as customers, employees, union, competitors, regulators, and suppliers. Each of this factors affects the organization in different ways, For example, the employees who ensure that they the daily operations of the organizations are undertaken, directly impact on the performance of the company. The customers affect the number of goods to be produced by the company. Supplier’s impact on the price the company would charge for the finished goods. The company has no control over special factors.


The forces that have direct influence over organizational activities are referred to as the specific environment (Harper, 2015). They have a great impact on the entire running of the organization since they dictate the actions of the management. The main factors of specific environment that apply to all organizations include, employees, unions, regulators, competitors and suppliers. This paper analyses the two common specific environments namely, supplier, employee, and customers. It then gives a specific analysis of Samsung customers.

2a. Customers

Customers form up the integral part of any business foundation (Jeston and Nelis, 2014). They are the primary reason why organizations engage in entrepreneurial activities. They refer to individuals who pay many in exchange of goods and services. Every business establishment often has their loyal customer. These individuals influence the decision that companies often make. For example, bulk purchase, they may request for after sale services such as transportation of the bought products to their destinations. The organizations will have to respond to their reuses and facilitate the movement of the products. Customers may also request for product discounts if they happen to buy in large scale. The organization will be mandated to attend to their pleas. If they fail, they may risk losing customers

2b. Suppliers

Stadtler (2015) states that Suppliers are either individual or business entities that engage in the providing organizations with raw materials as well as labor services. Suppliers have a great impact on the business in that they commanded some products which a company can avail to their customers. They may decide to either under or oversupply commodities. The suppliers equally determine the average amount to be charged by organizations as the final product price. The quality of the products produced by companies is equally dependent on Suppliers. If they deliver poor quality products, the damaged will be passed to the customers. The company has no influence over this.

2c. Employees

According to Watson (2013) employees are people who help in the running of organizations in exchange for salary payment. Their presence in organization is related to the company performance. They are in charge of the day to day operations of the organization. Their absence often paralyzes the activities of the organization. It theretofore means that they have a role to play

2d. Samsung Electronics specific environment

Samsung Electronics Company has been greatly impacted by customers regarding specific environment. Initially, Samsung Company was known for the production of House behold electrical appliances. After it had introduced its first mobile phone, it embraced technology to develop others. The increase in the Samsung phone demand saw the company engage in large-scale mobile phone production (La Rocca and Snehota, 2014). The customers influenced the number of mobile phones to produce. Customer need for increased preference internal phone storage has led to the company developing high memory phones to suit the customer preferences. Samsung clients have significantly influenced the type of phones available for sale by the company. It shows that organizations are not independent. They mostly rely on the customer views and decisions.


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