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West African Challenge Review

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1 Climate Change in Zambia Student name Course Date Introduction Climate change

1

Climate Change in Zambia

Student name

Course

Date

Introduction

Climate change is one of the major factors affecting many countries today. Most of most pf the essential products used in the countries are the main factors contributing to climate change in the member countries. For instance, environmental pollutions due to excessive emissions that directly pollute the environment and cause hazardous impacts on the ozone layer. Therefore, to reduce these impacts, most of the countries resolve to apply different measures that help to reduce the level of emissions and ensure safer environment is created free from toxic emissions. Zambia is one of the various countries that is focused on controlling the impacts of climate change to its environment and ensure safer environment is created. In their latest Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) on climate change, affirmed on the impacts of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions on the general climate and targeted to reduce these emissions by 25% to help stabilize the climate in the country and ensure better environment is created to accommodate all considerations in the country (NDC Zambia, 2021). Zambia’s NDC plan was focused in three main programs that acted as the pillars for the shift towards climate change and a vision towards sustainable development by 2030. These included “Sustainable Forest management,” “Sustainable agriculture” and “Renewable energy and energy efficiency” (NDC Zambia, 2021). Each of these measures was were focused towards improving the climate impacts due to environmental toxin emissions and reducing the general emissions by 25% by 2030.

Climate Change Impacts and the Physical Processes Underlying the Change

Impacts on agriculture

Most of Zambia’s agricultural practices rely on rainfall. The country has been faced with the challenges of fresh surface water distribution making irrigation challenges. The climate has been unpredictable in recent years. Weather patterns are becoming less and less favorable. With the increase in temperatures, the water holding capacity of the soil decreases thus lacking enough moisture to support the growth of crops. There are rising cases of the spread of pests and diseases due to high temperatures (Mulenga et al., 2016). This possess major risks to the agricultural sector in the country. The grasslands have dried up in most of the parts meaning keeping livestock is unsustainable. All these results in even further degradation of the land thus furthering drought. These events are predicted to continue even more in the years to come. It has caused problems in food shortage or food insecurity.

Impacts on water resources

Water resources are very important and is the pillar of development in any given country including Zambia. The climate change in Zambia resulted to increase in temperature and change in rainfall patterns and a decrease of three percent in the total amount of rainfall. The changes have reduced water availability by at least thirteen percent (Hamududu & Ngoma, 2019). The surface water has already shown physical signs as the water level in rivers and streams has decreased. In the long run, groundwater will also be affected as there will be no recharge of the two types of water sources.

Impacts on grasslands and forests

Climate change in Zambia have altered the distribution of forests and grasslands. The forests productivity have gone down. With the rise in temperature and decrease in rainfall, the forests have been at risk of facing forest fires since most parts of the ground is dried. There has also been an outbreak of pests and diseases that affects the forests (Kalantary, 2012). The survival of trees has been put in danger. Not all the plants can adopt to climate change. As much as the process is gradual, there are ecosystems that are stressed out. Several species are being affected and thus they have to dry up. The situation is the same for both terrestrial and aquatic plants. With the drying of forests, shrubs and disappearance, desertification expands. Forest and grasslands are linked to wildlife thus they are affected too. The entire ecosystem faces the challenges posed climate change. For the wildlife animals especially the herbivores, they lack food due to scarcity of vegetation. The water sources are scarce thus they have to walk for long distances or migrate in order to survive.

Vulnerability to these impacts

Climate change is expected to have a detrimental impact to key sectors in Zambia. These sectors include agriculture and these would could strain in food production thus issues related to food security, strain in fresh water resources, forests and wildlife. With the impacts on agriculture it comes along with problems such as soil erosion, increase in drought, growth seasons which are shortened due to changes in rainfall patterns and prolonged drought periods which comes along with high temperature and decrease in humidity, and flash floods when the rains are heavy.

Agricultural sector

The agriculture sector is key in Zambia. It accounts for the country GDP of at least 18%. It absorbs almost two third of the total population labor market and more than 50% of the people depend on it for the source of livelihood. Most of the country areas and farms such as in the central, south and southwestern have become more prone to climate change and drought. These areas receive very low amount of rainfall, which are unpredictable and ones which are unevenly distributed (Mulenga et al., 2016). This has been the trend for almost more than ten years now. Most of the farming and livestock keeping practices in the country heavily relies on rainfall for sustainability. The high rainfall variability and challenges in irrigation practices in the country makes these sector vulnerable to climate change. The effects are ramptant and there is no signs of positive change any time soon.

These actions have resulted to food shortages due to increase in loss of crops before maturity. The higher temperatures have resulted to loss of ground moisture and the long term effect is the drying up of grasslands or degradation of the grazing lands thus causing the loss of livestock hence spearheading the effects of food shortages or rather food insecurity. In northen Zambia for instance, the have experienced cases of flash foods. The events of heavy rainfall results to the food security threats. These events make the entire sector paralysed in that it looses its significance and causing general strain in the economy. The life of the individuals is affected terribly.

Water resources

The country has an abundant supply of both surface and groundwater. The problem with the surface water is that it is unevenly distributed. This is a special problem, especially in the ssouthern part of the country, the water shortages are a common phenomenon. The cases of reduction of water flow in rivers and streams have been so obvious following the decline in rainfall (USAID, 2012). The surface water is the main source used for consumption in the country including the water for domestic purposes and the livestock, fisheries and other possible human activities that requires the usage of water. These increases pressure on the already stressed water sources which face the problems of pollution and many other non-climatic challenges.

Grasslands and Forests

This is another very important area that is highly vulnerable as a result of climate change. They are important to rural population. They are source of fodder, medicine, fodder to the communities which rely on them. Most of the land area in Zambia is covered in shrublands, grasslands, and savannah (USAID, 2012). It amounts to a whopping forty-nine percent and the forests covers sixteen percent. This ecosystem is very important to wildlife, which is important for tourists’ attraction. The changes in climate makes them vulnerable. High temperatures, and decrease in rainfall results in degradation of the soil, loss of vegetation, forest fire incidences, and soil erosion.

In Zambia, more than 30% of the land falls under protected land. The games parks and game reserves are plenty in the country. They are heavily impacted by climate change due to the degradation of grasslands areas and the scarcity of water affects the wildlife. The long-term effect is the reduction in wildlife abundance and diversity, which also, results in the migration of wildlife animals. The life of the country hangs in the balance.

Options for mitigation and/or adaptation

Sustainable Forest Management in Zambia

As one of the measures to promote sustainability, Zambia is focused in ensuring there is sustainable management of forests. Forests are the major sources of fresh water, rainfall and fresh air is forests. Through tress, it is possible to create a cool environment that is fresh and pollution free. Therefore, to maintain its climate balance, Zambia is currently focusing in forestry and conservative measures that will boost the climate and avoid the recusing climate changes in the community. World Bank Group (2019) claims that “Forests are the lungs of the nation and the center of the country’s climate change strategy.” Thus, focusing in forestry conservation exists as one of the major steps that will help to conserve and contribute to the mitigation against the adverse climate changes that are currently felt in the Zambian environment. Moreover, “the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Cancun Agreements on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)” where focused in ensuring that Zambia had considerable measured that will contribute to the general environmental security and build a resilient security system that will make certain that the environment is well protected.

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture focused in promoting caricatural products that did not produce harmful substances that are directly hazardous to the environment. Zulu (2016) affirms that sustainable agriculture in Zambia was focused in creating a green environment that that Zambia is focused in sustainable agriculture and focuses in several processes including “perspectives on sustainable agriculture and live-lihood through agriculture systems, conservation techniques and use of waste water in urban agriculture.” Through this focus, it is able to reestablish itself in the agricultural field and focus in measures that are likely to contribute to the general developmental process. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and agricultural products is one of the major measures that can be employed to mitigate climate changes in Zambia.

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

Energy is one of the major sectors that contributes to the high rates of pollution across Zambia. There are various areas across the whole of Zambia that requires massive amount of energy to be used to enable the sectors to function properly. In the information provided through the NDC, Zambia’s energy categories include “Energy industries, manufacturing industries and construction, transport, and other sectors” (NDC Zambia, 2021). Focusing in renewable energy production is one of the majors of Zambia to boost the environmental condition. Non-renewable sources of energy such has fossil oil are some of the major factors that contribute to environmental pollution and degradation of the environment. However, with enough mitigation measure and focus in health environmental renewable energy, it is possible to reduce the environmental impacts.

According to U. N Environment (2017), regulations of greenhouse gases in the environment reduces the impacts of hazardous gases to the environment at a certain percentage. Greenhouse gases are one among the major factors that contribute climatic changes through the consistent air pollution process. “The UN Environment Emissions Gap Report 2017 states that for the 2°C goal, this shortfall could be 11 to 13.5 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.” (U. N. Environment, 2017). Through these constant pollutions as a result of hazardous emissions, the climatic conditions of Zambia were undergoing several processes that directly impacted on the general climatic measures in the community. Therefore, it contributed to the general likeliness to look for alternative measures and sources of energy that are environmentally friendly to help reduce the general impacts of climatic changes in the country. Thus, climate changes in Zambia had several impacts on the country and contributed to several negative processes. To help reduce these environmental impacts, Zambia came up with a number of measures that will help reduce the general impacts of climate change and create safer environments.

Conclusion

Climate change is real. No country is safe from it since it is a global factor. The third world is the one which is hit the most since the insufficient technological development means they can’t adapt easily. In Zambia, the areas impacted most by climate change include agriculture, water resources, and forests and grasslands which comprise the wildlife. Given the current state of Zambia, it relies heavily on climate especially rainfall for agricultural production. The country has not advanced meaning it can’t rely much on irrigation. These sectors are vulnerable since climate change is not slowing down but rather it is becoming more intense. The country is making steps to adapt or mitigate climate change. It has invested in renewable energy sources. This will cut the emission of greenhouse gases. Also it has resulted to practice sustainable agriculture and the same case applies to forest management. With the agreements such as the Paris act, many countries are stepping up and Zambia is included.

References

Hamududu, B. H., & Ngoma, H. (2019). Impacts of climate change on water resources availability in Zambia: implications for irrigation development. Environment, Development and Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00320-9

Kalantary, C. (2012). Climate Change in Zambia: Impacts and Adaptation Couroche Kalantary Abstract. https://www.american.edu/cas/economics/ejournal/upload/kalantary_accessible.pdf

Leventon, J., Kalaba, F. K., Dyer, J. C., Stringer, L. C., & Dougill, A. J. (2014). Delivering community benefits through REDD+: Lessons from Joint Forest Management in Zambia. Forest Policy and Economics, 44, 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forpol.2014.03.005

Mulenga, B. P., Wineman, A., & Sitko, N. J. (2016). Climate Trends and Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia. Environmental Management, 59(2), 291–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-016-0780-5

NDC Zambia. (2021). REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA. https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/ZambiaFirst/FinalZambia_RevisedandUpdated_NDC_2021_.pdf

Pilli-Sihvola, K., & Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S. (2016). Defining climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction policy integration: Evidence and recommendations from Zambia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 19, 461–473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.07.010

U. N. Environment. (2017, November 6). Renewable energy and energy efficiency in developing countries: Contributions to Reducing Global Emissions. UNEP – UN Environment Programme. https://www.unep.org/resources/report/renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency-developing-countries-contributions-0

USAID. (2012). Climate Change Adaptation in ZAMBIA. https://www.climatelinks.org/sites/default/files/asset/document/zambia_adaptation_fact_sheet_feb2012.pdf

World Bank Group. (2019). COUNTRY FOREST NOTE: ZAMBIA TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE WAY OF MANAGING FOREST. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/571651580133910005/pdf/Zambia-Country-Forest-Note-Towards-a-Sustainable-Way-of-Managing-Forest.pdf

Zulu, D. (2016). Sustainable Agricultural Systems in Zambia: a Case of Conservation Agriculture with Trees. 43. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323253641_Sustainable_Agricultural_Systems_in_Zambia_a_Case_of_Conservation_Agriculture_with_Trees

Acts Acts 1:8 “You will receive power when the Holy Spirit has

West African Challenge Review Religion and Theology Assignment Help Acts

Acts 1:8

“You will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses

in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth”

Semantic Flow:

(Who?) “You will receive

(What?) power

(How?) when the Holy Spirit has come upon you;

(Why?) and you will be my witnesses

(Where/To whom?) in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth”

Word Studies:

“Witnesses”-

The NAS New Testament Greek Lexicon defines witnessing as bearing “witness, i.e. to

affirm that one has seen or heard or experienced something, or that he knows it because taught

by divine revelation or inspiration” (Thayer, & Smith, 1999). In the context of Acts 1:8 Jesus

says “…and you will be my witnesses…” Here Jesus is speaking to the Disciples saying that they

will bear witness to his life, death, resurrection, and now ascension.

Context:

Acts was written by Luke the Physician who also wrote the New Testament Book, Luke

(Introduction to the Book of Acts, n.d.). This book was written sometime between A.D. 60 to

100. Most historians place it at around A.D. 62-3 because it abruptly ends at a point where Paul is under house arrest and waiting to speak with Caesar. Historians are not sure where Luke was

when he wrote Acts, however, they think there is a great possibility that he was in Rome with

Paul where he was under House arrest. Luke’s audience for both Luke and Acts was a person by

the name of Theophilus. Unfortunately, not much is known about who this person was. Because

of addressing Theophilus as “most excellent” at one point it is believed that perhaps Theophilus

was Luke’s patron of some sort as this form of address was very formal. Theophilus means lover

of God so some believe that perhaps Luke was speaking to all Christians. Acts may have been

meant to be ecclesiastical to educate the church or it may have been apologetic. The apologetic

nature is given some credence as it may have been used in Paul’s defense in Rome to show that

Christians posed no threat to the government there.

The verses that come before Acts 1:8 allow us to see more clearly the Biblical context of

the passage. In verses 1-7 Luke writes about how Jesus showed himself to the disciples after

rising from the dead. Luke tells of how Jesus stayed with them 40 days and how they began to

question if it were at that time that Jesus would restore the kingdom of Israel. However, Jesus

told them that it was not for them to know the time/date that the Father had set. Jesus goes on to

say that they will be his witnesses (Acts 1:8). Referencing Acts 1:8 specifically, “it is evident that

Jesus was not sending out his disciples to bring in a new ‘earthly’ kingdom, but to bear his

witness to the present kingdom” (Introduction to the Book of Acts, n.d.).

Application to Missions:

Acts 1:8 is a major missiological passage that is encouraging to all Christians. It states

that we, Christ believers and followers, will be witnesses for Jesus when He says “you will be

my witnesses” (Acts 1:8, NIV). This passage also tells us that we will receive power through the

Holy Spirit in order to be witnesses on Jesus’ behalf. The end of this verse demonstrates who we

are to be witnesses to. It is made clear in chapter 1 verse 8 of Acts that the gospel is not exclusive

to any one group of people. We are to witness to people “to the ends of the earth” (Acts 1:8,

NIV). Therefore, in applying Acts 1:8 to missions it is important to note that we are 1) witnesses

for Christ, 2) not witnessing alone (we have the Holy Spirit), and 3) we are to witness to all people.

Revelation

Revelation 14:6

“Then I saw another angel flying in midair, and he had the eternal gospel to proclaim to those

who live on the earth—to every nation, tribe, language and people.”

Semantic Flow:

“Then I saw another angel flying in midair, and he had

(What?) the eternal gospel

(Why?) to proclaim to those who live on the earth

(Who?) —to every nation, tribe, language and people.”

Word Studies:

“eternal gospel”

The eternal gospel is not referring to a new gospel but rather “to the ‘good news’ of

Christ and a summons to repent” (Krejcir, 2007). We are called to fear God, worship him, and bring him glory just as discussed in verse 7. The commands given in verse 7 help explain what

was meant by the phrase “eternal gospel.” The good news of the work of Christ on our behalf

and how we should respond to it by fearing, worshipping and glorifying God is the same gospel

proclaimed throughout the whole Bible. John is making it clear that the “eternal gospel” is good

news that is everlasting.

Context:

Revelation is written by John. John is identified as one “who bore witness to the word of

God, and to the testimony of Jesus Christ” (Revelation 1:1-2). There is some debate about the

subject, but most believe it to be the brother of James, John the apostle John who also wrote the

gospel of John and three epistles. The style of the book may be difficult for modern day believers

to understand, but at the time it was written, the figurative or highly symbolic language was

much better understood by the local church as that was a type of literature common in those

times. The context in which it is written is discussing things that are about to happen. It then goes

on to describe chaos, war, and persecution. For this reason, there is some debate about when it

was written. It is believed to be written sometime between 62 and 97 A.D., probably falling

around 70 A.D. based on the current events of that era. The book was specifically addressed to

seven churches that are located in Asia. It was written to reveal things that were to happen.

To put this into context, we can look directly at the verse that follows Revelation 14:6

where John was talking about the message the angel was proclaiming. In Revelation 14:7 the

angel was talking about Fearing God and giving him glory because the hour of judgment had

arrived. He goes on to say we need to worship him who made all things. The message of the eternal gospel is both, one of redemption as well as one warning against God’s soon to come

judgment.

Application to Missions:

In Revelation 14:6 God is showing how important missionary work is to him. Even at the

very end of times he finds missionary work to be of utmost importance. This is made clear when

John writes about how God is going to send his own angel to be the final missionary.

Nonetheless, up until that time, God has commanded us to be his missionaries and declare his

name in all the earth. This verse just shows how important day-to-day mission work is in God’s

eyes. It also further emphasizes that the gospel is for every nation, tribe, language, and people. In

turn we should be proclaiming the gospel to all peoples and in every language.

Base Passages:

Old Testament A

Genesis 12:3

“I will bless those who bless you, and whoever curses you I will curse; and all peoples on earth

will be blesses through you.”

Old Testament B

Haggai 2:7

“I will shake all nations, and what is desired by all nations will come, and I will fill this

house with glory,’ says the LORD Almighty.”

Gospels

Matthew 28:19-20

“Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of

the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you.

And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age.”

ActsActs 1:8

“You will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses

in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth”

Letters

Romans 10:13-14

“for, ‘Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be save.’ How, then, can they call on the

one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not

heard? And how can they hear without someone preaching to them?”

RevelationRevelation 14:6

“Then I saw another angel flying in midair, and he had the eternal gospel to proclaim to those

who live on the earth—to every nation, tribe, language and people.”

References

Introduction to the Book of Acts – Study Resources. (n.d.). Retrieved from

https://www.blueletterbible.org/study/intros/acts.cfm

Krejcir, R. (2007). Revelation 14:6-13. Retrieved from

http://www.intothyword.org/apps/articles/default.asp?articleid=33587

Thayer, & Smith. (1999). Greek Lexicon entry for Martureo. Retrieved from

https://www.biblestudytools.com/lexicons/greek/nas/martureo.html

Health Promotion Plan Scoring Guide CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Analyze a

Health Promotion Plan Scoring Guide

CRITERIA

NON-PERFORMANCE

BASIC

PROFICIENT

DISTINGUISHED

Analyze a community health concern or need that is the focus of a health promotion plan.

Does not identify a community health concern or need that is the focus of a health promotion plan.

Identifies a community health concern or need that is the focus of a health promotion plan.

Analyzes a community health concern or need that is the focus of a health promotion plan.

Provides an in-depth analysis of a community health concern or need that is the focus of the health promotion plan, and articulates underlying assumptions and points of uncertainty in the analysis.

Explain why a health concern or need is important for health promotion within a specific population.

Does not describe a health concern or need that is important for health promotion within a specific population.

Describes a health concern or need that is important for health promotion within a specific population.

Explains why a health concern or need is important for health promotion within a specific population. Conclusions are not supported by relevant or current health data.

Explains why a health concern or need is important for health promotion within a specific population. Conclusions are well supported by current and relevant population health and demographic data and based on a perceptive analysis of the factors that contribute to health, health disparities, and access to services.

Establish agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with hypothetical participants.

Does not establish agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with hypothetical participants.

Establishes health goals without hypothetical participant collaboration.

Establishes agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with hypothetical participants.

Establishes agreed-upon health goals in collaboration with hypothetical participants. Goals are realistic, measurable, and attainable.

Organize content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.

Does not organize content for ideas. Lacks logical flow and smooth transitions.

Organizes content with some logical flow and smooth transitions. Contains errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.

Organizes content so ideas flow logically with smooth transitions; contains few errors in grammar/punctuation, word choice, and spelling.

Organizes content with a clear purpose. Content flows logically with smooth transitions using coherent paragraphs, correct grammar/punctuation, word choice, and free of spelling errors.

Apply APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.

Does not apply APA formatting to headings, in-text citations, and references. Does not use quotes or paraphrase correctly.

Applies APA formatting to in-text citations, headings and references incorrectly and/or inconsistently, detracting noticeably from the content. Inconsistently uses headings, quotes, and/or paraphrasing.

Applies APA formatting to in-text citations and references exhibiting nearly flawless adherence to APA format.

Exhibits strict and flawless adherence to APA formatting of headings, in-text citations, and references. Quotes and paraphrases correctly.