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PROPASAL – THE FORMAL AND INFORMAL history assignment help is it legit: history assignment help is it legit

Why are formal and informal proposals written?

Proposals are written to pitch ideas and clearly state all the requirements necessary to address a problem, generate businesses, improve sales, etc. Proposal documents requests to convince sponsors for funding, or the project needs to solve a specific problem or take on a given opportunity.

Formal proposals are written to clearly indicate the clarification of visions, act as evidence, give rod maps, and address the potential risks. It is an official document written for official or business use.

Informal proposals, on the other hand, are casual requests made for assistance. The unofficial and can be presented anyhow.

Why do government agencies make requests for proposals?

Proposal requests (RFP) are made to elicit formal responses, identify the lowest formal bid from the potential vendors for a desired solution. The RFP gives a detailed description of what the potential customer is looking for and specifies the evaluation criteria under which it will be assessed.

Why might you use a “hook” in a proposal, and what is an example?

The hook is used in writing a proposal to entice the reader or the intended target by using literary techniques designed to capture the reader’s attention. The hook is supposed to be strong recaps that will grab the readers’ interests and make them curious to know more about the proposal.

For example, starting a proposal with a question like, have you ever thought of why the rich fly private jets? Where they get the money? How they live, and what occupies their mind? Or why they oppress the poor in their neighborhood?

What should be highlighted in the staffing section of a proposal?

The staffing section of a proposal should highlight all credentials and all project leaders and other staff’s expertise. The qualifications and basis under which a person is to be added to the project should be highlighted. Basically, the section highlights the type of employees and their qualifications that must conform to the company’s needs or the organization making proposal request.

In what ways do formal and informal proposals differ?

The formal and informal proposals differ in their need for the correctness and writing styles, the format, and the length of the content quality and quantity. The formal proposal needs an official format and is lengthy since it sums up all the requirements needed to see the project succeed. The informal proposal is how casual, brief, and does not adhere to any specific style. There are also differences in their primary and secondary audiences, documentation placement, and identification of resources needed.

Name eight components of typical business plans.

A typical business plan has the following components:

The executive summary
The business description
Market and competitive analysis
Description of management and organization
The products and services to deal with in the business.
Request for funding
The business’ marketing plan
Financial projections of the business.
What should a business plan mission statement include, and how long should it be?

The mission statement should indicate the business objectives and summarize what the business will do to the customers, employees, owners, itself, and society. Basically, it includes the purpose of the business and how it is achieved. The mission statement should be long enough to describe goals, objectives, and how it will achieve them. The mission should not be more than one hundred words.

UNDERSTANDING THE HEALTHARE ETHICS history assignment help and resources

 

Health Care Ethics

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Professor’s Name

Date

 

Health Care Ethics

Introduction

The field of health care is complex and professionals are always susceptible to ethical issues. Every choice they have to make in their daily activities, from the kind of care a patient is supposed to receive to the resources required by a health unit can cause conflicts. No matter how difficult or uncomfortable a situation might be, health care professionals are required to maintain high ethical standards (Kemparaj & Kadalur, 2018). The following paper represents an analysis of the ambiguity involved in the making of ethical decisions. It comprises of an analysis of two cases that show how various situations can be viewed differently with the use of similar universal principles. Some of the universal principles used in the decision making of this essay are autonomy, justice, non-maleficence, and role fidelity. Every case in this paper has at least two interpretations in regards to the principle they follow.

Chapter 1

Case 2: Example 1 Respiratory pdf

Case study two is about a thirty-year-old African American woman who was taken to the emergency room by EMS because of chest pain and shortness of breath (SOB). On the morning of 11/05/2010 (day oh hospitalization), she was smoking crack via inhalation and then started feeling SOB. She used her Albuterol inhaler but it did not help. Other than that, the woman was experiencing flu-like symptoms that had lasted for a week, non-radiating chest pains. Her past medical history showed that she had obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and she was not compliant with her medication plan. She was admitted for three days and various tests were conducted. Some of the tests were a 12-Lead EKG test, CXR, CT Angiogram, CBC, a stress test and 2-D Echocardiogram. She was given various medication and was counselled about the risk of cocaine, smoking and Noncompliance.

The ethical situation here revolves around the non-compliance of the patient and the clinical decisions made by medical practitioners treating her. In the patient’s ER plan of care, she receives counselling about the risks that are associated with cocaine, smoking and non-compliance. She is also told about the possible risks of her lifestyle and health condition. One of the judgements I can use to analyze the ethical situation is that the principle of autonomy was not used for the patient. This is because she was not involved in the decision-making process of her treatment regimen and her doctor did nor inquire about her reasons for non-compliance.

In such a case, the physician has an ethical obligation to try and understand the patient and to offer help and guidance. For instance, a physician should try and understand the cause of non-compliance. In some cases, it might be as a result of negative side effects of medication or that the patient lacks full comprehension of the situation. Shared decision making should have been used in the care of the patient. There is a need for patients and physicians to discuss and later agree on the nature of the issue in question and suggest steps towards its effective management. A participatory type of relationship between the doctor and a patient is the most significant factor that fosters medical compliance (Kleinsinger, 2010). After establishing the cause of non-compliance, the doctor should have asked non-judgmental and open-ended questions that can help address the issue of non-compliance. Some of the questions that can be asked include the following. Is there a way we can approach this issue more effectively? What has hindered our successful dealing with the situation?

The other judgement is that the physician did not work towards having a mutual understanding of the situation. Although the patient was counselled about the risks of non-compliance, smoking and cocaine, the doctor did not take the time fashion a mutual comprehension of the issue whose solution is important for successful treatment. He or she should have tried to reframe non-compliance as a shared issue. The physician therefore should have tried to understand the cause of non-compliance and address it together with the patient as well as to reframe non-compliance a shared issue.

Chapter 2:

 Case 4: Example 1 cardio pdf

The second case study is about a forty-five-year-old man who used to a marathon runner by profession. He experienced chest pains while on his routine morning runs. The chest pressure would decrease when reduced his pace or started walking. He experienced no chest pressure while at rest. Some of the patient’s risk factors were high cholesterol levels and a family history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). The patient’s cholesterol levels were as follows; High LDL at 150mg/Dl and low HDL at 30mg/dl. A Stress Test ECG was also done on the patient which showed anterior wall ischemia. Bruce protocol tests were done at three stages. In addition, a nuclear perfusion test was also done which showed anterior-apical perfusion flaw when the patient was at stress. Coronary Angiography was also done which showed that the midsegment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) had stenosis of 90%. It also demonstrated that the midsegment of the right coronary artery (RCA) had an 80% stenosis diffuse. The type of treatment he received was Revascularization via PCI.

The ethical situation, in this case, revolves around the allocation of healthcare resources.  Equity in health care means that patients should be given the best quality healthcare for the achievement of optimal health. The ethical issue is related to the principle of beneficence. The decision on what type of medication a patient should receive is supposed to be patient-centred. In this case, revascularization via PCI was don on the patient. It involved the placement of bare metals in the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending arterial. However, the procedure was only performed drug-eluting tests were not available. Stenting has been established to have better long-term benefits. According to studies, drug-eluting stents have been found to have lower recurrence rates of 70% to 80% when compared to bare metal (Khan et al., 2014).  One of the judgements I have is that it was not ethical to do revascularization when there is an option of better treatment. The health care that the patient went should have earlier invested in the purchase of drug-eluting stents or referred the patient to a hospital that was capable of giving him the best health care at the moment.

The other judgment is that the patient was not involved in the decision-making process of his treatment plan. Informed consent was vital before the conduction of revascularization. For any type of medical treatment to be taken as legal, a patient has to give the healthcare practitioner an informed consent. Lack of informed consent might lead to legal consequences especially in cases where a patient might die because of the given treatment. The patient was not given the opportunity to ask questions related to the treatment. He had a right to be taught about the different types of treatment that can be offered and the chance to freely agree to a particular procedure with full comprehension of the possible risks, consequences and benefits (Tulyakul & Meepring, 2020).

 

 

References

Kemparaj, V. M., & Kadalur, U. G. (2018). Understanding the principles of ethics in health care: a systematic. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Kemparaj VM et al. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2018 Mar;5(3):822-828, 7.

Khan, W., Thipparaboina, R., & Farah, S. (2014). Drug-Eluting Stents. AJ Domb and W. Khan(eds), Focal Controlled Drug Delivery, Advances in Delivery Science and Technology, DOI 10.1007978-446149434-8-18,@ Controlled Release Society 2014, 17.

Kleinsinger, F. (2010). Working with the Noncompliant Patient. The Permanente Journal/ Spring 2010/ Volume 14 No. 1, 7.

Tulyakul, P., & Meepring, S. (2020). Ethical Issues of Informed Consent: Students as Participants in Faculty Research. Article in Global journal of health science · February 2020 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v12n3p86, 6.

 

 

Fromm, Korsgard, Aristotle, and Kant based Journal Entries do my history assignment: do my history assignment

Student’s Name

Course Name and Number

Institution

Professor’s Name

Date Submitted

Fromm, Korsgard, Aristotle, and Kant based Journal Entries

What do you need out of this course? What do you want out of this course? What can you do to make sure you get what you want out of the course?

I need to understand the ethics and moral guidelines that guide human behavior. I also need to understand the different ethical perspectives and considerations that different individuals possess and utilize in their lives. Also, I want to understand the philosophical, ethical foundations, and standpoints.  I believe the study of ethics entails what is good or bad from a moral and philosophical bearing. To ensure that I maximize the acquisition of knowledge from this course, I will work hard, focus, be attentive, and follow instructions and guidance from the professor and other experts in the course.

Where do you get your values from? What, if anything, obligates you to obey/follow them?

I get my values from myself, my family, and my religion. My family has a stringent “code of ethics.” When I was a child, my parents and other older family members like grandparents, uncles, and aunties corrected me when I did wrong. The phrase “spare the rod, spoil the child” guided how my parents brought my siblings and I up. I am Christian, and by being a Christian, there are certain values such as honesty and love that I learn from the Bible. However, since being an adult, I have developed my own values that I uphold as I deem relevant. I hold myself morally and ethically accountable. In most instances, I solely make the moral and ethical decisions for my life.

Looking back at your entry for question #2: How would Fromm characterize your values? Are they objective or subjective? Authoritarian, or humanistic? How so?

Fromm would characterize my values as subjective and humanistic. This is because I forge my own path when it comes to acting either morally wrong or right and not necessarily on my authority like my parents. Fromm explains that humanistic ethics are “based on the principle that only man himself can determine the criterion for virtue and sin, and not an authority transcending him” (2).

Looking back again at your entry for question #2, how did you answer what Korsgaard calls “the normative question”? Which of the four categories she lists does your position fall into? What does she have to say about your position? Why?

According to Korsgaard, my position falls into the category of autonomy. Since I am free to make moral decisions, and I obligate myself to follow the moral compass. I agree with Kant’s definition of “free will as a rational causality that is effective without being determined by an alien cause” (2).  Also, my “autonomy is a source of obligation” (4).  But in the words of James Butler that human beings reflect upon what is good and wrong but do not necessarily act upon their reflection. This is where volunteerism comes into play. I subject myself to the authority of my free will and mind (4). Therefore, Pufendorf and Hobbes describe my position as “the fact that we command ourselves to do what we find to be a good idea to do” (5).

If you knew for certain that you’d never be punished, would there still be anything that you shouldn’t do? Why or why not?

No, because I understand that as much we have free will, our “identities give rise to reason and obligations. Your reasons express your identity, your nature; your obligations spring from what that identity forbids.” Therefore, if nothing was forbidden and the wrong decisions were not punished, then all things, in my understanding, would be permissible.

Have you ever knowingly done something wrong? How did you know it was wrong? Why did you do it anyway?

Yes, when I was in high school, I did not finish the homework assigned to me. When the teacher asked for it, I lied that my mother was sick and was admitted to the hospital. My teacher felt sorry for me and extended my submission deadline. However, I felt guilty, and even though my teacher never discovered the truth, I felt bad for lying. I knew it was wrong to lie because honesty was one of the virtues I was taught in the church school and my parents. The reason I lied was to avoid punishment.

Have you ever made yourself do something that you didn’t want to do? Why?

Yes, I have. I once had to help a senior carry their groceries to the house. I was late for an appointment, but my conscience would not let me leave this lady who seemed to be struggling to lift her bag. She told me that she lived with her daughter, but her daughter had traveled, and since she needed some supplies, she had decided to buy them herself from a nearby store. In the end, I felt good I did it even though I missed my dentist appointment and had to reschedule.

Are happiness and pleasure the same thing? Why or why not?

Happiness and pleasure are different things. According to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics,  unlike pleasure, which is a state that animals too can enjoy, happiness is an activity (3). He explains that happiness is behavioral and habitual and dependent more on an individual’s virtues than just luck (4).

What does it mean to “live up to your potential”? Are you living up to your potential? Why/why not? Do you think that an outside observer would agree with you?

To live up to your potential means that you are doing the best you can to achieve the best possible results, depending on your capabilities. I believe I am not living out to my potential as I know I can accomplish more if I put in a little more effort. For instance, i believe I can get better grades in class, become healthier by eating less junk food, exercise more, and use my time efficiently. Although they may not know my full potential, an observant outsider may be able to gauge and conclude that I am not living up to my potential.

Have you ever tried to break a bad habit? Describe how you went about it, and what turned out to be challenging or surprising in the experience. Is there anything that this process might teach us for building good habits?

I tried to break the habit of always being on the phone. I trained myself by allocating “phone-free” time zones for myself. It was a difficult experience. Surprisingly since I had a great desire to overcome my habit, I accomplished my set target. As Aristotle in book 11: Nicomachean ethics, “the man who exceeds in his desires is called ambitious, the man who falls short unambitious, while the intermediate person has no name” (16).  My ambition yielded results.

To what extent is justice important to your happiness? 12. Is it possible to have too much knowledge? Explain. 13.  Do you need friends to live a good life? Why or why not?

Like all human beings, I am a social creature. I have terrific friends, and I depend on them to have a good life. Justice, according to Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics, “is a complete virtue in its fullest sense because it is the actual exercise of complete virtue” (18). I agree because, without justice, we can never enjoy a functional society.

Do you believe that the standards of what is right and wrong ought to apply to everybody equally? Why or why not?

The standards of what is right or wrong should not be applied equally to everyone as individuals are different. They have different cultural, social, and religious backgrounds. It would, therefore be unfair to judge everyone equally. As Kant explains in the article Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals that some actions are pure and they take precedence over actions learned from prior experiences (1)

Do we have to think about ethics to know right from wrong, or can we learn it directly from experience? Explain.

We can also  learn from prior experiences as Kant states in the article Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals “We may call all philosophy empirical, so far as it is based on the grounds of experience: on the other band, that which delivers its doctrines from a priori principles alone we may call pure philosophy”(1)

What moral duties do you have to your fellow human(s)? Where do these duties come from (and what makes them duties)?

My moral duty is to help other people and society in any way I can. It entails making sure that I do not harm others unnecessarily.   Kant in Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals explains that goodwill is the “virtue of volition,” which is “good in itself” (4). It is out of goodwill that I carry out humane acts for the benefit of others. Therefore, as Kant explains, morality is a consequence of universal duties guided by our social relations as human beings. The ethical duties are mostly to ourselves and others as well (7). Therefore It is a duty for me to be good as even when I am not enjoying it, I still do it.

Is it possible to do the right thing for the wrong reasons? Explain.

It is not possible to do the right thing for the wrong reasons. According to Kant, the consequences of our actions should not determine whether it was a right or wrong action in the first place. The call for duty enables actions to yield moral worth. Therefore whether an action is right or wrong depends on our call of duty (7). Giving out to the charity to fulfill my selfish needs can only be considered right; it was a call of duty, whether or not I enjoy it.

Are there actions you approve of others doing but which you do not feel would be okay for you? Are there actions which you feel justified in taking but which you would not approve of some other people doing? Why or why not? 19.  Is treating others the way you want to be treated a reliable guide for action? Why or why not?

There are no actions that I would approve of others doing that I feel I would not be okay with. Also, there are no actions that I disprove of others doing that I would justify doing myself. My golden rule is to do unto others as I would want to be done unto me. This is as it allows me to judge those who do certain things I disapprove of on the standard of whether or not I would do it or like it done unto me.

What is freedom? What does it mean to be free to make your own choices? Is there anything you must do to make a truly free decision?

I believe being free is the ability to decide independently of negative influence from external factors or other people’s opinions regarding the matter. It is also being able to abide by the decisions you make and the consequences thereafter. To make a free decision, I rid myself of the unnecessary pressures directed towards me.

Do your moral values make you more, or less free? Why?

My morals make me less free. There are decisions that I would love to make but since they go against my moral principles I reconsider making them.

. How do you determine which of your “identities” are more important? Which of your identities are most fundamental for “who you are”?

In Korsgaard article the sources of Normativity: the Authority of Reflection, she explains that the question of determination of identity “is not a theoretical one, a view about what as a matter of inescapable scientific fact you are. It is better understood as a description under which you value yourself, a description under which you you’re your life to be worth living, and your actions to be worth undertaking” (4). These statements summarize how I define my identity.

The identity that is most fundamental identity to who I am is helping others. I will make sacrifices to help others; I don’t just offer my help to others when it is convenient for me. I do it for the benefit of the recipient and a society as a whole which is in line with Korsgaard’s statement that; “it is urged by communitarians that people need to conceive themselves as members of smaller communities essentially tied to particular other and traditions” (8)

Is there any idea, ideal, person, or thing you would be prepared to die for? Why, or why not?

I would die for my parents and siblings without hesitation. They have always been there for me in good and bad times and they love me unconditionally as I love them.

. Do you always know what you really want to do, or are you sometimes mistaken? How do you try and decide what you really want?

I do not always know what I really want to do and sometimes I make mistakes. However, I rise up from the mistakes and learn from them so I do not repeat them.  Reason and morality guide my decisions. When I get stuck I seek guidance from my parents and experts on the matter, if they are available.

Looking back across your entries for this semester, how have your views, ideas, or beliefs changed (if at all)? Take a few paragraphs to reflect on your own ideas about ethics. What, if anything, have you learned about your own values?

Ethics is basically about right and wrong. Although the line sometimes may become blurred depending on the situation and the individual, it’s mostly clear for me. Looking back at my entries for this semester can confidently state that my views, ideas, or beliefs have not changed. However, I have learnt a lot and understood my own views and those of other people. My moral standings are stronger now than they were at the beginning of the semester. I have learnt to respect other peoples’ different opinions. Erich Fromm has enlightened mw on the different views that exist for an individual. Aristotle has taught me that we are all striving for happiness and that is how it has been since the beginning of time. I have also learned from Korsgaard and Kant that not only are there subjective views but they are also intrinsic views that are pure and good.

Looking back across my entries for this semester, I feel as if my views, ideas, and beliefs
haven’t changed mightily, but I now have a much better understanding about my own views and
the views of other people. I have learned from Erich Fromm that there are a whole range of
views one could have, from Aristotle that imprecise world views which simply strive at
happiness have existed for a long time, and from Kant and Korsgaard that some also believed
and continued to believe that there are an intrinsic set of things that are pure and good (and not
subjective). This has led me to have a greater respect for other people’s views regardless if they
are different. I also feel that my sense of morality has strengthened over the course of this
semester
Looking back across my entries for this semester, I feel as if my views, ideas, and beliefs
haven’t changed mightily, but I now have a much better understanding about my own views and
the views of other people. I have learned from Erich Fromm that there are a whole range of
views one could have, from Aristotle that imprecise world views which simply strive at
happiness have existed for a long time, and from Kant and Korsgaard that some also believed
and continued to believe that there are an intrinsic set of things that are pure and good (and not
subjective). This has led me to have a greater respect for other people’s views regardless if they
are different. I also feel that my sense of morality has strengthened over the course of this
semester
Looking back across my entries for this semester, I feel as if my views, ideas, and beliefs
haven’t changed mightily, but I now have a much better understanding about my own views and
the views of other people. I have learned from Erich Fromm that there are a whole range of
views one could have, from Aristotle that imprecise world views which simply strive at
happiness have existed for a long time, and from Kant and Korsgaard that some also believed
and continued to believe that there are an intrinsic set of things that are pure and good (and not
subjective). This has led me to have a greater respect for other people’s views regardless if they
are different. I also feel that my sense of morality has strengthened over the course of this
semester
Looking back across my entries for this semester, I feel as if my views, ideas, and beliefs
haven’t changed mightily, but I now have a much better understanding about my own views and
the views of other people. I have learned from Erich Fromm that there are a whole range of
views one could have, from Aristotle that imprecise world views which simply strive at
happiness have existed for a long time, and from Kant and Korsgaard that some also believed
and continued to believe that there are an intrinsic set of things that are pure and good (and not
subjective). This has led me to have a greater respect for other people’s views regardless if they
are different. I also feel that my sense of morality has strengthened over the course of this

 

10-Man Manchester United Lose To Paris Saint-Germai help me with my history homework

Frustrating: 10-Man Manchester United Lose To Paris Saint-Germain When It Mattered Most

Manchester United lost to Paris Saint-Germain football club 1-3 on Wednesday night in what was their 2nd meeting this season in the Champions League. Manchester United were trailing to PSG in the 6th minute of the game after Neymar Junior sublimely put the visitors ahead at Old Trafford. Paris Saint-Germain were bossing Manchester united in the opening stages of the encounter with Kylian Mbappe and Neymar exchanging beautiful passes and causing problems for the shaky United defence.

Manchester United eventually gathered their confidence back and got back into the game. We all know how electric the United forwards can get on their day, and rightly so, the front four of united that included Edinson Cavani [ The former PSG man], Anthony Martial, Marcus Rashford, and the immaculate Bruno Fernandes started asking questions on the other end of the PSG box. After moments of pressure to the PSG side, United got an equalizer thanks to a Marcus Rashford deflected shot that wrong-footed the keeper to creep into the bottom right corner of the post.

Marcus Rashford, who is currently the top-scorer in the UEFA Champions League 2020/2021 with 6 goals, cannot seem to stop scoring against the Parisians. That’s three goals for Rashford against PSG. He turns effervescent red when playing against PSG. What a player! The match ended level at the break.

The second half of the game saw a rejuvenated Manchester United control most of the ball and the possession but without penetration. United, however, came very close to taking the lead on several occasions, most notably, the exquisite chip from Cavani that rattled the cross-bar and a Martial follow up that was cleared by the PSG defenders.

The highlight of the match was Fred’s red card after PSG had re-taken the lead after a scrappy goal from Marquinhos to put the visitors ahead [1-2]. Fred, the Manchester United player, was treading on a tight rope after receiving a yellow card in the first half of the match. He received his marching orders after a late challenge on Ander Herrera [The former United man]. That was a harsh 2nd yellow card though!

United fans would argue that Ole Gunnar Solksjaer should have substituted Fred at the break to avoid a potential red card, which was coming. The 10-man Manchester United team huffed and puffed but, in the end, got away with nothing after a late goal from Neymar snatched the 3 points for PSG. The final scoreline [1-3].  Manchester United remain at the top of Group H with a healthy goal advantage as the only thing standing between them and position three. A potential knockdown to the Europa League is looming with united playing RB Leipzig on matchday 6 in Germany. That game will feel like a final for United. Qualification to the Champions League last 16 is critical!