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Violent Again Art in Dante’s Inferno

When Dante uses the term “Violent Again Art” in the Inferno to label a section of the seventh circle, it can actually be interpreted to have two separate meanings as to what the sinners are being punished for. The first meaning of the phrase is taken in the context of the specific meaning of the word “art.” This is the way that Dante most obviously meant it to mean. It is referring to artisanship, that is, the working of natural resources and the product of this labor. Going on this definition, it can be taken that abusing industry by cheating it out of money is the crime of the third round of circle seven. The term “usury” back during Dante’s time did not narrowly mean the charging of exorbitant interest for loaning money, as it does today, but rather the charging of any interest at all. Strange as it may seem in our own time, the idea that money makes money was offensive to Dante, who believed that profits should be the fruit of labor. Hence, the usurers are sinners against industry and punished accordingly.

The second meaning of the term “Violent Against Art” is quite different from this first one because it is referring to art in the context of the general definition of the word. Art, a personal creative expression that requires skill, is a word with a wide range of categories that fall underneath it. It can include painting, sculpture, architecture, music, and literature. Dante believed so strongly in his work as an artist (in this case poetry) that he created a separate section in the Inferno, the inner edge of the seventh circle, dedicated wholly to those individuals who had been violent against it. The fact that this sin is placed so close to the bottom of hell, the ninth circle, shows how much respect Dante held for a…

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…take such liberties, while daring to “fly,” like no other previous author.

Arachne, Daedalus, and Phaeton tried to go beyond their limits, and therefore suffered. Dante must do what they did not. He must be brave and use the gifts given to him, yet remain in control of his powers. In order for Dante to succeed, by demonstrating his artistic power before men and his humility before God, he must stay within his limits as a human, artist, and Christian. If he does this, then he might be able to be forever remembered as a great poet and to fly like Elijah to heaven. The reader must follow Dante’s example of good judgment and self-discipline, being careful not to exceed his own limits. Because, if the reader goes beyond the limits of the poem, corrupting and perverting its meaning and message, then he too will suffer the consequences of ignorance and pride: failure.

Thornfield Manor in Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre

Thornfield Manor in Jane Eyre

Thornfield Manor is but one stop in Jane’s journey to freedom from her restraints and her stay there begins in a comfortable manner. Although it begins warm, Thornfield becomes a haven of boredom, restlessness, and discontent for Jane. To free herself from the boredom, Jane goes out to mail a letter and unknowingly encounters Mr. Rochester. Jane finds that “…the frown, the roughness of the traveler set me at my ease:”(Bronte 105). Through her past experiences, Jane knows how to deal aptly with Mr. Rochester and displays her skills in doing so in a conversation with him even when she knows who he is. “I don’t think, sir, you have the right to command me, merely because you are older than I, or because you have seen more of the world than I have; your claim to superiority depends on the use you have made of your time and experience”(Bronte 125). In the comment Jane makes directly to Mr. Rochester, she is bold. He is her employer but she refuses to be demeaned by him and her experiences at Gateshead and Lowood teach her to be firm but polite, a part of her move toward education and away from containment. Another example of Jane’s rebellion comes from within her. She realizes that she is falling in love with Mr. Rochester and it is unacceptable because she is socially inferior to him. The love she holds is a rebellion in itself because she is impoverished and lower than him. Jane compares herself to the beautiful Blanche Ingram in order to sort her feelings. She continues on with her rebellion when Mrs. Reed calls for her. Mrs. Reed is ill and, although she treats Jane badly at Gateshead, Jane goes to her side- in her refusal to let Mrs. Reed overcome her. Jane slowly learns how to deal with the bad times life has handed her thus far. Mrs. Reed, still just as cold on her death bed as she has been in the past, continues to denounce Jane and has contempt for her. Mrs Reed proclaims, “The fever broke out there [Lowood], and many of the pupils died.

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