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Understanding The Channels Of Communication History Assignment Help Online


Communication Plan for Community-University Health Care history assignment help and resources: history assignment help and resources


Communication Plan

Student’s Name



Instructor’s Name



Communication Plan for Community-University Health Care Center – Mental Health of Somali Immigrants



In the recent past, a lot of time and resources have been committed to developing and accomplishing mental health stability. However, very few of those resources get to routine care, especially in developing countries (Rathod et al., 2017). The Community-University Health Care Center aims to provide an evidence-based solution to this problem by establishing tailor-made strategies that can increase mental health awareness among Somali immigrants. The Center aims at accomplishing its goals by giving the proposed project high emphasis and communicating to the proper channels to ensure that the initiatives are implemented.


Potential Audience 1
Potential Audience 2
Potential Audience 3
Potential Audience 4
Potential Audience 5

Who is this audience?
Health institutions and policymakers
Local and regional mental healthcare authorities
Health sector
Patients and patient unions
Media and the press

Why is this audience essential to us?
This is the audience that is responsible for approving proposed initiatives after proposals are presented to them. Without their consent, the recommendations will not make it to the Somali immigrant mental patients.
Creating awareness among these authorities will help Community-University Health Care Center because these authorities are responsible for implementing the proposed measures to the residence (Patterson et al., 2015). In this case, the Somali immigrant patients.
Community-University Health Care Center is interested in the health sector as it presents a chance for acquiring new innovative techniques that may transform into business ideas and opportunities.
The people with a mental health condition are the major stakeholders of the project. Thus, even though the end goal is implementation, the patients need to be informed of the evidence-based proposals which would act as their treatment. Therefore, the patients would be hopeful that their health will be restored.
The press and media represent the general public. They are responsible for informing every citizen of recent developments in the health sector.

What do we need/want from this audience?
This audience’s desire to provide new resolutions to mental healthcare, which their knowledge may influence in the field, will be needed by Community-University Health Care Center. Moreover, the health organizations are often influential and can affect the policymakers to implement some proposed strategies.
What Community-University Health Care Center needs from the local authorities is for them to facilitate the service provision. They play a crucial role in communicating and ensuring that higher authorities disseminate the services to their resident population.
Community-University Health Care Center needs the growth that results from the health sector, which is among the awareness funding project’s specific objectives.
What is needed from this target audience is for patient unions to act as a communication path to the mentally ill patients, comprehend their outcry, and can tell them about the service implementation by Community-University Health Care Center.
Community-University Health Care Center needs the press and media group to sensitize the public about its recommendation and communicate to the citizens how the financing agents contribute to change in society.

How can we reach this audience?
The consortium will contact the policy-making bodies the institution has been in contact with and exploit all possible opportunities to get in touch with more policymakers.
The first groups to be contacted via telephone will be the departments majoring in mental healthcare to negotiate with project partners on the proposed measures.
The health sector developments can be seen all over on social media pages, print, and television. To be in complete contact with the health sector, communications can be made to the head offices of the country’s health ministry

The Center can reach all patients and local patient unions through the local project partners.
The media and press contacts are all over the websites and social media. Once the Community-University Health Care Center has contacted them, they could negotiate with the media houses and print media on advertisements and interviews.


The communication plan majorly focuses on the patients and their associations, health organizations and policymakers, and the general public. This is because they are the key stakeholders in this case. The health organizations and policymakers are responsible for implementing the proposed measures by the Center. Patients who are Somali immigrants are the primary beneficiaries of the recommendation. The general public and patient organizations are the principal facilitators in increasing awareness for mental health.


Part 5: Strategies and Vehicles


Complete the chart below to identify potential communication ideas for each vehicle. Be sure to include at least one possible vehicle for each of your audiences.


Potential Idea

The Center can utilize face-face meetings whenever necessary
 between patients and patient associations.
They are effective as one can obtain feedback on the spot.
It may be costly if the facilitators demand to be paid.

Organizing press conferences and air them on the radio.
The general public
Radio communication reaches a wide range of listeners.
It May does not reach all the citizens as some of them cannot afford radios.

Book interviews with various television channels, advertise the aims of the Community-University Health Care Center and call for well-wishers.
Health organizations and policymakers
Combines both audio and visuals for better understanding by the audience
It may be disadvantageous to the physically impaired target audience.

Use of journals to report Community-University Health Care Center’s recommendation.
General public
It is affordable
It is not convenient for the illiterate members of the public.

Digital (Web)
Formulate a website where all of Community-University Health Care Center updates are accessible by the public. For instance,
All stakeholders
Therefore, it is an official platform; stakeholders can assess how Community-University Health Care Center operates and be updated on the institution’s progress.
Community-University Health Care Center updates may incur maintenance costs for updating and distributing data (Wright & Meadows, 2012).




Objective: Increase mental health awareness among Somali immigrants

Message 1 for Audience: Health organizations and policymakers

Message 1: Greetings Brooklyn Health Organization and staff,

Community-University Health Care Center aims at increasing awareness for mental illnesses facing Somali immigrants. Therefore, we request you to visit the Center’s website at and check on the recommendation. Thank you


Message 2 for Audience: Local and regional mental healthcare authorities

Message 2:  Greetings Municipal Health Department,

Community-University Health Care Center initiative of increasing awareness for mentally challenged immigrants can be implemented more efficiently and quickly when the local setting is considered. We, therefore, call upon you to offer your support and contribution. Thank you!


Message 3 for Audience: Ministry of Health

Message 3:

Good morning Dr. Wayne,

Community-University Health Care Center will deliver all the methods to facilitate the implementation of increased mental health awareness for Somali immigrants. Community-University Health Care Center updates will request the ministry’s undying support can be accessed. Thank you for your continued support of our organization.



Patterson, K., Grenny, J., Maxfield, D., McMillan, R., & Switzler, A. (2013). Crucial accountability. Leadership Excellence, 30(8), 5-6.

Rathod, S., Pinninti, N., Irfan, M., Gorczynski, P., Rathod, P., Gega, L., & Naeem, F. (2017). Mental health service provision in low-and middle-income countries. Health services insights, 10, 1178632917694350.

Wright, D., & Meadows, D. H. (2012). Thinking in systems: a primer. Taylor and Francis.

Compare Smooth, Cardiac, And Skeletal Muscle. history assignment help



Skeletal System

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Compare And Contrast Smooth, Cardiac, And Skeletal Muscle.

A muscle is a tissue that helps in body movements to take place. These three types of muscle cells cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle is found in the heart walls, helping to contract the heart and pump blood, while skeletal muscles move bones and other structures. Smooth muscle tissue changes shape to facilitate bodily functions and form organs like the stomach and bladder.

Similarities of smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles are that both cardiac and skeletal muscle structures are striated. Formed by actin and myosin myofilaments. Both cardiac muscle and smooth muscles are involuntary cannot be consciously controlled.

Smooth muscles are muscles found within the walls of organs. Organs such as the stomach, intestines, uterus, urethra, bladder,  unlike the cardiac muscle, are also involuntary and only found in the heart.

Skeletal muscles control movements that are voluntary, consciously controlled, and made of cylindrical fibers found in the locomotive system. While cardiac muscles are quadrangular in shape and have a single central nucleus.

Striated muscles found in cardiac and skeletal muscles contract and relax short, whereas smooth muscle sustains longer or even near-permanent contractions.

Skeletal Systems

The three types of skeleton system are the hydrostatic skeleton that water exerts pressure on muscular walls,  exoskeleton fossilate outer shell of an organism,  and the endoskeleton supports body structure.

All three types of skeleton systems support locomotion through land and water. For example, amphibians with endoskeleton like frogs live both in water and land. They have calcified bones to keep their body on the ground and a streamlined shape for moving smoothly in water. And in the air, their pectoral girdle is adapted to give support to the forelimbs when landing after a jump to absorb the body’s weight.

An endoskeleton development has allowed animals to become successfully adapted to locomotion in the environment in which they live. Organisms with a vertebral column and an endoskeleton have adapted to move in different movements, e.g., jumping, running, swimming, and flying.

Exoskeleton depending on their locomotion means, needed to adapt their shapes and skeleton to overcome gravity. Animals such as snakes had to overcome drug and friction.

Possible ways that people adapted to high elevation.

There are three ways they include:

Tibetan,  Andeans, and the Ethiopian.

Andeans. Natives have more hemoglobin than people who live at sea level.

And the Tibetan has similar hemoglobin to the Andeans, but a more significant percentage of the protein binds to oxygen molecules in the blood. Ethiopian-residents of a high –altitude village in Ethiopia have a unique way of adapting to the lower levels of oxygen at high elevations

How would hyperventilation cause blood ph.?

Due to heavy breathing, a person exhales more carbon dioxide than usual. Hence, the carbon dioxide is reduced, and the bicarbonate equilibrium shifts to the left, thus increasing blood ph and lowering the blood ph. Making the blood more acidic.

How the following change in response to training

Skeletal muscle –   physical activity increases the concentration of mitochondria and glycogen. Significant changes in metabolism whereby fat is greatly contributed to the total metabolism during submaximal exercise. (Matoba & Gollnick, 1984)

Circulatory system- increased oxygen uptake occurs during exercise, and cardiac output increases greatly owing to high heart rates, also increase in blood pressure during exercise, and vascular resistance to blood flow is reduced. (Dl, 1985)

Respiratory system- heart rate increases, depth and rate of breathing increases making more oxygen to absorbed in the blood and more carbon dioxide removed from it. (BBC Bitesize, 2019)

Three Effects For Each Of The Three Systems

Skeletal muscles effects;

Aerobic exercise- the major effect is to train our skeletal muscle to improve the ability to use oxygen and improve efficiency on how we use energy sources such as fats

Resistance exercise-effects include an increase in muscular strength and endurance, which prevents injuries that are associated with a musculoskeletal disorder.

Eccentric exercise-it a motion of an active muscle while lengthening under load. This form of contraction is damaging to the muscle.



BBC Bitesize. (2019). Respiratory system – Revision 4 – GCSE Biology (Single Science) – BBC Bitesize. BBC Bitesize.

Dl, E. (1985, December 1). Cardiovascular Adaptations to Exercise and Training. The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice.

Matoba, H., & Gollnick, P. D. (1984). The response of skeletal muscle to training. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 1(3), 240–251.


IMPORTANCE OF NAMES BY HENRY LOUIS history essay help: history essay help







In the short story, “What’s in a Name?” Henry Louis Gates emphasizes the importance of names. It is a theme he stamps into the reader’s brain by imprinting it in his story’s title. He is troubled when he goes to a store to get some ice cream, accompanied by his father. In the store, a white man named Mr. Wilson addresses his father as George. When his father doesn’t seem to care about the name, Gates goes ahead to ask his father, “Doesn’t he know your name, Daddy? Why don’t you tell him your name? Your name isn’t George.” (Gates 6) It is at this point that Gates recognizes the weight that names carry.

Similarly, the significance of names is brought out by Maya Angelou in her short story “Finishing School.” Marguerita Johnson (Angelou), working for Mrs. Cullinan, one day realizes that names mean a lot. When serving Mrs. Culliman and her friends, one of the women asks what her name is, and Mrs. Cullinan answers for her, saying, ‘She doesn’t talk much. Her name’s Margaret.’ (Angelou 109) Angelou is displeased by the actions of Mrs. Cullinan, a white woman in the story. She even refers to her as Mary instead of Margaret stating that the latter is too long for her.

Whether intentionally or not, Mr. Wilson and Mrs. Cullinan disrespect Gates’ father and Margaret, respectively. By mispronouncing, misspelling, or, even worse, changing somebody’s name, one feels like their identity has been robbed. Mr. Wilson, for example, in the story “What’s in a Name?” shows the ultimate form of disrespect by the mere thought of all black people identifying as George. It might have been ignorance, but he should have asked for the right name instead of assuming he had doubts.

Racism is another common theme that runs through both stories. The characters in the short stories encounter deep racial discrimination. The characters, Gates and Angelou of “What’s in a Name?” and “Finishing School” both realize the racism immediately it happens to them. The go-ahead to try and deal with the issues. In “What’s in a Name?” young Gates asks his father if Mr. Wilson knew his name and why he insisted that his father tells Mr. Wilson what his real name was. (Gates 6). This way, he tries to deal with the problem right there and then. His father responds to him, saying that Mr. Wilson knew his name and that he just chose to call him George because he had always referred to all black people by that name. (Gates 6). Margaret tries to leave the work by getting fired. She tries to come to work late.

Another similarity is in the way the adults in both stories react to the racism they face. In “What’s in a Name?” when Mr. Wilson wrongly addresses gates’ father, he sees this as a regular thing since “He calls all colored people George.”  Similarly, in “Finishing School,” an older woman called Miss Glory, whose original name was Hallelujah, doesn’t take offense when Mrs. Cullinan changes her name. She only gets tempered when Mrs. Cullinan addresses Margaret as Mary. And going back to her “normal” self and told Margaret not to mind because she had worked for Mrs. Cullinan for twenty years and never had she been broken because of the words Mrs. Cullinan said to her (Angelou 110)


Works Cited

Angelou, Maya. Finishing School.

Gates, Henry. What’s In A Name?

Analysis of the Entrance of the Safavid Mosques in Tabriz history assignment help in canada

The dynasty of Safavid started from safaviyed, which originated in Azerbaijan in 1301.Sheikh –ad-Din Ardabili named it. The Safavids have highly spread twelver’s branch of Shia Islam.

Back in 14, Safavids started their political interests under the rule of Sheikh Djunayd. War with Turkmen tribes began resulting in the extinction of the Kara Koyunlu dynasty, reining Tabriz allover’s region from those of AK Koyunlu made in Anatolia. Shah Ismail, 12 years old, became the leader of the movement in 1499, immediately after Haydari, the successor of Djunayard, was assassinated. Propaganda was put in place, resulting in army recruitment. A Turkmen troop was formed in 1500 by 7000soldiers and 30000 strong men. Shah Ismail got into Tabriz in the northwest of Iran in 1501 and advocated the Twelvers rite to become the state’s religion, and the first coins struck in his name.

Expansion of the territory is pressured the domain is  towards Baghdad into the Caucasus and the empire of Ottoman. However, Selim I’s reign in the Ottoman empire discouraged Shia’s religion, and the end was marked by the Chaldiran battle(22 August,1514). Safavid’s army was defeated since they did not know how to use firearms[6]. Due to internal quarrels, Selim I got out of Tabriz and ruled a vast part of the territory of Safavid. After Shah Ismail got out of political living, connections with the Qizilbash Turkmen decelerated. Portuguese settled at the Strait of Hormuz and started the business with Europe.

Shah Tahmasp, the son of Shah Ismail, resigned after the demise of his father. Iran was attacked by the Suleiman, who had 300 artillery pieces and a force of 200,000 men in 1534. Ottomans left aside Safavid and reigned Baghdad. Tahmasp used harassment and retreat against the Ottoman army, leaving scorched land. As the Ottoman troops passed through the Zagros Mountains, they lost 30,000 due to the scorched earth’s policy. Later, Suleiman abandoned his campaign. [7]


A bridge near Qazvin in the Safavid period

The Harem system accelerated manipulation and intrigue,, which led to a decline after Shah

Abbas’s deathShah Abbas’s death by similar Caucasians in Persian society. From 1629 to 1642, Shah Safi reigned with territorial retreats and violence. The reign of Shah Abbas II signified the start of intolerance in religion towards Dhimmis and the Jews. This prolonged under Shah Husayn and Shah Suleiman. Combination of civil strife, feuds, and foreign interference of Russians, Portuguese and Dutch, Afghans rebellion would lead to a dynasty in 1709 to fall in 1722.


The Shah Ismail reign

Shaykh Safi of Ardabil’s tomb and complex associated part with him



In 1503, construction began under Dormish Khan Shamlu, Ismail’s brother-in-law. He was the Isfahan governor and lived mostly at the Tabriz court than in the city, living Mirza Shah Hussein Isfahani, who constructed the Harun-e Vilayat tomb from 1512 1513. [11]. It was made up of a squire chamber under a dome, a design of tradition. It settles on a large drum, the muqarnas completing the octagonal passageway. In the Timurid tradition, the décor of hazerbaf and ceramic mosaic, concentrated on the façade while the two minarets illuminated the great porch. Façade is connected to the basic décor as in the scenario for the Yazd mosque. Furthermore, the masjid-e Ali mosque was finished in 1522.

The reign of Shah Tahmasp

At the start of his reign from 1524 to 1555, he concentrated more on restoration and embellishments, with lines of the dynasty following him—mosques of Shiraz, Kerman,, and Isfahan Ardabil and Mashhad sanctuaries advantaged from his concern. Additional to Shahshah, Ismail is a palace at Tabriz, which became his capital until 1555. According to Michelle Membre, it is made up of a garden surrounded by stone walls and earth made of two gates of Meydan at the east and a new mosque.

Tahmasp allowed the organization of Sadatabad gardens after his reign. It is separated into four by two perpendicular alleys and surrounded by a canal a tapis-Jardins arrangement. It acted as an area of the audience, for personal uses, and banquets. It was made with panels painted with Persian scenes. Floral bands covered the boards as per the models of Shah Tahmasp.

Shah Abbas reign

Shah Abbas’s reign signified the Safavid architecture explosion, following a new Isfahan constructed.

Isfahan territory.

Meydan sketch by G. Hofstede van Essen, 1703, Leiden University Library.


In the Safavid’s history, the empire capital transformed under Shah Abbas: to Isfahan. A new capital TabrizQazvinTehran was set up alongside the previous city, controlled around a Meydan.

Ali Qapu

Ali Qapu and the meydān arcades, Isfahan, starting of 17th century

Major article: Ālī Qāpū


According to Galieri, Ali Qapu was constructed in two processes, opening on a specific side onto the Meydan and the other to Chahar Bagh.

The  grand bazaar

Qaysarieh entrance

Major article: Bazaar of Isfahan

The grand bazaar is linked to the Meydan on one side and the old market on the other side. Tall vault encloses a multi-story structure on the Meydan, with the upper part kept for orchestra of Shahshah, and the lower part had shops and homes, arranged by occupation. Shah was interested in architecture for religion as per the decorations of the Ceramic mosaic.[14]

Sheikh Lutfallah mosque

The Mosque of Sheikh Lotfollah, Isfahan, inside

Major article:  Mosque of Sheikh Lotf Allah

It was the first mosque to be constructed in the new Isfahan. It took sixteen years to be finished. Muhammed Riza ibn Husayn was the architect, and Reza Abbasi, the calligrapher.

Shah Mosque

Shah Mosque entrance

Major article: Shah Mosque

It was constructed between 1612 and 1630 as directed by architects Muhibb al-Din Ali Kula and Ustad Ali Akbar Isfahani. It has colossal dimensions:130 meters by 140, equal to 18,000 square meters surface area.

Allaverdikhan bridge


Traced back to 1608, the bridge was built under Allahverdi Khan, Georgian minister of Shah Abbas. [15]  .It is found in the Chahar Bagn continuity. .[16].Acts as passage mean, and as a dam to control river flow.


Shah Abbas II reign

Chehel Sotoun

Chehel Sotoun, Isfahan

It was constructed under Shah Abbas II‘s reign, then decorated again in 1870 years. It is a rectangle-like building with reflecting columns in the ponds.

Bridge of Khaju

It is the second-largest Isfahan bridge, constructed 50 years after the Pol-e Allahverdikhan.

Completion of the period

Hasht Behesht ceiling, Isfahan

Hasht Behesht is made up of eight small entities pavilion arranged around a big room under a cupola made of four iwans. The second room is crowned with small vaults and decorated with mirrors.



Under Shah Tahmasp and shah Ismail

Two pomegranates decorate on a plate, v.1500,  Louvre.

Since there are few mentioned or dated pieces, the dating and study of ceramics under Shah Tahmasp and Shah Ismail becomes hard. The Chinese porcelain is the influential personages chosen. Many different parts were manufactured: plates, spittoons, etc.

The first five are more confident than the last four, cited in the sources, but no one is certain. Canteens had tiny necks and bellies that are rounded on one side and flat on the other.

Numerous types of pieces were produced: goblets, plates, long-necked bottles, spittoons, etc. Canteens can be noted with tiny necks and bellies that are flat on one side and very rounded on the other: an example is found at Victoria and Albert Museum, another at Winter Palace. Model located at the palace of winter.

Between the rule of Shah Abbas and the empire ended.

On a plate, 17th century, Dragon decorations got from 15th-century Chinese white and blue ceramic, Louvre.

 The Metallic art

Pitcher (container)Pitcher. Bronze, 16th century, Iran. Musée du Louvre

As a result of a small few pieces dated, the art of metal declined during the Safavid dynasty, hence hard to study.

Hard stonework

Hardstone carvings exist since the 16th century; pitchers are having round bellies with wide and short necks also live. Hardstone works to create jewels to inlay metallic objects such as turquoise traced to the Ismail reign and changed at Topkapi museum in Istanbul.

Transition period: 1550 to 1600

Many in the organization of the empire were made. Capital transfer in 1548, movement of the royal workshop, and Qazvin got into the production. Shiraz in the south and Khorasan in eastern Iran still manufactured manuscripts.

The khatib Khanh was deformed, followed by repentance edicts published for economic and religious reasons by Shahanshah. Artists fled, only Aqa Mirak persisted the departures. Others, i.e., Siavash Beg,, replaced the following generation. Mir Ali Dayalami came on board as new calligraphy.


1600 to 1660: Illuminated manuscripts decline and development and a specific genre development: the page album

A new manuscript form: the album page was invented. Calligraphers arranged calligraphy and drawings. Between 1597 and 1635; Reza Abbasi ordered the Kitab Khanh

1660 to 1722: Illustrated manuscripts end

Coming up of Muhammad Zaman and Ali Qoli Djebbeh Dar, the duty of the illustrated book in the book’s art ended. Massive works on calligraphy and illumination were practiced.

 In Conclusion

The Safavids promoted national Persian art. Recently Iran, a new skill is being used in urban areas.

Mughal art and design

From 1526 to 1857, during the empire of Mughal, Mughai art and design, an Indo-Islamic-Persian style, was established and practiced in India’s subcontinents. It joined architecture, and Islamic art elements brought to India during the Delhi Sultanate and had manufactured good monuments with Persian arts and architecture features. Mughal monuments are located in N India, with some remains in Pakistan. (Gommans, J. (2020).



Humayun invited two Persian paintersHumayun invited two Persian painters to Kabul, which resulted in Mughai painting school.

Akbar achievements.

The most significant monument of Mughal was the mausoleum to Humayun, created when Akbar reigned. The tomb, constructed in the 1560s, was modeled by Mirza Ghiyas architect. Being found in the Delhi gardens, it has a good ground plan with octagonal chambers centrally located, connected by an archway surmounted by kiosks, domes, and pinnacles. Parallel to Akbar constructing the palace in Agra, his capital, red sandstone was laid inside with white marbles, and all surfaces were carved on the outside, and the inside was painted.

Akbar constructed Fatehpur Sikri city in 1571 with more use made of the bulbous domes and low arches that showed the Mughal style. Sikri’s site choice signified the desire of Akbar to a Muslim saint at Sikri for his son’s birth. The new city was made the empire capital, but later, in 1585, it was dropped.

Persian artists designed local painters’ academies under Akbar. By completing the 16th century, the costumes, drawings, and ornamentations of illuminated manuscripts indicate the influence of Indian manners and tastes in detailed landscape backgrounds and the bright coloring. Modeling was gotten from the western culture. The most known painters were the Lal, Basawan, and Daswanth.



Jahangir advocated for scientific research on flowers, animals, and birds and portraiture arranged in albums. The most know painters were Manohar and Mansur. Jahangir made it possible to change from sandstone to marble.


Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan positively affected the Mughal architecture and started his best wife’s tomb called the Taj Mahal. A sizeable symmetrical plan, white marble building, is laid with colorful semiprecious materials and constructed in a beautiful symmetrical garden. After Shah Jahan made Delhi his capital, he built a red fort, having the imperial Mughan palace. High-quality ink drawings were made.

Aurangzeb decline

Arts began to fall during Aurangzeb. The academy of Mughai was deformed. As a result, artists joined Rajput courts and were influenced by Hindu paintings.



The empire of Ottoman

Their rulers practiced the Islamic faith. It started and spread all over the Middle East and parts of Asia in the 7th century. It highly benefited the ottoman art since it discourages human and animal images in arts. During the rule of a sultan called Suleyman, the magnificent, spectacular art and architecture began. The administrative seat of the Ottoman empire was the Topkapi Palace, and it involved a connection of imperial artists and craftspeople who migrated from Europe and the Middle East. (Kadercan, B.,2017)

The Art of Ottoman Empire

Imperial painting school called the nakkashane was in the palace that aimed at secular and religious, or non-religious, manuscripts. Three painting styles were invented: traditional, which used floral elements with blossoms and intertwined vines; the saz style used Chinese dragons to fill imagery scenes; the naturalistic, which entailed gardens with particular plant and flower types that came from Chinese and Islamic sources. (Girardelli, P., & Godoli, E. (Eds.).2019).


Calligraphy, the art of writing with an aim at the figure’s beauty, was included in Ottoman art. Calligraphy represented God’s word. Artist decorated walls of mosques using calligraphy. Tughra was used as the Ottoman Sultan’s signature.


Suleyman’s Tughra, ca. 1555 to 1560

A style of pottery was used known as Iznik ware. Before the earthenware forms were painted, they were fired or baked under a lot of heat. Artists made red paints. Apart from the designs were painted using hands, while other intricate stencils were used.

Iznik earthenware dish, 16th century second half

Weavers made good woven carpets and rugs, some knots tied to a backing and then connected to form a plush rug, and others made of a flat weaving called kilim. Carpers were symmetrically geometrical wool patterns. The weaving of rugs was a crucial industry with its output products sold to the East and Europe.

Turkish rug from the period of the Ottoman Empire


The three empires inherited the weaving industry in Iran, Middle East, and Central Asia at well-situated sites along the Road of Silk. Textile industry establishment was allied to the trade of Silk with China, origin to sericulture. Trade of textile was essential to the economic growth of the whole region. Ottomans had taken control over the trade-in wool-made pile rugs to Europe but relied on their political rivals for silk distribution. Iran imported less expensive cotton kinds of stuff, cash crops, and raw cotton from India. Persian exported expensive goods to sub-continents of India.

A new iconography in the carpet design was reviled in the 15th century, inspired by book arts: fantastic animals and floral motifs including the dragon, the vaq-vaq, and phoenix are gotten from the illumination manuscript. The prancing of animals amid foliage based on Chinese porcelains and Silk was changed to ferocious animal combats. Huge rivalries between the royal families were a result of competition for artisans and artists’ services. After the Ottoman conquered the Shahshah in 1514, the booty consisted of 1000 artisans from the Khurasan and 38 Tabrizi artisans and artists. Later, the Mughal emperor invited artists from Heart and Tabriz to his newly constructed workshop.

Lastly, apart from the trade relations, Persians retained closer intellectual ties and diplomatic with India’s sub-continent. Artists from Heart and Tabriz integrated Humayun’s art academy emperor in 1549. Textile manufacture centers were constructed in the emperor’s new capital at Fatehpur Sikri, Agra, aiming at the Persian Islamic repertoire. Indian carpets and textiles are close to Safavid prototypes. Exchange of embassies with the Ottoman Empire was also done. The decline of Isfahan in 1722 and the fall of the dynasty of Safavid in 1736 created a way for anarchy.





Khosroshahi, N. E., & Giyasi, J. (2020). A Comparative Analysis of the Entrance of the Safavid Mosques in Tabriz. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques, 8(3), 1247-1257.

Vakili, S. M. A Comparative Study of Urban Spaces Between Samarkand City in the Timurid Period and Isfahan City in the Safavid Period.

Farzaneh, N., & Braasch, J. (2020). The role of architectural acoustics in advancing the oral tradition during the Safavid era. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148(4), 2797-2797.

Kleiss, W. (1993). Safavid palaces. Ars Orientalis, 23, 269-280.

Levey, M. (1975). The world of Ottoman art. London: Thames and Hudson.

Fetvacı, E., & Gruber, C. (2017). Painting, from Royal to Urban Patronage. A Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture, 874-902.

Hashmi, A. (2018). Philosophy of Interior Design in Mughal Era Mosques of Lahore. Journal of Art, Architecture and Built Environment, 1(2), 72-95.

Denny, W. B. (2017). Carpets, Textiles, and Trade in the Early Modern Islamic World. A Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture, 972-995.

Buncukcu, A. (2018). The Formation of the Ottoman Style in the Art of Turkey of the 16th Century. Texts, (4), 70-76.


Gommans, J. (2020). The Mughal Empire from Jahangir to Shah Jahan: Art, Architecture, Politics, Law and Literature, edited by Ebba Koch and Ali Anooshahr. Journal of Early Modern History, 24(1), 106-109.