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Understanding The Canadian Legal System Ap Art History Homework Help

The Canadian Legal System

Explain the term constitutional government, and show how it is achieved in Canada

The term constitutional government is means a government that is guided by the consitution, where the consitution is used to resolve issues relating to the government. In canada, this has been achieved through written components of consitution that include, the Consitution Act of 1867, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and throgh relevant rulings by judges regarding constitutional law.  These three documents offers a guideline and values that inform Canada’s government system.

Describe the difference between the civil law and common law systems

Civil law is form of private law that judges have to follow in ruling over cases before them. In this case, judges have to follow a civil code to decide a case. On the other hand, common law is judge-made law. This implies that common law is formed from the decision or ruling given by a judge on a certain legal issue.  The ruling later forms a precedent that other judges deciding in similar cases can follow. The main difference between these two set of laws is that judges using civil law are not bound by past rulings as in common law.

Explain what is meant by the term “separation of powers” and describe how it is achieved in the Canadian system

The term of “ separation of powers”  is used to decribe the various authority or powers that different levels of government hold. In canada, separation of power is achieved through the Consitution Act, 1867 that  gives the different levels of governmnt  different jurisdictions they can execise. For example, the federal  government has a parliament that makes law, the provincial government has legislature powers of making law, territorial govenrment have limited self-control that is subject to federal control while municipal government have law making jurisdiction given by the provincial legislature.

Explain how power is divided between the Government of Canada and the provinces.

The consitution of canada underlines that the federal government has the jurisdiction to make criminal laws.  The provinces have been given jurisdiction over property and civil rights and therefore they can make laws on these two issues. There are cases where the federal government and the provincial government share jurisdictions for example  on health and envrionment. This is referred to as paramountcy, where the federal laws are paramount to those of the province to avoid conflicts on legislation.


Explain how the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms acts to limit law-making powers in Canada

The canadian charter of Rights is a critical responsibility given to judges to determine whether a certain law is inline with the requiremnts of the canadian constitution. This chater is meant to use to judicial to ensure that the government acts in accordance to the values associated with the democractic state of Canada.

Show how each of the three branches of government in Canada become involved in law-making

The ligislative branch: this branch of government formulates law referred to as statute law (legislation). A good example being the Criminal code of canada. Legislative branch is at every level of government, starting from the federal government, provincial government, territorial and municipal all make or change statutes.

Judicial branch: the judicial creates law or the new ruling made by judges in certain legal issues that sets a precedent that has to be followed in future by other judges. Thereby becoming part of laws. This  occurs because Canada uses common law.

The executive branch: this  becomes involved in the legislative process since the federal government or provincial government has to approve the final step in creation of statute law.


Explain the doctrine of “the supremacy of parliament,”  and give examples of its application

Simply put the doctrine of  “the supremacy of parliament” means that parliament has the right to pass or revoke any law, and more so, no other person is recognized under the law of Canada to override or supersede the legislation passed by parliament. For example the  parliament has passed several laws in Canada such as Tobacco Access Act.


Distinguish between common law and equity and explain how they interact in the Canadian judicial system.

Common law as already stated is judge-made law, meaning that are ruling made by judges on certain legal issues that are followed later  by other judges on a similar issue. While equity is used to assist a deserving person get a fair ruling. The two laws intereact by applying equity in cases that common law seems to fail to offer fairness.


The Law of Torts

–  Describe the objective of the law of torts.

The objective of tort law is to offer  a way where compensation, normally in terms of damages may be paid for to those who suffers damages due to violation of contract. For example, if a person is injured in a motor vehicle accident, he may seek compensation through tort law.

–  Explain how each individual tort is broken into constituent elements for purposes of analysis.

Tort law is divided into various elements underlined below:

Tresass to land: this entails wrongful interference with a person’s land property. For exampple, if a person parks on private land, he will be liable for trespass to land.

Deceit or fraud: this entails a false information passed that cause harm to a person. For instance a vendor may buy phone that does not have features attiributed to it by the seller. The seller would be liable to tort of fraud.

Negligence: this tort compensates a person who suffers damages or injuries becase of unreasonable action of another person.

Describe the objective test of the reasonable person, and explain why and how it is applied in the law of torts.

The objective of “the reasonable person” is to make a decision if the defendant’s actions are below or above the standard of a reasonable person. This is applied in Tort law to determine if the  defendant acted in a manner that a reasonable person would have acted or not, if he acted beyond set standard of a reasonable person, then he will not be accused of negligent.

Distinguish between intentional torts and unintentional torts.

Intentional torts are harmful activities done by people purposely, while unitentional torts when a person unknowingly or through negligent does something that harms another person.

Explain how defences can be used by the defendant in a legal action to reduce or eliminate liability for commission of a tort.

the defendant can apply the Contributory negligence defence claiming that the plaintiff was partly responsible for the loss that occurred and commision should be aportion proportionally. 

State the elements of various torts and demonstrate their application in the analysis of cases.

The four elements of torts are presence of responsbility, breach of duty, occurance of injury and breach of duty resultuung in injury. For example, if a drunk driver careless driving causes an accident, he will have breached his duty and caused injury therefore liable bsed on tort law.

Identify the three approaches a defendant can take to totally avoid liability for negligence when s/he has been asked for a professional opinion.

 The professional apply the approch of not causing personal harm to the client and argue that his actions only cause monetary loss, which is not serious under tort law.  The profession may argue also that the report was used by a third party that’s way negligence was cuaed.  Lastly, profession may argue that he is not liable for  the negligence.


Describe the defenses that may be available to the defendant when being sued even if all of the elements of the tort of negligence are proven to be present.

Contributory negligence: where a defendant claims that the plaintiff was partly responsible for the loss tht occurred and should therefore be liable to that extent. The second defense is the allegation that the plaintiff freely assumed the risk.

Explain when and how employers can be held to be vicariously liable for torts committed by their employees.

 The employers may be held vicariously liable when an employee under him does a wrongful activity when performing his duties as required by the employer.  For example, when an employer allows gender discrimination he will be liable for vicarious liability.


The Law of Contracts

Define a contract and explain the requirements for contract formation.

A contract is a intentional agrrement reached between two or more parties who share mutual intetrest. The contract need not be written on paper. For a contract to be formed, it has to be complete, meaning has to be certain, deliberate (both parties has to be willing to part of the contract), voluntary (the contract has to be freely reached and not involve any coercion or underhand moves).

Identify and describe the five categories of situations faced by the court in cases dealing with contracts, and show the consequences that flow in each category.

Business relationships: businespeople at time breach contracts they have formed. Where the re

Describe the different types of mistake that can occur at the time of contract formation and the effect they have on the enforceability of the contract.

 There are two types of mistakes that can occur, these are legal mistake and common mistake. In legal mistake occurs when one party makes an error for instance when typing. For example quoting a price of car at $1,000 instead of $10,000. A common mistake occurs when two parties make similar errors.


Define duress and explain how the law treats contracts formed as a result of duress.

Duress happens when a person entering into a contract is put under undue pressure that forces him to consent to the contract unwillingly. There are three ways duress can occur, duress to the person, economic duress and duress to goods. The law holds that a contract formed under duress is invalid.


State the Parol Evidence Rule, identify the exceptions to it, and distinguish the situations that fall outside the rule.

As noted before, contracts can be made in three form, entirely oral, entirely written, or using both oroal and written. In cases where the contract is through a written agreement, it may result in parol evidence, whereby a court is requested to determine in accordance to the parties intentions, what a contract means. This will include “parol” or oral words that will refer to any form of evidence that is external to the written contract. The whole contract clauses are applied to make sure that parol evidence rule is used in the contract under discussion. The Parol Evidence rule stresses the purity of the written contract and implies that the parties ought, prior to agreeing to written agreement, make sure that provision of all terms are imperative to them. Where there is failure to this implies that the rule will be applied on the party that fails to ascertain its intepretation of the agreemnt without using evidence “not contained” in the contract.

However, are cases where the rule is not applicable, such cases include: 

Where the contract made with the intention of being both in written and and oral. It only applies where the agreement is entirely written.

Where the promise to enforce the contract is contained in a different agreement that is oral. This rule will not be applicable.


Identify and describe the various ways in which contractual situations can be discharged.

Ways in which a contract can be discharged is through a serious breach of contract that amounts to a breach of condition of the contract. Secondly, where one party requests that the contract be discharged.


Explain the principles underlying the availability of the different remedies for breach of contract.

 These principles holds that there are various breaches that can be committed and therefore different remedies should be availed to compensate the innocent party proportionally.


Identify and describe the different types of breach of contract and how the type of breach affects the remedies available to the innocent party.

 Condition breach: this is where one of the conditions of the contract is breached, this is a serious breach and the innocent party has to right to sue for damages and deem the contract as ended.

Breach of warranty: This is less serious breach, and the innocent party can seek damages alone, the contract still stands.

Breach of Innominate terms: the innominate terms are neith condition nor warranties and therfore when breached, the court decides on how much the innocent party will be compensated. 

Define and explain the availability of the remedy of quantum meruit.

quantum meruit, means a remedy sought to payment of the services or value offered. Usually it is meant to compensate contractual damages suffered. quantum meruit. is avaialbe when a contract is renounced by the principal.

Describe how the courts interpret and apply provisions in standard form contracts.

 The courts  view standard form contracts as normal contracts and therefore binding. However, where exlusion provisions have been used in the contract, the court cannot depend on such provisions to make a determination.


The Role of Equity in Contracts

–  Explain the role of equity in protecting weaker parties in contractual relationships with parties who are in a position to exploit them.

–  Explain the steps that a party who is in a position to take advantage must take to ensure that contractual arrangements with a weaker party will not be set aside by equity.

–  Identify the grounds upon which equity will set a contract aside because of unconscionability.

–  Identify the requirements that must be met for equity to rescind a contract as a result of misrepresentations made before the contract was formed.

–  Explain how equity treats contracts entered by parties who have not reached the age of majority or lack the mental ability to understand the nature of their contractual commitments.

–  Identify the requirements that must be met in order for equity to enforce an agreement to release a party from his obligation to perform all of his contractual commitments.

–  Describe the equitable remedies for breach of contract and explain when they are available.


Assignment of Rights

–  Explain what an assignment of rights is and identify the requirements for an effective statutory assignment and the requirements for an effective equitable assignment of rights


Fiduciary Relationships and Agency

Explain what is meant by a fiduciary relationship.

Fiduciary relations simply means  relationship of confidence, for exampple where one party on behalf of another party (such as lawyer-client relationship).

Describe the three generic types of agency.

The three generic types of agency are:

Buyer agency: in this type of agency relationship the buyer appoints an agent who acts on his behave.

Seller’s Agency: in this form of agency relationship, the seller appoints an agent who acts on his behave.

Dual Agency: an agent acts on behalf of both the seller and the buyer.

Identify the ways an agency relationship is formed.

Agency relationship are formed in two main ways, the first one is the relationship between the agent and the principal (where the principal is the party the agent represents). The second relationship is between the principal and the party whom the agent does business with (these parties are refered to as outsiders).

Similary, agency can be formed by a contract that entails the principal giving the agent authority to act on his behalf, the agent has to agree to this contract and he receives a certain fee for his services.

Distinguish between actual and apparent authority in agency situations.

Actual authority is expressed and implied authority given to the agent by the principlal. The expressed authority is given through written or oral statement. However, implied authority is presented to the agent through implication. This by inferrence from the agent’s position or through reasonable necessity to carryout his authority.

Apparent authority means the authority a third party reasonably believes the agent possess, owing to the actions of the principal.

Explain how agency by estoppel arises, and what a principal must do to avoid being bound when an agent acts outside the scope of her actual authority.

 Agency by estoppel occurs in a situation where an agent surpasses his actual authority, yet acts within the bondaries of his apparent authority, thus binding the principla to a contract against his desires. Agency by estoppel may as well occur in different situations, for example an agent whose contract has expired with the principal may still act on behalf of the principal, and continue to bind the principal.

To avoid such situations, the principal needs to inform the outsiders when an agents stops to act on his behalf. In case, the actual authority of the agent has been reduced by the principal, the principal should communicate the same to the outside world. 


Legal Structures of Business

Distinguish among the major forms of legal structure of business ventures and identify the major characteristics of each form.

There are four major forms of legal structure of business ventures. These include:

Sole propietorship: this is managed by one person who has unlimited liability, meaning that his personal assets may be taken to pay for pending debts incurred by the business. In this form of business, the sole proprietor does not share profits and losses with anybody.  Decisions are made by one person , and capital is obtained from the owner of the business through personal savings and loans from friends or banks.


Partnership: this form of business is formed by two or more peole who pool their individual resources together. Parternships are easy to form since there are no special business rules that guide its formation. In partnership, just like in sole ownership, the ownes have financial liability towards the business, thus implies that if the business borrows money and fails to pay, the assets of the owners can be seized to repay the loan.  Profits and losses are shared between the partners. In addition, decision making is made by the partners, and source of capital comes from the partners. They can as well borrow from different lenders. Taxation in partnership entail income received from  the business.

Corporations: the last form of business is the corporaton, which is registered as a separate legal entity from the owners, and thus has ability of taking on its responsbilities. The ownership of a corporation is through shares, and therefore owners are referred as shareholders, and can manage the operation of the corporation as directors.  The assets of shareholders are protected and cannot be seized to recover the debts of the corporation. Profits are shared out to the shareholders as dividends. When losses are made, no dividends are paid. Decision making is made through the board of directors. Sources of capital include shares issued out, or borrowing from different financiers. A corporation is taxed separately from its shareholders based on income it makes. Ownership can easily be transferred by buying of sharers.


Explain the nature and degree of partners’  exposure to risk of liability in general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.

General partnership: each of the partners in the business bears the whole risk of the business collapsing. Supposing the business fails, the partnership together with personal assets of the partners are at risk of being seized to repay the debts of the business. This simply means that partners have unlimited liability.

Limited partnership: in this form of partnership, at least one of the partner  is under unlimited liability, whereas other partners have limited liability. This implies that the limited partners can only be liable to the amount they have invested in the business.

Limited liability partnerships: Though this form of partnership is similar to that of general partnership, it has specific limitations on the liability of partners. However, the limitation on liability differs from one jurisdiction to another (in Canada). The personal assets of partners in this  partnership are protected, but partners will be held liable for their own negligence. Still, partnership assets can be seized to payoff claims against the partnership.

Describe the relationship of shareholders and directors to their companies.

Shareholders are the owners of the companies, they gain this ownership through buying shares of the company (investing in the company). However, directors are the ones that manage the company. They are related to shareholders in that directors come from shareholders, meaning that shareholders  turn to be directors. For instance when two people buy equal shares of a company, they will as well be directors of the company when they manage the affairs of the company.

Show how agency law applies to the relationship of companies to the various stakeholders with which they have relationships.

Agency law  is the law or regulations that guides the relationship of the agency (an agent and the principal). In relation to companies, the agency law affects the various stakeholders in that they  have to deal with the agent instead of dealing directly with the company. 

Explain what mechanisms are available to protect the interests of minority shareholders.

One way to protect minority shareholders is through voting where each share represents one vote. This gives proproptional  representation to shareholders.

Describe the duties that a director has to his company and its shareholders.

The directors have a duty to follow the consitution of the company and use the powers they have for the betterment of the company. They as well have a duty to disclose any conflict of interest with the company. For the shareholders, the directors have a duty to act in the best interest of all shareholders.

Identify the distinguishing characteristics of corporate forms other than companies, including joint ventures, crown corporations, municipal governments, and unions, and show how they differ from incorporated companies.

A joint venture is formed by business entities, companies, partners or even individuals who come together to carryout a certain business venture. The main attribute of a joint venture is that is normally restricted to a certain business and for a certain period. For example, an international company may enter into a joint venture for it to  market and sell its goods in an international trade fair. Unlike incorporated companies, joint ventures take various forms of business entity. For example they can be registered as prtnerships and therefore guide by rules governing partnership.



Employment and Labour Relations

–  Describe the characteristics of an employment contract and the tests used to distinguish between employment and independent contractor relationships.

Employment contract entails one party, who is the employer entering into a contract with  another party, the employee to offer renumeratuon for work or services offered. At times, those who offer services to others are independent contractors, for instance doctors and teachers offer services to groups that are not employers, rather than patients and students respectively.

The tests used to distinguish between employment and independent contractor relationships, are underlined below:

The degree of control exercised over the individual by the employer: the more control offered by the employer over the person, the more likely that the relationship shared is that of employment.

The ownership of tools, opportunity of profit, and risk of loss from undertaking the requested service: sharing of profits and losses as well as ownership of tools indicates that the relationship is independent contractor.

Degree of integration: the manner of work being done is considered in regard to the business itself. If the work is integral to the business, then the relationship would be most likely be that of employer-employee, but if it is adjucnt, then the relationship would be that of an independent contractor.

Explain the nature and role of Human Rights legislation

The nature of human rights legislation is conveived as applicavle in all situations and placee. The role of human rights legislation is to uphold the natural  and fundemental rights of a person, such as, prohibiting discrimination in terms of sex, race or age, and to uphold equal access to employement opportunities.

 Show the bases on which an employee can be dismissed, and the consequences of wrongful dismissal

There are a number of  reasons or grounds in which an employee can be dismissed, they include serious misconduct by the employee, habitual neglect of duty, incompetence by the employee, conduct incompatible, willful disobedience, and causes include harrasment of other workers, taking alcohol and drugs at the workplace and disruption of work.

However, where an employee is dismissed wrongful, an employee does not need to take the matter to the court, he can seek redress from employment standards tribunal. If the tribunal holds that the employee was wrongfully dismiseed, then he has to be reinstated. In addition,  the employer may pay the employee damages for wrongful dismissal.

Describe the nature of collective bargaining legislation

the nature of collective barganining legislation is meant to guarantee the basic rights of employees to join trade unions. This is meant to encourage and promote trade unions.

Explain the process of certification of a collective bargaining unit, and show how negotiations are carried out in the collective bargaining process

The process of certification involves employees coming together to form a union under federal or provincial law, which will allow the union to be recognized if it meets the set laws. Collective barganing process are contract reached by the labor union on behalf of the employees and the employer, regarding their terms and conditions of employment, for example work hours and pay. The agreement reached is termed as collective agreement.

Describe the nature and requirements for legal strikes and lockouts

Strikes and lockout are means employees use to push for better terms of employment. Strikes and lockouts  for them to be legal have to be done after collective bargining has failed, and the trade union has given a notice for the same.

Show the advantages of compulsory arbitration 

The benefits of compulsory arbitration include avoidance of hositility between parties in dispute, it is cheaper away of resolving disputes compared to litigation, it is also faster than litigation and it is flexible way of resolving disputes.


Sale of Goods

Identify the elements of a contract for the sale of goods, and the requirements for its enforceability

the contract of sale of goods is formed between the customers and seller. The main elements of this contract are terms include terms of contract relating to sale, the delivery of the goods, the transfer of ownership the goods, and the remedies for breach of the contract terms.

For the contract of sale of goods to be enforced, there must be exchange of goods from the seller to the buyer.


Explain the rules established by the Sale of Goods Act for the passing of title from the seller to the buyer

The Sale of Goods Act sought to establish rules that for goods to pass from seller to the buyer, they must be suitable for the aim they are solf for, and be of reasonable quality. When these two rules are followed, then ownership is passed from seller to buyer.

Describe the rights and obligations of the seller and the buyer under the Sale of Goods Act, including the requirements and effects of implied warranties and conditions

The Sale of Goods Act stipulates the conditions and warranties of the sales transaction. Conditions are terms of the contract that are important to the aim of the contract.

Therefore, in each sale contract, it is means that:

The seller has got the rights to sell his goods.

The goods being sold are reasonably fit for the intended purposes as expressed by the buyer.

Goods sold are of merchntable (of reasonable) quality.

Goods sold through a sample will have similar qualities as the sample, and lastly, where goods are sold by description, they will match with the description stated.

Warranties are minor terms in the contract, though they are still important. They imply that:  the buyer after buying the goods will enjoy its possession within claims from third parties. Secondly, goods sold to the buyer are free from any other third party unkwon to the buyer at the time of buying or entering into the contract.


The Law of Insurance

Describe the basic characteristics of indemnity and non-indemnity insurance.

The main characteristics of idemnity is that the insured is supposed to be restored to his  initial position, and not to profit from the event he has insured.

Explain the role of insurance in managing risk.

Insurance helps people and companies to manage their risk because they can transfer their risks to the insurer through the insurance policies they take. Accordingly, if the insured suffers any loss (that has been insured) the insurer compansates the insured person or business. However, insurance does not mean that all risks are eliminated, at times it can be equally expensive and may not be availabe.

Define insurable interest and explain why it is required as a condition of recovery under the terms of an insurance policy.

Insurabe interest is an interest to determine if the insured benefits or does not benefits from the exitsnece of the insured property/thing, and will therefore suffer if that particular property/thing is destroyed. The motive of this is that people should only be allowed to insure items or property they have insurable interest in, so that they do not destroy what they have insured because they will suffer its loss.

Identify the elements that are essential to every insurance contract.

Insurance contract is an agreement made through the insurance policy taken. The elements essential to every insurance contract include:

Duty to disclose: the insurer has to disclose all information applicable to the risk being insured.

Insurable interest: the person insuring a certain property/item must be benefiting from the existence of that property/item to seek its insurance.

Indemnity: the insured is supposed to be restored to previous state before the loss, and not profit from the insurance.

Subrogation: This implies that the insurer can sue a third party after compensating the insured party.

Identify the two things that must be included in the description of the risk covered by an insurance policy.

The two things that have to be included in the risk covered is the type of risk for example, fire or theft, and the monetary value of that risk that has to be covered.

Explain what is meant by duty of disclosure in the law of insurance and describe the consequences of failing to meet this duty.

Duty of disclosure implies that the insurer has to give all information pertaining to the  risk being insured. Supposing that insured fails to disclose some information, the insurance company may refuse to cover the insured even if the loss occurs because of the information not disclosed earlier.

Define subrogation and explain its implications for insured parties who have a claim under the coverage provided by a policy.

Subrogation: This implies that the insurer can sue a third party after compensating the insured party, if the third party was the wrongdoer causing the loss of suffered. The insurance can therefore claim form the third party what it has paid the insured.

Distinguish between pure indemnity insurance and agreed value indemnity insurance.


Explain what co-insurance is.

 Co-insurance is the clause insurance companies use to determine the proportion (percentage) of the value of a property that has to be insured for it to be fully componsated in case of a loss.


Describe an insured person’s duty to mitigate.

Duty to mitigate simply means that the insured person has a duty to put in reasonable efforts  to limit anyadditional losses following a damaging occurance.


Show how life insurance differs from indemnity insurance, and describe the major forms of life insurance.

Life insurance differs with idemnity insurance because in life insurance cannot restore the loss to the previous state, and therefore compensation is paid to alleviate the loss. But in indemnity compensation is paid to cover the loss suffered. Major forms of life insurance are whole life and medical health insurance.

Describe the ways in which group insurance differs from individual insurance.

Group insurance is taken by an employer for his employees for example health insurance, while individual insurance is taken by a person for himself or his family.


Negotiable Instruments

Define the term negotiable instrument and identify the essential requirements and characteristics of each type of negotiable instrument established under the Bills of Exchange Act.


Define the term holder in due course and show the rights of different types of holders of negotiable instruments.


Describe the different categories of defences against enforcement of a negotiable instrument and the requirements associated with each category.


Show what countermand and certification of cheques means, and the requirements and effects of each.


Real Property and Mortgages

–  Distinguish between the two types of property

The two main types of property are real property, which comprises land and buildings erected on that land, and second type of property is personal property, this is anything that is not land, for example, animals, goods, stocks and copyright.

Describe the two types of real property ownership registration systems used in Canada

The two types of real property ownership are registry system and land titles system. In a registry, the real property is recorded in documents and maintained in a registry. The public is free to examine the records to assess the status of ownership of a certain piece of land. However, the accuracy of the documents is not in the hands of the registry system. In the land title system, mainly used in western proviences, it entails the administrators doing much more and examining each document that comes to for registration and keeps a record of the documents that relate to each piece of land. The accuracy of information is in their hands.

Explain the concept of a mortgage and show the processes of splitting and merger of title

Mortgage can be explained a contract for the extension of credit line to a borrower by a lender.  In addition, a mortage as well entails a bnk have a security interest in the land bought or owned by a person seeking credit. Accordingly, a person can use his land to as security (that means can mortage his land). Spliting of the title simply means subdividing of the land on which the title is held into a smaller portion, maybe for the purpose of selling. While merger of title means, the joining or combining two or more pieces of land to have one title deed.

Show the processes and remedies available to the parties to a mortgage.

In cases where the person or company that has taken a mortgage fails to service  the mortgage, the bank or the lender has several remedies that can be applied. They include, suing the borrower, taking control of the land and selling it, or terminating the borrower’s interest in the land/property (foreclosure). Any process taken aims at allowing the lender to gain maximum amount from the property held as a mortgage.


Discuss different types of real property leases and describe the rights of the landlord and tenant under different types of leases.

A lease  is defined as the contract reached between the landlord and a tenant. It undelines that rights and duties of both parties. Generally, we have two types of leases commercial and residential.


In commercial lease, the rights and obligatuon of the tenant are:

The tenant is given the responbility of repairs unless where some obligation goes to the landlord.

The tenant is not supposed to withhold rent even when the landlord does not meet some requirements of the lease.

The tenant has no right to terminate the lease without a breach  of contract from the landlord. Lastly, the tenant has a right to sublet the property under lease.

The landlord is obligated not to interfere with the tenant’s use of the property.

In residential lease, the rights and obligations of the landlord and tenant are very much controlled by the provincial legislation and therefore differs across the provinces.


Interests in Personal Property

Define the different types of interest possible regarding personal property.

Security interest: is an interest one has over his personal property that can be used to secure payment or can be used in performance of certain obligation.

Transferee interest: an interest in transfering the property to another person.

Lessor interest: interest to lease his personal property.


Define bailment and describe the different types of bailment and the rights and obligations of the parties in the different types,.

Bailment can be described as a short-term or temporary transfer of possession of personal property from the owner (Bailor) to  a third party referred to as Bailee. However, in this case, the bailor still retains ownership of the possession. We have many examples of bailment for example renting of a car, leasing for a house or shipment of a parcel.

The different types of bailment include:

Bailment for value: this is founded on a contract that requres payment for using the property or payment for storage of services offered. In this case, the bailors need to be assure that the goods being used by their bailees are appropriate for the purposes for which they have been bailed.

Gratuitous bailment: entails transfer of possession of property without any payment for example when a prospective client takes a car for test driving. In this case, the bailee takes the liability of the property in his possession and if for example crushes the car, he will be answerable for the damages. The right of ownership still remains with the owner (bailor).


Identify and describe the different types of security interests possible regarding personal property.


Explain the registration and other requirements for enforceability of personal property security interests under the PPSA legislation in Canadian jurisdictions.


Describe how floating charges differ from fixed charges, and show how the process of crystallization works.


Explain what is meant by Section 427 security, and show when this type of interest is available.


Show how security interests operate under the Canada Shipping Act.


Intellectual Property

–  Define the term intellectual property.

Intellectual property is word usually used to explain the results of intellectual or creative processes. This means that intellectual property is the ideas or ways used to show idea. Example of intellectual property include manufacturing processes, business plans, recipes for varios food products and even names of products. Similary, intellectual property is the term  used to explain the “bundle of rights” people have regarding their ideas.


Identify and describe the different types of intellectual property interests under Canadian law.

There are different  types of intellectual property interest under Canadian law. they include the following:

Patents: as explained in Canadian law, a patent is a legal right that offers protection for inventions. This means that a new invention made is protected, for example, a new machine or drug. However, some products covered under copyright law such as software are not patented.

Industrial designs: thiis is protected under the Industrial Design Act, that offers protectuon to items that appear in mass-production (for example, over 50 pieces). Example of industrial designs include funiture, toys and home appliances. However, the items have to be original and new.

Trademarks: these are symbols, designs, words or anything that is used to differentiate an individual’s products or services from others. The role of a trademark is to show the source or origin of a particular product or service. Examples of trademark include Xerox, Microsoft, Lego among others.

Copyrights: are governed by the Copyright Act, which aims at providing a right of exploitation to owner of certain works. It is meant to prevent the copying of that  particular work, unless some requirements have been made (for example, by getting a persmission from the owner/author to repreduce his work). Copyright is mainly given to original liyerary works, music, artistic works among others.

Confidential Business information: in Canada, there is no specific law that guides the protection for confidential business information. Nonetheless, the term is used to refer to information used in business envrionment that is private or classified. Such information  include, product formulas, strategic business information, databases and scientific knowledge.


Explain the requirements that must be satisfied in order for each type of intellectual property interest to become enforceable.

Patents: for a patent to be registered, it has to have to fulfill the following requirements. New, the invention being patented must be new to the public. It must also be useful, the invention has to solve some practical problem in an effective manner. Thirdly, it has to be  ignenuity, and not just an obvious thing.

Industrial designs:  The requirement for industrial design registration is orginality. It also has to be creative and wholly new. The design should as well be novel to warranty its registration.

Trademarks: the requirement for trademarks include, title of the trademark,  distinctiveness, the mark being registered as to be distinctive or unique to distinguish the products or services it is associated with. Lastly, the trademark must be registrable. For instance it should not be a name of a person living or died (in the last 30 years), and also should not be descriptive, for example “sweet bread”.

Copyrights:  To get a copyright protection, the work under consideration has to meet certain requirements. These requirements include, originality, implying that the work has to original work of the author. The second requirement is fixation, meaning that the work must be fixed on some form,  like paper or cassette.

Confidential Business information:  the requriments needed include, presence of economic value owing to the fact that it is not generally known to others, there must also be efforts to make it secret, and lastly, the information must be not generally known to others within the industry.

Describe the remedies available when intellectual property rights have been breached.

In case the intellectual property right have been breached, a person can seek litigation as a way of protecting the intellectual property rights. However, it is be noted that such litigations are complex and costly and usually require experts to handle them.

Discuss the issues presented by the Internet and its uses regarding intellectual property interests.

The internet has presented several issues regarding intellectual property interest owing to the issue of domain name. a domain name is basically an internet address that comprises of two or more  elements separated by a “dot” for example the domain names creates a conflict with trademarks in cases where domain used has another’s trademark. In many occassions, this happens when the two bodies have both a lawful interest in the trademark. For instance, Premium Oil and  Premium Water would both have a lawful claim over a domain that contains “Premium.” This creates a conflict between these two companies. 


Bankruptcy and Insolvency

Define the terms insolvency and bankruptcy, and show the purposes of bankruptcy legislation in Canada.

Insolvency means that a business is not able to meet its responsibilities, therefoore, cannot pay its debts. Insolvency is that a fact that a person or business cannot pay his or its debts. Bankruptcy entails the legal process taken to transfer the assets of a bankrupt company trustee for the purpose of liquidation and distribution to creditors.  The purposes of bankruptcy in canadian law is to preseve the assets of the bankrupt for the benefit of creditors, to make sure that there is equitable distribution of the assets to creditors, and in case of personal bankruptcies, to permit the debtor a fresh financial beginning.

Describe the mechanisms for entering the bankruptcy process in Canada, and show the requirements associated with each.

There are several mechanisms that can be used by a person or a busineess to enter bankruptcy process. These mechanisms are discribed below:

Assignment in bankruptcy:  this process occurs when an individual willingly assigns his assests to trustee in bankruptcy. This can also be achived if creditors seeks banjruptcy order from the court. For this bankruptcy to be granted, the creditor has to be owed more than $1000.

Protection of Assets:  This happens after assignment in bankruptcy or bankruptcy order has been given. The trustee presents a public notice of the bankruptcy for the purpose of identifying and protecting the assets and properties and to estblish the liabilities of the person or the business.  Protection of assets entails a review of assets held by the debtors.


Show the role of the trustee in the bankruptcy process and identify the steps from entering the process until discharge.

A trustee plays a big role in bankruptcy process, since he are onces a business or person becomes bankrupt, the trustee takes ownership or control of all the asset to help creditors recover their money. Indeed, a trustee has a legal duty to handle the assets in a way in which maintains the value of assets.

From the time when bankruptcy is granted, the tustee notifies the public of the bankruptcy  to establish and protect the assets of the bankrupt person or business. Accordingly, the trustee secures the business premises, examines the assets of the business, prepares the required statements, protect the assets, establish proper books and accounts and dispose any  perishable goods at once.  Sometimes, the trustee  has to continue operating the business for certain period of time to undertake the duties mentioned above.

Explain what a commercial proposal is and show the requirements and steps when a commercial proposal has been made.

A commerical proposal is a process tha permits a company or a business in financial problems to restructure its debts so as to avoid going bankruptcy. The requirement for this to take place is for the debtor to have some funds and to agree with his creditors. The steps involved in commerical proposal include the debtor offering the creditors a certin percentage of what he owers them, or to seek for more time to pay the debts. The two options can as well be combined.  This proposal will have to be sent to the office of the suprintendent of bankruptcy, before being send to creditors. The creditors can either accept or reject the proposal given.


Show what is meant by the term settlement in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act.

 The term settlement is used to mean the negotiated agreement between the debtor facing bankruptcy and his creditors.

Show the three categories of claims by creditors under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act, explain how priorities are established regarding the three categories, and identify what claims fall into each category.

The three main groups of creditors are secured creditors, preferred creditors and unsecured creditors. The secured creditors who have security interests are allowed to take over the collateral they hold and dispose the same. The group of creditors to be paid are preferred creditors who are paid after secured creditors. Lastly, the unsecured creditors are paid.


Describe the effect of discharge from the bankruptcy process, explain how discharge is achieved, and identify the types of discharge available.

 The effect of discharge from bankruptcy on the bankrupt person is that freed from many of his debts but not allow of them. Discharge is achieved by the bankrupt person paying off his creditors.  For first and second cases of bankruptcy, automatic discharge is availble after 9 and 24 months respectively. Where automatic discharge is not given, a person may apply for discharge from the court of law.


Additional Topics

Describe the nature and operation of environmental protection legislation in Canada.

The envrionmental protection legislation operates on the basis of common law, which applies the four main torts to protect the evironemental damage. These torts are , tort of neglience, the tort of trespass, tort of nuisance and tort of action based. Apart from these, the government has also enacted laws that are complex in nature, but that seek to create a balance betweenn economic development and “acceptable” environmental damage. Similary, municipal and land-use planning laws have additionally restricted the type of activities that can be carrried on affected land. Some of the federa laws to protect the envrionment include “Canadian Envrionmental Protection Act CEPA)”.

Show how the appropriate law is detemined and applied in international tort, property, and contract cases.


THE CAR ACCIDENT OVERVIEW AND CONCEPT history assignment help company: history assignment help company

The Car Accident



The Car Accident

It was a standout amongst the most alarming days of my life, the day of my car accident. Discouragement, doubt, and dread filled my brain as I was lying on my side. I was sandwiched between the frosty soil and the hot metal of the car. The weight of the car was pressed down on the lower a large portion of my body with beast energy. It didn’t harm, my body was numb (Wilson & Stimpson, 2010). Whatever I could feel was the hood of the car stamping my body more remote and more remote into the ground. My lungs felt squeezed and air would not enter or departure them. Where is my sibling? What is my father going to think? Out there, on that reviled street, I saw cars driving by totally unconscious of what had happened, or how I felt. I attempted to holler however my voice was unheard. I was holding up, sitting tight for somebody to help me, or holding up to bite the dust.

The third goading buzz of my alert woke me as I sluggishly slid out of quaint little in the shower. It was the start of an alternate routine morning, or something like that I thought. I washed up, fought with my sibling over which garments he ought to wear for that day, and completed the process of getting myself prepared. The greater part of this took a little more than regular, which was not an astonishing, so we were running late. We jumped into the inner part of my smooth, white BMW and went to class.

With music impacting, and voices singing, it was an alternate run of the mill ride to class with my sibling. On account of our overdue flight, I went quickly, excessively quickly. This street is around three miles in length and it comprises of tight bends and visually impaired slopes. My father had cautioned me to never take this street to class, yet I decided to take the street to spare time and dodge an alternate late from school. As we broke the highest point of one of the visually impaired slopes, there was a dead deer amidst the right path. Without any thought, and simply by intuition, I pulled the wheel of the car to the left, and after that again over to the right. It was not a major ordeal, however I was going quickly and I lost all control (Hinkelbein et al,. 2011).

The car swerved once again to the left, again to the right, and afterward the car began to roll. Each one time the car moved over, I felt that the car we were in was touching the ground via its sides. The car moved over to the a good fit for the last time, and with my eyes fixed tight, I could feel my body buoy off of the seat of the car.

I opened my eyes to see the dark street out yonder above me. I could feel the cool ground as an afterthought of my body. I could not move, and I could not understand why. Everything took place very fast indeed. I was wedged between the hood of the car and the soil. The car stirred and each development of the car punctured my body. It was my sibling. I could see him gradually slither out of the secondary lounge window, and afterward he was out of my sight. I opened my mouth to holler his name, yet air neglected to escape my lips. I dreamily lied there until somebody could offer assistance.

I heard an uneasy voice out there, “Catrina, gracious my God, Catrina!” It was my father. I was frustrated and humiliated of myself. My voice shouted for help as my heart pulsated quickly with alarm and easing. The car started to shake and I could feel the weight of the car gradually lift off of my body. Surprisingly, extraordinary agony struck my lower half. “Slither out of there,” somebody shouted to me. I pushed against the ground vigorously I couldn’t move. The agony was unbearable, by and by I couldn’t feel the lower a large portion of my body. Even now attempting to move, I felt solid arms skim around my shoulders and under my armpits. They sedate me off the beaten path of the falling car. As I lay on the weed made progress, a few individuals began to encompass me. I dreamily looked around and saw my sibling sitting Indian style alongside me, he was put in blood. He ran shoeless to the closest house to call 911, and our father. He was my holy messenger. Is it accurate to say that it was simply a fantasy?

Everything had happened so quickly. Consistently lying on that soil felt like a lifetime. Outsiders continued jabbing every last bit of my body, pushing me with inquiries, and I couldn’t provide for them the answers. At last, the rescue vehicle arrived. We were rushed to the nearby hospital. They solicited me a number from inquiries and began to get me prepared to go. With a brilliant orange support around my neck they gradually pushed me onto a firm backboard. Every modest development they made punctured my lower half like a blade. We at long last made it into the emergency vehicle and went to the doctor’s facility.  My sibling and I were transported to The Burjeel Hospital. My sibling was going to mend rapidly. He had lines in his eye, head, and elbow. I was assuaged that he was not seriously harmed. I don’t comprehend what I would have done if something to a great degree awful had befallen him. I was then exchanged to The Burjeel Hospital, where I experienced surgery that same night. Plates were surgically placed on both of my hipbones to help them stay together. I was in the healing facility for six days, and after that in a wheel seat for eight weeks.

As they paramedics put me on a backboard and put on the stretcher, the fire fighter were attempting to get my brother out of the car. They couldn’t make sense of it, so my father needed to demonstrate to them industry standards to take the car seat out of the car. At that point they set my brother in the rescue vehicle with me and off to the doctor’s facility we went. The paramedics were getting some information about what happened in the fender bender. I let them know what I could recollect. At the point when my brother and I got to the clinic my mother appeared. As I was still on the backboard on the grounds that the specialist would not let me off the backboard, until I had x-ray done on my once again to my beyond any doubt that I didn’t have any significant wounds to my back. It made me so solid and stuck. So my mother let me know not to stress in light of the fact that she was there and would deal with her. The specialist said that my brother was okay and was not stung. So I used to whatever is left of my evening tend to x-ray comes about and test. That it appeared as though time was standing still and took everlastingly to move. After the x-ray returned the specialist came in and let me off the back board. The specialist said that my back was alright and no crushed bones however I had spirit fits and that my foot was severely sprained. The Doctor then provided for me torment pharmaceuticals and muscle relaxers of the fits in my back. The Doctor said that I ought to likewise catch up with my specialist in several days. At that point provided for me direction on what to do when I returned home and sent my brother and I home with my mother. That was the end of my day. So we never did make it home that day. I took us around a month after that to up and see our mother. The life lesson that I gained from this was that there are still some pleasant individuals out on the planet today. Who would stop to help some individual that they didn’t have a clue? Indeed right up ’til today I’m thankful to those individuals that I will never see again.

I now acknowledge how valuable life truly is, and that it can be taken away in a solitary moment. I now comprehend why my father cautioned me to abstain from driving on specific streets to bring down the danger of having a mishap. One little accident can bring about compelling harm or even demise. I am fortunate that my sibling is not genuinely harmed, and that I existed (Lereim et al,. 1998). I will always remember that minute when I was lying on the ground, frustration flooding my psyche, holding up.



Borchgrevink, G. E., Kaasa, A., McDonagh, D., Stiles, T. C., Haraldseth, O., & Lereim, I.            (1998). Acute treatment of whiplash neck sprain injuries: a randomized trial of treatment   during the first 14 days after a car accident.Spine, 23(1), 25-31.

Wetsch, W. A., Carlitscheck, M., Spelten, O., Teschendorf, P., Hellmich, M., Genzwürker, H.      V., & Hinkelbein, J. (2011). Success rates and endotracheal tube insertion times of          experienced emergency physicians using five video laryngoscopes: a randomised trial in       a simulated trapped car accident victim.European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA), 28(12), 849-858.

Wilson, F. A., & Stimpson, J. P. (2010). Trends in fatalities from distracted driving in the United             States, 1999 to 2008. American journal of public health,100(11), 2213-2219.

CARVER YACHTS –The Carver 52 Voyager do my history homework

CARVER YACHTS –The Carver 52 Voyager

“It’s the Journey That Matters…But the Destinations Are Nice, Too”-anonymous

Obviously, the first thing when you look at a boat – It always begins with the build. Originally, down memory lane in 1991 Genmar Holdings bought Carver, a company that has been intensively specializing in building boats with the latest advanced technologies. By the year 1990, the company introduced stylish advanced window system and the improvement of the upscale Voyager series followed. In fact, by the year 2003 the largest Carver Yacht in the Voyager series was introduced – the 57 Voyager pilothouse. Three years later, the company further acquired a manufacturing facility in Fano, Italy, which marked a building area for its new line of Nuvolari Yachts. The year also marked the introduction of the Wisconsin-built Marquis Class.

Today, strong Voyager tradition continues to pilot the industry on increasingly building outstanding cruising yachts. The prospect even promises fresh and more exciting improvements to boost the ultimate cruising experience, which only Carver can deliver. Yet, the newly introduced Carver 52 Voyager looks to fulfill the Carver pledge.

Luxury Aboard Is Rich…

On a sunset calm evening from a distance through her large windows accent lighting appears to make the deckhouse glow from the inside cabin. Aboard the Voyager 52, it sports the largest beam in her class and a contemporary take on the traditional trawler-style travelermaker/coastal cruiser.  While the ultimate emphasis is on liveaboard placate – with convectional systems, confidence and a demonstrated hull design, begins your expedition in the 52 Carver.

The styling is rich, and based on the capacity to achieve as much interior room as possible. Consequently, forget about sidedecks aft, this will only be a hindrance to comfortable cruising. You sit on an advantage of a full-width saloon, and it does not only feature large picture windows, but also sliding doors to the vaguely small cockpit.

The carver sports more comfort on her a spacious flying bridge – particularly designed for entertaining guest on top. Down the stairway or the Double transom door leads to a large swim platform which readily accommodates other features like fishing, swimming and lots of entertainment. Actually, aside from other components – there is a barbecue area with various eatery contents.

A stairway guides to the saloon at the lower helm, where the 52’s galley is in the forward bulkhead. The galley includes a number of detailed equipments but only for an ardent chef: Primarily, it has a double fridge/freezer, which makes the galley an on-water living experience. Besides, the galley incorporates; double oven, dishwasher, microwave and an induction cooktop. A well-implemented hardwood wooden floor compliments the convectional teak carpentry. For a more peaceful room, there is an optional carpet.

Further to port there is a large L-shaped leather sofa lounge with Robel Burl-veneer seasonal table, while Norwegian adjustable armchairs are on the starboard side. More to the galley is a hidden bar, where you can stock up your refreshments, which of course you wouldn’t want to staff refreshments allover to spoil the already concealed appliances in the galley.  At the galley, the chef can untie lines from sidedeck bollard – thanks to galley’s sliding windows. They also facilitate efficient ventilation inside the galley. Sony entertainment systems sums up the evening slow down: A big screen TV display, DVD and a surround 5.1 sound system will have you ease – watching your favorite show or listening to your favorite country harmony.

Flying bridge, An Alfresco Salon…

Inside staircase leads to the flying bridge, which meets at split-level point. Most of the top sides are a repeat of various instruments down. The interior accommodations resemble those of a megayacht. Up forward, an enormous wheelhouse sports a second den with exceptional large L-shaped settee and dinning table. A falling bemini and radar arch allows navigation below low bridges for those who look forward to explore upstream. Moreover, there are two side doors at the helm station, which facilitate ample amount of ventilation and two Navigator helm settees with hydraulic dampers for the captain and his companion.


The subordinate aft ‘boat deck’ level accommodates an informal table with chairs that is further emphasized by a smaller galley station and it includes, – a sink, fridge and a barbecue center. A an ideal facility errands  those twilight soirees or gatherings for a few drinks, a salver of treat nibbles or a showboat view that will have other on-lookers green with covet.

The dash is broadly equipped with most up-to-date gadgets and electronics. The view upfront is magnificent; thanks to the large, slanting windscreens. The aft-facing camera aids in maneuvering and of course, the bow and sternthrusters as well. A Portuguese viaduct separates the foredeck, hence gives the 52 Voyager to have that ‘shippy feel’ yet, a pleasant built-in couch awaits guest to enjoy magnificent scenery.

Still Her Interior

Yet, an accomplished outdoor Carver 52 gives more on the indoors/interiors. Forward staterooms provides an amidships master with circuitous queen-sized bed to starboard plus a three block head shower and washstand area, which splits overall utilities  and permits natural illumination and aeration into the main cabin. The en suite guest cabin is located in the bow with an island double bed.

In an event of more guests, a Miele washer and dryer completes all laundry hassles when cruising. In addition, a pilothouse sofa switches to double bed if required, all the interior is entirely air-conditioned so it’s set for the tropics and both cabin have enhanced storage as well as complete TV/stereo entertainment equipments.

Pitching Up The Highway…

Having prepared the galley; taken care of the beds, watered, fuelled, and done an overall rigorous check off the cocktail bar, The 52 Voyager’s twin Volvo D9 575hp turbo-diesels inboard waits a “roger that!” The 11.5kVa Onan is gushing away and the Wesmar stabilizers are turned on – it’s an oyster world!

With a maximum speed of 20kts, you can beat the weather; however, seasonal cruisers will benefit from the experience and save kismet with a cost-effective 10kt cruise and 1000nm on hand from the 2550lt tanks.  With a modified deep-Vee hull form, she handles well on a short variable sea. Although, she may not give the kind of thrill you’d expect with some of the newest technology inventions – but one thing is for sure, her performance is incredibly satisfactorily.

Sure, before you considering such a luxurious boat and you empty your pockets, what should be the most vital consideration? Of course – construction, layout and finishes sums up as top concerns.  In case point, look at the Voyager’s cabin décor, it’s multi-layered and multi-textured – sleek in look and stems warmth. Tabletops are finished with burled wood, while all straight surfaces are honey-oak finished and vertical planes provides gloss sheen. What’s more, the salon is lush; broad-plank cherry floors, the chairs, sofas, and dinette relax are upholstered with genuine cowhide. This attractive blend of fabrics: – of course is not in favor of most builders, who repeatedly employ the same pattern and type all over the boat to trim down costs.

There you have it, it’s not the cost but the value you get at the end of the day, The Carver’s Luxury and expediency awaits such esteemed cruisers, spirit of escapade is the ultimate count to overcome the great unheard of. Why would anyone give no second thoughts on the Carver 52 Voyager?


LOA (w/platform)      53’9″ / 16.38 m

Beam   15’4″ / 4.67 m

Draft   57″ / 1.45 m

Weight (w/fuel & water)         48,500 lbs / 21,999.6 kg

Bridge Clearance w/arch         19′ / 5.79 m

Fuel System    800 US gallons / 3,028.32 liters (Diesel Twin Inboards)

Water System  200 US gallons / 757.08 liters

Holding Tank  100 US gallons / 378.54 liters

Cabin Headroom         6’11” / 2.11 m

Sleeps  6 (8 optional)


CARVER YACHTS – The Carver 506 Motoryacht african history assignment help: african history assignment help

CARVER YACHTS – The Carver 506 Motoryacht

It’s more of a “floating condo” rather than your all-season home away craft. Standing 51-foot, 7-inch LOA and 4-inch beam, she has exterior lines that carve neatly throughout. The 506 Motoryacht coalesces striking styling and opened interior rooms in all-new version of the aft cabin motoryacht. In fact, the entire interior is generously done in cherry, while her finish is superior – all hardware, fittings and fabrics illustrate first-class. Sure, Carver has time and again pressed the envelope to this hold: Actually, slapping the manufacturing and automotive industries for inspiration amid the occasional-stale state marine blueprint.

Today, the company is paying more attention to innovative build and added spaciousness aboard with realistic price points. And the Carver’s new 506 is a great example of not just a natter, but a declaration put into play.

With an appealing contemporary approach to styling, the 506 delivers a layout one might mistake with a 60-footer. She accompanies what is basically an elevated pilothouse; entirely enclosed and air-conditioned on a comfortable L-shaped lounge area with halogen illumination/lights. The helm lounge bench seats three with a full wet bar, while on the opposite is a simulated burled-wood trim dash and adjustments for usual electronics such as – optional ice maker and refrigerator. And when things get tropic, fresh air is abundance – thanks to the standard smoked-acrylic sunroof that operates automatically.

Aft deck

The 506’s aft deck is integrated with an elevated bridge which is totally enclosed and air-conditioned. The overall design facilitates a great view aft for the captain and direct contact with guest on the aft deck or the bridge. Guide to the vaguely raised side decks, sideboarding gates and bow is through a thoughtful wing door. Even though you won’t find a built-in seating, the 118 square feet area will easily house loose seating crew and a cocktail table. In conclusion, the third door makes way to the swim platform or the same utilized as a boarding platform.


Wide open spaces notion continues belowdecks: Entrance to the salon is through gliding stainless-steel framed glass door, which dining and the galley are all incorporated into one big area. Interestingly, the carver designers must have figured out how space would be of use if properly configured.  The salon itself was incorporated with raised side decks thus, functional space extends all the way beam to the hull sides with substantial effects on spaciousness. Forward looking directly at the galley, is a dinning area with wooden flooring and simulated-stone countertops; an L- shaped settee is to port inwale, with adorable chaise longue size and double built-in recliners seats to starboard.  On top and beneath the sidedeck plane are frameless windows, which give way for ample illumination; once again kudos to the Carver’s aluminum-framing technology within the walls to put up this vast living area which is free of partitions.


On the aft, cherry wood trim invites the master stateroom. This is where you’ll notice much classiness and style in the Carver 506 Motoryacht. Incorporated is a queen-sized island berth on an innerspring mattress. What’s more, there is a sink quarter plus few cedar-lined hanging lockers, night tables, integral settee and two private shower heads included in separate compartments. Forward of the saloon is the adversary two guest staterooms, one positioned in the forepeak which accompanies queen island berth and a secluded access to its own ensuite head with stall shower. Superior finish becomes evident here as witnessed by craggy hinges in all the cabin doors, cherry flooring throughout and two cedar- line hanging lockers – (automated lighting). The second guest stateroom is a bit confined and kids would well suit this room, nonetheless it houses two berths and enclosed head.


Under the 2000 models, Carver incorporated new structural design wherein they put and end to wood below the waterline. The course of uniting two or more layers of material is modernized, with multidirectional strengthening and a vinylester skin cover for burn shield. A template of transverse frames and constant longitudinal stringers is molded disjointedly and attached to the hull.  Partitions are done in marine plywood. The hull foot is a firm, handlaid laminate on six films of triaxial/mat underpinning. Foam coring thickens the hull surfaces (over the water line), while balsa-core hardens the decks and structure above the baseline. Welded aluminum beams hold the marine plywood salon sole, while fiberglass liners delineate the belowdecks housings. This is what Carver has devoted into refining building practices and to give customers assurance when on water: Further, with carver, you now have limited transferable warranty; one year general cover on systems, five years on blistering and seven years on structure.

Engine Compartment

Entrance to the engine compartment is via a hatch in the saloon which integrates the saloon sole and the steps that guide to the aft deck.  It appears clumsy to lift, but when opened the engine section entrance is outstanding. The engine compartment extends to the span of the salon belowdecks.


In no doubt, given her interior room sported off by an enclosed pilothouse one would think that the Carver 506 Motor yacht would sprint along at trawler speeds. Well, her accompanied twin 450 hp Cummins diesel tested different: A recorded top end speed of almost 30 mph. Of course, if you consider a much bigger engine (635-hp Cummins); you ought to power beyond that barrier. As anticipated, with less notice, the 506 Carver is incredibly responsive enough to duck surface obstructions, thanks to the wide turning radius (at speed) almost certainly 10 crafts lengths. On acceleration, it’s gradual and smooth at cruise levels all the way.  Interestingly, her lateral stability is very impressive; it’s what in contrast you may imagine for a flying bridge motoryacht. The 506 Carver’s 2-foot beam is rock steady at sea.

Any serious angler, cruiser or family excursion person wouldn’t consider a second presumption on the base price $600,000 (twin 450 hp Cummins included), ready to cruise those locations with debatable shore power or head on shore with doors open in northern climes. So while you’re already thinking of owning it, just know it’s what many dream of having!


Length Overall            – 51′ 7”

Dry Weight- 47,900 lbs

Beam – 15′ 4”

Fuel Cap – 510 gal

Draft – 4′ 6”

Water Cap – 158 gal

Deadrise/Transom N/A

Bridge Clearance – 20′ 10”

Maximum Headroom – 6′ 5”





CARVER YACHTS –The Carver 570 Voyager ap art history homework help

CARVER YACHTS –The Carver 570 Voyager

Time was, even before the big Volvo Pentas began, Carver had already made a mark with her newline 570 Voyager Pilothouse – giving an impressive arrangement plan, standard equipment and dedicated workmanship. In fact, the company’s initial goal was to build crafts that are affordable while the same time providing luxurious amenities aboard and comfortable cruising for families. So, if your ideal boat is over 50 foot; you probably have only the alternative of a custom builder – the reason why the 570 Voyager carries the flagship of the Carver’s flotilla. She’s not only a stylish live-aboard motoryacht designed for serious cruisers, but also an attestation that cruising has revolutionized for the better.

Attitude Luxury

At first peek, her smooth contours and aerodynamic appearance is very pleasing to the eye. However, on closer look reveals the amount of engineering and skilled craftsmanship that went into this stylish modern looking boat.

The luxury notion begins on her massive saloon’s door on the main deck, framed with stainless steel – the door easily slides back and forth and fastened with firm wood. And when that frosty autumn jets in; to port and starboard huge windows allows golden sunlight to wash through the interior of the saloon – an ideal feature when relaxing or just enjoying that warm espresso sitting in one of the barrel chairs forward.

Of course, before most boats live the production line they have to appeal to a wide cross-section of cruisers with conventional interior furnishings and accessories. From a layman’s perspective, the 570’s interior gave what many may consider; a dream life aboard. Her earth-tone carpeting and barrel chairs, beige UltraLeather lounge and off white overhead are just a clue of what to come. Her deco will sure excite most folks; actually those kinds of décors that liven up the surrounding with vibrant throw cushions, an area rug, silk flower displays, and hanging artwork.

Aft incorporates an L-shaped convertible chaise longue to port, contiguous to a high or low table. Forward to starboard, there’s a console which includes TV, VCR and a second seat, adjoining to a faux granite KARADON™ countertop. Overhead there’s incorporated 14 halogen spotlights which facilitate profuse lighting.


Sure, “One cannot think well, love well, and sleep well, if one has not dined well.”  The precise notion on the Carver 530’s galley; a fully integrated galley positioned forward end of the saloon, in the manner of a country kitchen dinning, it also facilitates expansion of space visually. While her inboard end of the counter arches gently in the direction of the centerline, describing the external perimeter of the galley space and interior perimeter of the companionway front to the pilothouse. This arch softens the conversion, and gets rid of one of those corners you may end up fetching up if you loose balance during rough water cruise. The most exciting section of the country-kitchen design is the snack counter. It’s nearly eight inches lower compared to the galley’s counter.

Below the main section of the counter are; Sub-Zero under-counter freezer/refrigerator, built-in Sharp microwave oven, a Princess three-burner oven, a useful double sink, and a cabinet-mounted Black and Decker coffeemaker. The galley also incorporates finishes of hardwood flooring and plenty cabinets for storage.

While still giving families full luxury aboard, over into the helm provides an eye-catching blend of aircraft cockpit and lounge. Surfaced in – is the UltraLeather helm settee, the bow thruster joystick is on the further end of the chair’s starboard-side-arm.

Instrumentation sports out in a semicircle inside the line of display. Above the windscreen, there’s plotter, closed circuit and radar TV screen – only  the captain can decide whether he will  like this arrangement or not. Meanwhile, the helm’s centerline placement allows an excellent view on the aft to starboard of the galley and provided greater distance findings compared to most offset helms.

Down below

Below the docks ahead, a stairway leads below decks to the carver’s three staterooms; one of the most pleasing adventures you’ll encounter on the 570’s interiors. It features an island pedestal bed which is accented by gorgeous lacquered cherry trim, stylish chrome, gold appointments, deluxe vanity with mirror, big cedar lined closet, and an entertainment center. While the master head positioned en suite, features a large bathtub and shower combination.

Given her price tag, creative utilization of space and lighting will have onlookers assume it’s a fare bet. Closer examination discloses the compromises that are in tandem with a production craft – added space within the drawers and doors, and standard grade hardware.

Positioned forward is the VIP guest stateroom which also includes an island pedestal bed, cedar lined closets, mirrored headboard, ample storage compartments, television and a secluded access into the guest head which included a vanity and a shower stall. The third stateroom is positioned to port, which is just right for the minors or crew with over and under bunks.

Up On The Flybridge

Entertainment and other social amenities are not restricted down below. Her flybridge brings a wide open space with an adjustable skipper’s seat and a comfortable capacity seating for five in the aft lounge. In fact, there’s a swiveling double companion settee that gives occupants the aptitude to either seat facing forward while having a conversation or aft with fellow crew on the L-shaped settee.

Complementing the wide social area is the full wet bar with sink, optional Jen air grill and storage. What’s more, a davit sits behind the L-shaped lounge and more room is incorporated on the aft cockpit which can house an RIB tender. The helm acts as a captain’s command center with complete full instrumentation and excellent visibility. While a stylish stairway leads down into the elevated pilothouse, and you may confuse it with the bridge of a Star Ship Enterprise rather than that of a cruising motoryacht.

Engine Area

With the Volvo D-12 diesel engine; internationally known engines to be reliable and usually used on faster planing vessels. The Carver 570’s engine came with Volvo’s Electronic Diesel Control system. An electronically controlled ignition timing that facilitates more fuel-efficient burning in the cylinders; thus you get superior fuel economy, reduced exhaust emissions and high power. The engine itself comprises of 6 electronic unit injectors, freshwater cooled turbo charger, air cooler, a gear driven pump and electronic engine controls displayed for specific rpm settings and uncomplicated engine diagnostics. What’s more, the D-12 builds up highest torque at merely 1400 rpm to get larger vessels up and running fast.

Test results indicate impressive results; on an overall length of 59’2” and a weight of 52,500 lbs the 570 Voyager Pilothouse gives a cruising speed of 26.8 mph with a pair of 675hp Volvo D-12’s, bring a range of 352 miles among fill ups. She gives a top speed of 32.6 MPH at only 78 decibels, while the stability of the hull underway is impressive thanks to the Carver’s low profile pilothouse.


Length Overall              59′ 2”

Dry Weight   52,500 lbs.

Beam   15′ 4”

Fuel Cap    800 gal.

Draft   4′ 9”

Water Cap    200 gal.

Deadrise/Transom       N/A

Bridge Clearance     19′ 5”

Max Headroom      6′ 11”