Research the terms supervision and leadership as they relate to school administrators and review the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders from the National Policy Board for Educational Administration. (attached)
Complete Parts 1 and 2 below.
Create a 1-page infographic using a presentation tool (e.g., Piktochart or PoppletTM – sites below) that displays the dispositions, characteristics, and behaviors of an effective administrator.
Write a 1-page job descriiption for an administrator position at a school that will serve as an advertisement/employment posting. Be professional and authentic in writing to attract the best pool of candidates.
Cite any references used to support your assignment according to APA guidelines.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 14 1 Running Head: ADVANTAGES AND
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 14
Running Head: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS
Advantages and Disadvantages of CSR Standards
The successful application of an organization’s corporate social responsibility is always guided by the right corporate social responsibility standards. The application of CSR standards is always meant to improve the ethical, social, and the environmental performances of an organization through organizational behavior codification. There has been an increase in the adoption of CSR standards by organizations from different parts of the world, a trend that has been linked to the benefits linked to its application in the organization. The standards define the procedures that should be followed for purposes of achieving socially desirable outcomes within the organization. This paper looks at the advantages and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based application in different organizations, with a specific focus being on the ISO: 26000 and UNGC standards.
Corporate social responsibility standards are a set of rules that are commonly and voluntary applied in different settings for purposes of improving the environmental, social, and governance performance of the organizations adopting the standards. They are a set of broad international and global standard that irrespective of the significant differences in their focus, nature, governance structure and monitoring mechanisms share similar objectives (Adeyeye, 2011). Corporate social responsibility standards are categorized into different categories including the environmental, human rights, philanthropic, and economic standards. Corporate Social Responsibility Standards are categorized in to four different categories. These categories are certification, process, reporting, and principle-based standards (Delchet-Cochet, & Vo, 2013).
Certification standards involve a certain degree of monitoring, verifying, and certifying different products, processes, and facilities on the basis of a predefined criterion. A perfect example of this type of standard is the ISO 26000. The principle-based standards are aimed at giving guidelines on the type of practices and behaviors that are acceptable or unacceptable. An example of a principle-based standard is the UNGC. Reporting standards on the other hand offers organizations with the right guideline and frameworks for social, economic, and environmental reporting. Finally, process standards are defined as a type of standards that make it easy for organizations to alter or change how they engage in corporate social responsibility. As such, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based standards.
Advantages of the ISO: 26000
A look at the corporate social responsibility standards has been linked to a number of benefits to the organizations that apply them in the right way. The applications of these CSR standards in different organizations lead to general benefits like CSR operationalization, help in the process of avoiding confusion, supports the CSR uptake, facilitating the engagement of stakeholders, and enhancing corporate reputation. These two standards also act effectively towards promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization.
Advantages of ISO: 26000
Some of the benefits that are linked to the application of ISO:2600 include the following:-
Corporate social responsibility operationalization
The application of ISO: 26000 offer an organization with a series of practical frameworks that help the stakeholders to interpret the presented organizational values and principles. When applied in the right way, this standard acts effectively towards helping stakeholders translate the presented abstract concepts into effective tools that are easily manageable (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Through the operationalization process, the application of an organization’s CSR ends up being done easily compared to how it could have been done without the standards. The interpretation process also offers stakeholders with a better understanding of their organization’s CSR, thus enabling them to adopt them in the right way (Smith, 2002). The operationalization process generally makes everything attached to the organization’s CSR to be applicable in all areas irrespective of the impact that it will have to the operations of the organization (Hahn, 2013).
Helps in avoiding confusions in the organization
The application of ISO: 26000 in an organization play a significant role in helping stakeholders eliminate any form of confusion in the methodologies and language used in the organization’s operations. The standard makes clear all the acceptable practices and processes in the organization by the stakeholders, thus making everything clear to the stakeholders (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Making the concepts used clear to the stakeholders makes the application of this standard more effective because all forms of confusions are eliminated through its operationalization process. The meaning of this is that, the absence of the right CSR standards could lead to a lot of confusion being created amongst the stakeholders (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010). Additionally, the ability of this standard to avoid confusions from being made during the interpretation process is linked to the fact that it offers a step-by-step guide to organizations on what they have to maintain a positive relationship to their stakeholders while at the same time improving their image to the general society.
It enhances corporate reputation
Organizations that adopt ISO 26000 always have a high chance of enhancing their reputation as opposed to organizations that do not adopt these standards. The reason for having these organizations enhance their corporate reputation is based on the fact that the standards adopted acts effectively in offering the stakeholders with an appropriate reference point for the organization’s accountability (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). From the basis provided, stakeholders get an opportunity to judge the performance of the organization as well as the corporate behavior of the employees working in the organization (Hahn, 2013). Additionally, this standard also makes it easy for stakeholders to improve their understanding of the roles and responsibilities in helping the organization improve its outlook to the general public (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010).
Promoting progressive improvement
Corporate Social Responsibilities that are adopted in different parts of an organization are always open to continuous and experimental improvements that help the organization improve its performance and productivity (Valmohammadi, 2014). Having improvement opportunities through ISO: 26000 play a very important role in improving organizations CSR thus leading to a reduction in the negative consequences of the organization’s actions to the society (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, the improvement opportunities presented by the standard opens the organization to different improvement opportunities.
Disadvantages of ISO: 26000
Despite its application being associated with a lot of benefits, some of the disadvantages that are linked to its application include being voluminous, limiting the considerations of SR to 37 issues and 7 core subjects, and having a number of sentences that do not make any meaning (Schwartz, & Tilling, 2009). Additionally, the application of this standard gives a list of recommendations without being in a position to specify what is already regulated by the national governments where it is applied, opens a wide range for misconceptions and misuse like assessment or certification, brings about complexity of the document, and focus on organization-internal operations instead of the identification of probable contributions to society (Valmohammadi, 2014). Again, it is important to understand that the application of the ISO: 26000 entail the use of turgid language in many parts while at the same time having some weak definitions in some of its parts (Schwartz, & Tilling, 2009).
Additionally, there are no audits, procedures, reviews or reports that are needed for this standard, thus making it a part of a broader debate on whether it offers organizations with the required guidance. Again, an organization could easily misuse the standard by purporting to adhere to the required guidelines and principles without having a change to any of its practices and policies (Schwartz, & Tilling, 2009). Organizations usually claim to have attained this standard, something that is irrefutable because it does not have any type of certification. By doing this, these companies give their customers misleading information just to make them appear to be socially responsible than their competitors.
The standard must be purchased by the interested organization and this makes it a major disadvantage. The fact that the standard is always purchased makes it difficult for some deserving organizations to adopt it while those that do not deserve it purchase (Valmohammadi, 2014). This brings about serious transparency issues towards this standard, making a good number of the potential customers to ignore acquiring this standard. The document containing the standard has been considered as being too complex for both the small and medium sized organizations to adopt, interpret, and implement due to lack of time and resources (Schwartz, & Tilling, 2009). Finally, a number of stakeholders have believed that this standard leads to the creation of trade impediment, thus making it possible for some governments to use it to impose some illegitimate measures to the organizations that are interested in making different investments (Valmohammadi, 2014).
Advantages of the UNGC
Supporting corporate social responsibility uptake
The development and application of UNGC enable organizations to adopt the most appropriate codified processes and practices that end up promoting the broad adoption of CSR amongst the organization’s stakeholders (Li, & Toppinen, 2011). It is therefore important to understand that the application of this standard is always beneficial to any organization because it makes a large population of the stakeholders adopt the organization’s CSR without having doubts or contracting questions that could affect the whole adoption process (Christensen, Morsing, & Thyssen, 2017). Its application in an organization leads to the adoption of the right business practices and behaviors leading to increased productivity and profitability where they are applied. The results of its application make it easy for other organizational stakeholders to adopt every single CSR in an easy way (Bjartmarz, & Gjerdrum, 2015).
Facilitates stakeholder engagement
One of the key functions that UNGC play in an organization is that of identifying the organizations shared rules through various ways. As such, the application of this standard always helps organizations to adopt the globally codified principles and norms that offer the stakeholders with a strong engagement and partnership basis to the organization (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). By perfectly explaining the rules of the game, the stakeholders always develop an urge to be a part of the organization’s CSR in different ways.
The application of the UNGC standard in an organization has been linked to the process of activating a specific self-enforcement mechanism that is linked to the organizations participant’s endogenous motivation (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Its ability to enable self-enforcement in an organization is always based on the fact that a good number of the organization’s stakeholders tend to be more inclined towards behaving in a responsible manner when they rely on becoming responsible employees and managers (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). This leads to a significant reduction in external enforcement costs like sanctions and controls for a given organization.
Disadvantages of the UNGC Standard
The application of the UNGC standard in an organization is always linked to different drawbacks. The drawbacks in the application of this standard tend to vary from one organization to the other. Some of the common drawbacks that have been identified to affect the operations of an organization due to its application include conceptual inadequacy, introduction of extra operational costs, lack of enforcement, obsession with compliance, inappropriate communication, and systematic failure in driving systematic change (Christensen, Morsing, & Thyssen, 2017).
The development and adoption of the UNGC standard is purposely done to deal with all the technical issues that affect the smooth running of an organization. However, the CSR development process has been characterized with various methodological issues, thus making the process of codifying both the ethical and social issues a complex process (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). An increase in the rate of terminology confusion has generally led to the development of conceptual inadequacies in the application of the UNGC standard.
Introduction of extra costs
The adoption and implementation of the UNGC standard requires an organization to acquire a series of certificates, and this makes the whole process costly both for the small and medium enterprises (Milne, Gray, & Buhr, 2014). On top of the charges that are made when applying for the right certification, the implementation process has also been considered costly because the management has to organize and facilitate a series of seminars and conferences to train the stakeholders on the importance of applying the standard in the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, both the adoption and implementation stages of this standard have been considered to possess significant cost implications to the organizations.
Lack of enforcement
The adoption of the UNGC standard in any organization is always voluntary and only applicable to the organization that deems its presence important in its operations. Due to this, its application is always considered to lack legality and strong conformity methods that are available to the law (Tallontire, 2007). Despite the nature of this standard being linked to its reliance on endogenous motivation as opposed to external sanctions, scholars have made it clear that its voluntary nature is a representation of a weakness that when not well solved could lead to the lowering of the standard’s effectiveness (Tschopp, & Nastanski, 2014). Additionally, despite the application of this standard always involving a look at some specific processes or substantive issues, it fails to offer an accompanying schema that would help the stakeholders to evaluate how easy or difficult its implementation could be to the management of the organization (Golob, & Bartlett, 2007). It is however important to understand that this issue can be well handled by including a series of monitoring mechanisms in the organization to look at the effectiveness of the standards.
Obsession with compliance
The adoption of the UNGC standard is always followed by an immediate focus on their compliance by the management. The focus of the management is always meant to make improve the acceptability of the standard by the employees while at the same time helping them to learn the link between the standards and the results of their application (Haack, Schoeneborn, & Wickert, 2010). When the focus on the implementation process becomes the only thing for the stakeholders, other important elements of the organization end up being neglected. Issues like building the relationship and trust between the stakeholders always get forgotten by the employees, leading to a reduction in the productivity and efficiency of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). The process of making important decisions in the organization also gets neglected at the expense of the implementation process. It is also important to understand that some organizations may opt to apply these standards without considering any adaptation to their individual characteristics and needs (Delchet-Cochet, & Vo, 2013). The result of the adoption leads to the production of counter-productive impacts in the organization, and this affects its performance and operations significantly.
Communication is always important to the success of any concept in an organization. However, when the communication process is either overdone or done inappropriately, the information being passed reaches the target audience in a flawed format (Christensen, & Murphy, 2004). As such, the use of formalistic compliance has been said to bring various risks like having a lot of data that does not adequately represent the real information being communicated, thus making the involved stakeholders not to be in a position to make informed decisions for the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Miscommunication on the other hand due to inadequate data also leads to poor decisions being made from the assumption that the standards adopted are adequate in guiding the organization meet its key goals and objectives (Tallontire, 2007). As such, the fact that the standards are either over or under emphasized has led to the development of under or over communication in the organization, and this has affected the ability of the stakeholders to perfectly apply the standards in the organization’s operations (Ingenbleek, Binnekamp, & Goddijn, 2007).
Failure to drive systematic change
Despite the adoption of the UNGC standard being linked to numerous benefits, the issue of failing to drive systematic change effectively has been affecting its effectiveness in a significant way (Christensen, Morsing, & Thyssen, 2017). The application of this standard has been found to be very effective in improving issues linked to the social, ethical, and environmental issues that affect its operations as well as the image of the organization to the society. Irrespective of these benefits, the standard always lacks the ability to address the issues in a systematic manner or in a way that does not affect the operations of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Due to this issue, all the involved stakeholders always have a tough time implementing the change brought about by this standard because the period needed for the change does not support systematic operations to be carried out for purposes of affecting the change process (Tallontire, 2007). The organization is therefore expected to develop the most appropriate strategies that will make sure that the change process brought about by the standard is done appropriately without any rush or delay being experienced by the involved stakeholders.
UNGC erodes individual and organizational responsibility
The application of the UNGC standard has been linked to the problem of eroding personal and organizational responsibility in a big way. The behavioral codification process that is linked to this standard has been associated with the development of a counter-productive tendency because the involved members tend to align their behaviors to the outcomes and processes of the organization through this standard (Adeyeye, 2011). Importantly, the disadvantage of codifying individual behaviors to match the requirements of the organization is that of having some individuals limit their responsibilities and roles to what the standard designate them to do (Li, & Toppinen, 2011). When this happens, some of the common roles that individuals used to undertake and make sure the organization is run smoothly get neglected, thus creating an opening in the organization that need to be occupied by employing another employee, a process that is always costly for the organization to adopt (Koszewska, 2010). The general result of this is erosion of the roles and responsibilities that individual undertake in their work place.
Corporate social responsibility standards are a set of rules and guidelines that guide organizations to keep a positive image to the society while at the same time working towards reducing the social, environmental, and economical issues that are experienced by the organization. The main purpose of this paper was to give a critical analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards in organization (ISO: 26000 and the UNGC to be specific). From the discussion, the paper identified various CSR standards benefits to the organization including CSR operationalization, avoiding confusions in organizations, playing an important role in supporting CSR uptake, and facilitating the process of stakeholder engagement in the organization. Additionally, the presence of CSR standards in an organization has been linked to the process of enhancing corporate reputation, promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages that have been linked to the application of these standards in the organization as discussed above include lack of enforcement, introducing extra costs into the organization, being characterized by conceptual inadequacy, and obsession with compliance amongst the employees.
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Christensen, L. T., Morsing, M., & Thyssen, O. (2017). License to critique: A communication perspective on sustainability standards. Business Ethics Quarterly, 27(2), 239-262.
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Haack, P., Schoeneborn, D., & Wickert, C. (2010). Exploring the Constitutive Conditions for a Self-Energizing Effect of CSR Standards: The Case of the’Equator Principles’.
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Husted, B. W., Montiel, I., & Christmann, P. (2016). Effects of local legitimacy on certification decisions to global and national CSR standards by multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 382-397.
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France is determined to reclaim its former glory in the tourism industry.
Two of the most important responsibilities of a school administrator are those of supervision and leadership. While there is Writing Assignment Help France is determined to reclaim its former glory in the tourism industry. How can this be achieved? Will the Marianne image representation to liberty, freedom and glory?
Add page numbering in footer
According to the data from INSEE’s Pack Hôtels Product (INSEE, 2016), the figure demonstrates the quantity of evenings remained in the entire of France by sightseers whose nation of habitation was the UK. France is a popular vacation destination for the UK tourists, more than 16 thousand of nights’ tourists staying in French hotels.
Include the bar chart sooner in here
Figure 1 Tourism Context – Nights stayed in hotels by UK tourists in France; plotted using data from INSEE (2016)
The fall in numbers of UK residents using hotels in France between 2008 and 2011 shows that the inbound tourism market is sensitive to external, social forces and can even be seen as precarious.
This means the demand for leisure has been increasing with the increasing levels of population and more people wanting to take their time off from the busy world and indulge in a peaceful vacation. The industry is not only a source of happiness to the tourist visiting the beautiful sceneries but is also a major contributor to the county’s economy the rewards gained both the socioeconomic and financial are immense in the tourism industry. Tourism has been a significant contributor to France much more than any other sector being ranked one of the best elements of trade. However, the figure tends to be seen that the fall in quantities of UK occupants utilizing hotels in France from 2008 to 2011. Its lowest point fell to 10,468,822 nights stayed in 2011 (Mansfield, 2017). Except for economic reasons, the country has been experiencing terror attacks in the recent past which has injured the tourism sector. About 84 people were killed while celebrating Bastille Day in the coastal city making it the third major attack the country had experienced in a span of 18months (Seraphin, 2017). The shocking events have raised the question on the trends in the attacks which have since been termed as the new light in the country. However, besides the terror attacks and the series of insecurity cases, France is determined to reclaim its former glory in the tourism industry. This assignment will begin by exploring the tourism industry and the history of France as far as tourism is concerned. The analysis of the various factors that contribute to the ever-growing tourism industry in France and their impacts. France has faced attacks in the recent past, which have affected the industry with fears on insecurity. With and in-depth look into past literatures from selected sources, this paper will provide in-depth study on the same while providing recommendation to ensure the country maintains its position as a tourist destination.
Lee (2011), argued that tourism is a distinctive mixture of both tangible and intangible experiences encountered by the tourists. Tourism is composed of the collective human nature of traveling and exploring different things, which is part of human life. It involves people moving from one geographical area to another with the aim of satisfying their needs for exploration. The cultural norms and values play a critical role in the industry they are the greatest assets that a country owns which shows the societal patterns of the people in the tourism industry. People desire to change and traveling and having a vacation provides pleasure and leisure while breaking the monotony of daily life.
The movement of people towards cultural attraction is the cultural tourism and entails moving to other places other than the habitual place of residence to fulfil their cultural demands. It is the visiting of places of artistic, historic or scientific interest to a particular group of the community (Lee, 2011). Although cultural tourism has not been embraced by many countries, France has embraced the opportunity.
Give 3 examples here of the state support for cultural tourism in France: 1. The Regional DRAC offices: Direction régionale des Affaires culturelles 2. A government minister for culture http://www.culture.gouv.fr/Nous-connaitre/Organisation/Franck-Riester-ministre-de-la-Culture
3. The Culture Pass, a passport for access http://www.culture.gouv.fr/Actualites/Culture-ce-qu-il-faut-retenir-de-l-annee-2018
Include map of the DRAC regions
-accommodating tourist despite having not fully explored the potential. The nature of the world’s economy dictates that people from developed countries travel as tourists to the developing countries much more than the people from developing countries visit developed countries. However, the case has since been changing with people determined to explore any country regardless of economic status. The availability of tourist destination dictates the level of tourism in the country. The quest to provide tourist destination has brought the development of infrastructure in various countries. The demand for beautiful and luxurious hotels is on the rise with players in the industry working towards being the best. The competitive industry has a significant impact on the nation being a contributor to the overall GDP while creating employment for the people.
Tourism has many advantages to the communities in which they visit. The local communities have been working tirelessly to boost tourism with local societies investing in improving the infrastructure that will enhance the tourism sector in their region. Some even go extra miles in learning English a universal language to ensure smooth communication and interaction with tourist from different parts of the world. As tourism is expected to improve the livelihood of the local communities through the revenue collected, the societies are committed to ensuring a thriving tourism industry in the region. However, tourism has its own disadvantages to society (Lee, 2011). It can cause economic dependency which can be detrimental to society in case of unsustainable tourism. Tourism has been known to cause conflicts between the local communities and the tourists. France has been a victim of the conflicts with tourist suffering under the hand of rude communities. The cases of insecurity in France are also on the rise with the target being the foreigner. The jihadist inspired attacks in France started with the deadly attack at Charlie Hebdo in 2015. The year 2015 saw over 130 people dead in a series of attacks around the country. Tourism sector was much affected in 2016 with the attack in the southeast city of Nice (Seraphin, 2017). This besides affecting the tourists also affects the industry leading to reduced revenue from the tourism industry. Nevertheless, the government has been working towards providing a safe country for both eh locals and the tourists with an increased fight against terrorism. The government through the ministry of tourism is also looking at ways including rebranding which places France at its former position in the tourism market (Lee, 2011).
France: A Tourist Destination Above the Rest
Europe is one of the busiest continent owing to its geographical nature. The formation of the continent places it in a better tourism position. The Alps in the southeast and Pyrenees in the southwest, the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the Mediterranean Sea on the west bind France. The mountains, seas, and rivers bound France giving it the essential features of tourism. Besides the geographical features in France, the city has dominant serene views that act as a tourist attraction. The capital city of France also known as the city of light draws a vast number of foreign tourists. The over 30 million visitors annually exceeds any other city in the world. The stunning architecture, the iconic Eiffel Tower, the city’s romantic image, the Louvre museum as well as the stunning sunsets are just but some of the attractions in the country. Disneyland is another major destination for visitors; the theme park receives over 15million visitors per year making France not only the largest tourist destination in Europe but also globally. Many French people shun international tourist destinations and instead choose their country for summer holidays. This is attributed to the sandy beaches, the snowcapped mountains, and the extensive countryside. France has a comprehensive offering befitting different visitors demand. For instance, the German people visit France for the beaches while the Brits visit for the extensive countryside and the Americans for the winegrowers and the culture of the French people. France also enjoys the gift of good weather in the summer (Seraphin, 2017).
The world is evolving with the era of industrialization. This has made most of the countries a harbour of activities. People being busy all year round trying to make end meets are yearning for an escape from the noisy cities. The feeling of having a peaceful stay and a breath of fresh air has made France a major destination for those people yearning for a countryside kind of life. France is majorly scenery with 80% of the country being the countryside and most of it is tranquil and stunning. Besides visiting Paris, a large number of visitors visit the landscapes with Loire valley and the Provence being popular among the visitors. The rural area is principally popular with visitors from the UK who have a glamorized visualization of the rural life in France. People enjoy the tranquillity of the rural areas escaping from the hustle and bustle of the towns and the cities.
France is famous for the gastronomic traditions with France protecting its status in the world’s food capital.
This needs proper academic journal articles not promotional writing
The French meal cannot be complete without a glass broad tastes of homemade wines. The country has registered over 24 million visitors in the country yearly visiting the Bordeaux, burgundy and other wine regions in France. Besides the culinary skills in France, the country also takes pride in its antiquity from Napoleon, world wars, and the French revolution. The ancient sites are among the places most visited by tourists. The chateaux, the churches, and the cathedrals complete the décor of the landscapes. France has been ranked fourth in the world owing to the 39-world heritage listing in UNESCO. The art galleries and the museums are a major attraction. Mona Lisa and other thousands of artefacts attract over 9 million visitors from all over the globe. France as a destination for tourists has virtually everything. It entices travellers from all walks of life with the most popular benchmarks, unique art and architecture, breath-taking beaches, beautiful countryside, glitzy ski resorts, sensational cuisines and the astounding amount of history.
Rebranding to increase revenue
The business market has been changing rapidly changing the competitive environment (Bagherpour,2014). The customers’ needs are also changing blurring the existing brand position. Consequently, new innovative ideas and promotional ways have changed leading to increased competition which forces the marketers to go back to the drawing board to keep at par with the changing markets (Bagherpour, 2014). The change of the brand is necessary to fit the consumer needs while maintaining relevance in the competitive market. The most critical question is how to resist the environmental changes and still maintain the market position. The tourists, who are the customers in the tourism industry, are a key factor in the development of strategies that help in gaining an advantage in the market. Just like any other economic activity, tourism faces all the factors affecting the market. Therefore, rebranding is necessary with the aim of maintaining and improving the clients’ relationship (Cloquet, 2016).
The increased competition in the tourism market has forced the destinations to come up with strategies and effective marketing plans to place it in a better position regarding competitiveness and differentiation from the others. Tourist destination branding embodies a means by which destination extricate itself from the mass destinations in the world. To achieve a successful destination rebranding, marketers employ various strategies that focus on the tourist experience. The experiences of the visitors in their stay at a particular destination is used to create marketing messages that will help in appealing to the emotions of potential tourists. However, for a destination to be chosen as the favourite tourist destination, it needs to have more than just appealing messages. It has to create an image that differentiates it from others.
Rebranding as a process consisting of various parts. The first part is the changing of the market appearance. The organization decides on what to change and to what extent the change should be implemented. The extent of change affects rebranding as it depends whether it is a radical change or an adjustment of the logo or slogan. Another part of the rebranding process is the decision making on the market positioning of the firm. Tourism industry faces various external factors that affect its continuity and operations (Seraphin, 2017). In such a case where the external factors such as policies and new regulations affect the industry, the rebranding can be implemented to recreate the brand. To stand out from the rest, repositioning is critical since the changes made in a company are purposely done to change the image of the firm and its overall performance. The information created while rebranding should generate an eloquent picture of the brand. The customer perception is paramount while rebranding as it determines how the customer process the information which then influences their decision making. The perception of information is different among the customers as they have a unique way of receiving the stimulus. With this in mind, the managers in the tourism industry should ensure the rebranding process captures the exposure, attention, and perception of the different target of tourists. The understanding of the perception of customers helps an organization to tailor its offering, image, and communication to influence the customers towards the given brand.
Tourism in France has been a significant economic factor for the longest time (Cloquet, 2016). In 1971, the Paris convention and visitors’ bureau was created with three specific missions. The missions were the welcoming of visitors, promotion of the destinations and informing the public. The convention was created following the joint initiative of the Paris city council and the Paris chamber of commerce and industry. Various factors were considered in terms of rebranding and the placing of France among the leading destination in the world. The first question was on the use of the Eiffel tower. The tower stands as the most significant landmark in the capital city, Paris. It would be difficult to describe the city without a mention of the Eiffel tower. Communication with the international audience is made effective by the referring to the great Eiffel tower. However, the tower was an overused visual territory. Therefore, a concentrated and straightforward typographic desired was considered that suggested a Parisian vista. The drawing of the A evoked the Eiffel tower resulting in the discreet logotype.
The Paris passlib was the first application of the graphic design. It provided access to various monuments and museums in Paris and Île-de-France. The pass came with a pocketbook that contained all the suitable information for the visitors. The variation in the logo was based on the idea of traveling between several locations. The simple design created room allowing for the drawing of a tourist map of Paris. The previous designs and graphics layouts were based on the combination of the Paris city made the Eiffel tower. The only different feature in the design was the colour. The image and print used in the branding of France as a tourist destination contribute to the increase in revenue. The image created portrays the broad picture of the nation as a tourist destination which in turn entices more tourists to visit the country ultimately increasing the revenue from tourist activities (Corne, 2015).
A favourable nation image is crucial to the success of tourism. The popularity of a nation not only occur due to the features in that particular state but how well they are marketed. France has beautiful sceneries and other tourist destinations. However, the revenue from the tourism sector has not yet been maximized. Nation branding allows the government to better place the nation in a way attractive for tourism and other investments. Branding revolves around creating an image as well as ensuring that the destination is safe for the tourists. In creating a brand, it is critical to major on the most attractive features in a country. France among others has the Eiffel tower which stands out from the rest. The renowned figure has many people yearning to have a visit to the country. However, besides the tower, the country has many other features that can make the country more attractive to travellers. In the past, the country uses the Eiffel tower as its principal brand representative. The city of Paris was also used in the branding. This made the country a target for visitors who wanted to tour the city of love. However, many travellers would wish to visit other parts of nations such as the rural areas. In such a case, the brand may not give a full representation of the country regarding tourist opportunities to tour the countryside.
The lavish French Riviera, the scrumptious cellars and the iconic Eiffel tower places France as the world number one tourist destination. However, it is not number one in tourism revenue to the country’s tourism authority. A campaign to rebrand the country was launched to enable the place already considered by many travellers as a dreamland regain its former glory. The country according to the united nations (UN) world tourism organization receives millions of visitors annually. However, international competition is changing with the change in consumer demand as well as with the superior tourist revenue from countries such as Spain and the united states. This has provoked a serious soul searching for France to enable it to climb the revenue ladder.
The French government launched a new brand that included a travel campaign and a logo intended to revive the tourism revenue. The logo made of a young woman who symbolizes Marianne, a metaphorical figure and national symbol since the French revolution. Marianne represent liberty, freedom and counter the terrorist propaganda? The tagline “Rendez-vous en France,” is designed to entice visitors to visit France and have a taste of the fine wine, food, and fashion. Marianne invokes what the mansion de la France, and the tourism authority term as the qualities that make the country unique. The escapade and impulsiveness, the amusing history and the romance are all found in France. On a closer look at the logo, one notices the word France just above the tagline forming the upper half of Marianne’s body. The previous logo was more revealing with the uncovered breasts joined by letters R and A. the version was however considered too seductive to the foreign tourist market.
The Marianne image forms the mantra of tourism in France. It is therefore used to acknowledge the glory that France used to have and seeks to show how it still retains the glory despite the challenges. According to the ministry chief, more visitors should spend their time in France. He wants to let the world now that there is more to see in France other than the Eiffel tower and the beautiful urban stretch around the monument base. The choice of logo and tagline has significant effects on the tourism industry as it gives a rough picture of what to expect in their adventure in France. Tourism just like any other business needs marketing strategies that will ensure it is better placed regarding competitiveness, customer loyalty and retention, and also new customers to the business. A well-designed logo and tagline not only plays a paramount role in the advertising and marketing of a firm but also ensures that the brand stands out from the rest. France has in the recent past faces hurdles in the tourism industry with the visitors in the country besides the beautiful sceneries are left with a feeling of a rude encounter with the people in France (Corne, 2015). The government through the ministry of tourism is working daily to ensure that the public has a sense of welcoming towards visitors. Although the country is leading in terms of the number of tourists in the country, it is still behind regarding sales. The poor sales are attributed to the rudeness of the people. Although a few people go home with stories of rudeness, the ministry is committed to ensuring the tourists have a different story on their experience in France. The ministry employs a combo of diversification and accommodation to its marketing strategies. The website rendezvousenfrance.com. Contains heritage sites, regional vineyards, summer festivals among other elements aimed at giving the tourists a glimpse of what to expect in their visit to France (Corne, 2015).
The new logo shows a stylized version of France’s figurehead and features a new strapline. When launching the initiative, the tourism minister emphasized the need for a new approach as France was headed in the wrong direction in terms of the revenue generated from tourism. France had lost its number one spot in the European tourist market, and it was time to reconsider the whole tourism industry. Foreigners termed France as arrogant and as such the minister insisted on France showing its different side. For tourism to thrive, the people need to be more welcoming to the line a nation rich in diversity and accommodative to all. The female figure shows a young woman as she looks towards the future. The image shows a promise for a better future ahead. Another memorable thing about the logo is the tagline “Rendez-vous en France,” which is more appealing to those people who have a sense of fashion, love for good food and fine wine. The design of the logo from marine to the tagline labels France as a unique tourist destination (Corne, 2015).
The new logo and tagline appeal to audiences who have a unique love for great things. France is known to be among the leading destinations identified by its famous countryside, art, culture and history, cuisine and its broad array of fine wine. A person looking for a place to have a beautiful view of the countryside while dining on the French specialist and have a couple of glasses of homemade wine is the primary target of the logo. The loo is appealing to different kind of visitors ranging from the young who love city life, the lovers who want to visit the city of romance and also to the old who want a peaceful vacation at the countryside. The rebranding of the tourism logo is meant to raise the awareness of the French tourism and increase the number of visitors into the country and ultimately optimize on the revenue for the tourism industry (Corne, 2015).
Over 87000 voters chose the picture and tagline. The online contest brought about different voters from the country who participated in the selection of the image and the tagline. The choice of the tagline is one of the best choices that the tourism ministry of France made as it is not unique, but it also has a way of seducing people to visit France. The picture of the young female can be used to represent the future. Women are known to be the mothers of society. The use of a young woman shows a woman ready to mother the tourism industry leading it to the future. The figure can also present the hospitality that the tourist can expect during their stay in the country. Generally, women are polite and hospitable beings, and in the tourism industry, all hat the visitors yearn besides the beautiful scenery is welcoming society. The French people have been accused of rudeness to the tourist in the past. The minister for tourism had been working tirelessly in changing the notion of the foreigners towards the French people and also the attitude of the people towards the tourists (Corne, 2015).
Touriste; A Good Idea
Explain more and better what Touriste is, and where you found it (Reference)
As Yu, Kim, Chen and Schwartz (2012) outlines, the concept of a touriste is that it is person who loves or rather enjoys going to other destinations, particularly those different from their usual environment. These are people that enjoy traveling and seeing more compared to where they grew up and term as their home. They take every chance to travel as an opportunity (Yu, Kim, Chen & Schwartz, 2012). Some fears hold back a person limiting them from experiencing more from a given opportunity. One of that fear is the fear of a new language. People fear traveling to countries where they do not speak the language. Communication is the basis of life and not being able to communicate can be frustrating and at times scary. Personally, touriste is not my first language, but due to my nature of wanting to explore different grounds, I took the time to learn the language. Touriste is an essential language to people visiting France as it not only makes the stay easy but also allows the individual to have ease in interacting with the locals. Learning of the basic terms of a foreign language comes in handy especially if a person intends on touring that country someday. Although English is the universal language of travel, sometimes local languages can be used in signs at the tourist attractions. Some sites also have tour guides that have no or little idea of English. In such a case, a person is required to use the basic language learned to communicate and also at times translate to the other tourists.
Although it is not good for people in the hospitality industry to be conscious of the cultural difference of the visitors, it is critical to have a little knowledge of the local culture of the people in the area of the visit. This not only ensures the visitors navigate easily in the region but also helps in the interaction with the communities which is a sign of respect to the locals. The French people like to be complimented, and with the knowledge of the language, it is easy to relate with eth people.
The tourism industry is among the leading industries in the world’s economy. The revenue collected from tourism activities goes a long way in increasing the total GDP of a country. The availability of beautiful sceneries, wildlife, and other attractions automatically places a country in a better position in the tourism industry. However, just like any other business, tourism requires efficient marketing strategies that will the tourist destination is known as well as making them being the first choice among competing destinations in the world. Branding and rebranding strategies ensure that the industry and a country is marketed well to the world and is ready to face the stiff competition and emerge the winner measured through the total revenue collected from the tourism sector. An example of France would be that it has been able to attain a revenue of 42$ billion in the year of 2016 which would be 36.35£ billion (“France Tourism Revenue”, 2018). Security in a country is also paramount as tourists need a peaceful and safe destination that they can have their vacation without fears of attacks. France although having experienced terror attacks in the recent past that shook the tourism industry, it is still fighting to retain its former glory and being the first tourism destination in the world (Seraphin, 2017).
References – change to set in 1.0 Line Spacing for References
Bagherpour, I. (2014). Business Market Segmentation. The Accounting, Economics And Financial Management Conference.
Cloquet, I. (2016). Tourism, recreation, and regional development: Perspectives from France and abroad. Tourism Management, 57, pp.1-2.
Corne, A. (2015). Benchmarking and tourism efficiency in France. Tourism Management, 51, pp.91-95.
France Tourism Revenue. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/france/tourism-revenue
INSEE (2016), Pack Hôtels Product, L’Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (Insee), Ordered online 10.8.2016 Available at:
Lee, A. (2011). Tourism branding: communities in action. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), pp.343-344.
Mansfield, C. (2017) ‘Travel Writing in Place Branding – A Case Study on Nantes’ Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing 3(2) 1-7.
Seraphin, H. (2017). Terrorism and tourism in France: the limitations of dark tourism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(2), pp.187-195.
Yu, X., Kim, N., Chen, C., & Schwartz, Z. (2012). Are You a Tourist? Tourism Definition from the Tourist Perspective. Tourism Analysis, 17(4), 445-457. doi: 10.3727/108354212×13473157390687
Research Philosophy 14 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY Students Name Professor Institution of affiliation Date
Research Philosophy 14
Institution of affiliation
Date of submission
The type of research philosophy applied by a researcher contributes significantly towards determining the success if their research. It is therefore essential for researchers to pick the most appropriate philosophy that will help them achieve their research goals. As a result of this, the primary purpose of this reflective paper is to give a detailed discussion of the philosophical approach that I will use in my dissertation. My reflection will be based on the knowledge that I have acquired throughout the module “Research Methods and Practice.” My main aim in this discussion will be to identify the most appropriate philosophical approach that I will use in my research based on how it perfectly fits my probable research methodology on the topic, “A critical evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China.” I will then explain my research approach in a clear and more detailed way.
Identifying the philosophical approach
My research will be guided by both epistemological and ontological beliefs. The type of beliefs that I have concerning the world as well as the methods that I can use to understand these beliefs contribute significantly towards determining the type of methodology that I will adopt in my study (Bhaskar, 1978). The process of picking the most appropriate research philosophy for my research is imperative because it will inform the kind of data to use and the most appropriate methods that will successfully lead me towards getting this data (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). Philosophy in this context is defined as the process of developing both knowledge and the nature of consciousness. Research philosophy, therefore, refers to a specific method of knowledge development that is used by researchers to define their philosophical paradigm (Hardy, 2014). The existing knowledge development and understanding is depended on many assumptions that are based on our world perspective for my research topic, “A critical evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China.”
A researcher may decide to focus on the quality of his or her products while others may focus their attention on the methods applied for purposes of achieving their research objectives (Neuman, 1997). The adoption of the right philosophical approach will give me an opportunity to decide the kind of approach to adopt and for what reasons. It is, therefore, crucial for me to determine the most appropriate philosophical approach that will guide me towards getting to my set goals. By considering the epistemological approach, I will consider positivism, realism, and interpretivism. The choice of positivism is based on the fact that it will enable me to generalize some of my findings just like natural scientists do their work.
On adopting this approach, I will be prompted to get facts about the research instead of working with projections that could lead to inappropriate results being attained in my research topic on the evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). Concerning interpretivism, I will base my research on the process of understanding how humans behave based on their different roles as social influencers (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). My main concern when taking this option will be focused on interpreting the social functions of the research subjects based on their perspectives or meanings.
Taking this specific action will be based on the fact that my research is based on the feelings that I will have concerning the study topic presented. Adopting this philosophy will be instrumental in helping me learn the reaction of the study population based on my personal feelings and perception of the issues presented for study. Additionally, if this approach is picked for the review, some of the research methods that will be adopted include interviews, text analysis, and personal observations, all that happen to be very instrumental in getting first hand data that will enable me get all the required data without having to worry about any data distortions (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). The fact that this approach calls for the adoption of the qualitative approach will lead to effectiveness and efficiency in the data collection and analysis process.
The adoption of realism focuses on the process of making scientific inquiry based on the reality projected by the researchers’ perception as truth (Stanley, and Wise, 1983). The adoption of this approach is based on the fact that everything should independently exist from humans. The application of this approach is closely linked to positivism but fairly contrasts with both the critical and direct realist (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). Determining the kind of perception that I will adopt will be vital because it will help me identify the research methods that I will apply in my research. The approach adopted will contribute significantly to helping me pick the best and the most appropriate research method for my study.
The other option that I would choose for the research is that of opting to adopt an ontology approach that will entail picking between subjectivism and objectivism. The application of subjectivism as an approach is based on its ability to place its focus in creating different social phenomenon from both the perceptions and the resulting action of the involved social factors. The application of the ontological approach is continually being reviewed via continuous social interactions that have happened between different parties (Stanley, and Wise, 1983). The use of the interpretivist approach can best be applied by researchers developing psychological strategies for purposes of luring customers into their research.
Subjectivists on the other hand firmly believe their customers as social actors who tend to interpret a specific situation based on their perception on the world as well as through their interactions with their immediate environment (Hughes, and Sharrock, 1997). As such, for any researcher to make the right strategies that significantly affect the psychology of their customers, he or she should correctly understand their customer’s subjective reality as well as their goals in the best way possible (Juma´h, 2006). In this case, therefore, the application of qualitative methodology when this approach is adopted in research is inevitable.
Objectivists on the other hand firmly believe that the existence of different social entities, in reality, happens externally to the social actors. A perfect example, in this case, is that of the supply chain management process remains unchanged irrespective of the change that happens to different actors like the logistics providers, producers, manufacturers, consumers and suppliers who jointly form the social actors (Stake, 1995). The approach also holds on to the fact that organizations and their social entity usually remain unchanged irrespective of the change in their social actors. For researchers who adopt this approach, the use of either the quantitative or the mixed methods is always preferred over the other means.
The application of the pragmatic approach entails having the researcher focus on utilizing both the interpretivist and positivist philosophies while at the same time viewing the two as a continuum instead of seeing them as contradictions (Juma´h, 2006). The adoption of the pragmatist approach is always characterized by the researcher avoiding to make any argument concerning reality and truth. Instead, the researchers focus their attention on learning their issues of value and interest as well as how they apply different techniques that help bring out positive results. The adoption of this approach is also considered important because it focuses on studying all the issues of value and interest while at the same time using different methods to bring out positive results (Juma´h, 2006). It has been considered very useful in helping researchers to improve their level of satisfaction in anything that they engage in because it considers the role of all the different individuals. It also embraces the application of both qualitative and quantitative research methods.
Based on the discussions provided above, I will go for the pragmatist approach because it offers everything that I will need for my research on “A critical evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China” to be successful. The application of this approach will also give me the freedom to apply both the qualitative and quantitative research techniques, thus attaining the expected results without imposing any restrictions on my research work. I will generally work towards improving how best I will achieve my research results in the best and most appropriate way possible. The philosophy will also help me reach to the study results better and in a more effective way possible. The methods to be adopted during the study will be purely based on the provisions of this philosophy.
Aligning pragmatist and methodology
In line with the identified pragmatist, this section seeks to give a detailed discussion of case studies, qualitative and quantitative research method and state the approach that I am likely to apply in my research. The application of quantitative methods in research has been linked to positivist philosophy while qualitative research methods are related to the subjectivist researchers (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The primary function of this is related to the fact that different scientific goals can be attained based on the selected techniques while the goals can be used to reflect the mentioned research philosophy. The main aim quantitative technique is to produce knowledge that can be generalized by the replicative, comparative, and systematic measurements and observation (Long, White, Friedman, and Brazael, 2000). This method is applied in descriptive statistics because of its ability to analyze some of the variations in the study populations via abstract explanations.
The other reasons why quantitative data is applied in different researches are based on its ability to test hypothesis while at the same time examining the correlations between the study variables (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The use of quantitative techniques gives the researcher an opportunity to handle large volumes of data while at the same time examining the variations within the broader study populations. It has also been termed as one of the cheapest ways of acquiring information study information when compared to the other data collection methods like in-depth qualitative techniques. Its application also aims at meeting the scientific standards of validity, reliability, objectivity, and replicability (Kumar, 2011). It should be understood that quantitative techniques and their objectives are not compatible with the pragmatist approach identified.
On the other hand, qualitative methods focus their attention on the process of understanding the means and the phenomena being studied. The scientific requirements of qualitative methods are always aimed at achieving different research goals like meeting credibility criteria, dependability, transferability, and a high level of conformability (Long, White, Friedman, and Brazael, 2000). The application of these methods is considered very strong in terms of internal validity that makes the data to match its theoretical proposition (Kumar, 2011). The use of qualitative techniques also gives the researcher the opportunity to gather in-depth data and information about their research, thus offering them a wider exploration scope.
Case studies are also considered to be important in the research process due to its ability to help researchers answer the question Why and How during the research process (Bryman, and Bell, 2011). The researcher is always equipped with valuable information on when their phenomenon of interest happened and how it happened. The researcher does not always have control over the events being studied in their research (Mason, 2002). When applying this research method, the researcher always states categorically that it is always possible to transfer their findings of a broader case to their population through analytical generalization process (Hardy, 2014).
When using this approach, I will adopt three different steps that will enable me to capture the required study information. The first steps that I will take in this study will, therefore, be either identifying a group of cases that are similar or describing any of the single cases in question (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). The process of identifying the groups of similar situations will be for purposes of incorporating multiple case-studies into a single case. The other step will be carrying out research to determine what is known and what is not known about the study to be conducted. This type of research will be done from different secondary sources like grey literature, current literature, and reports amongst other secondary data sources (Sapsford, 2007).
My study on “”A critical evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China” will be directed towards answering a set of questions that are developed by researchers to purposely guide them get the right information from the mentioned literature sources (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). It is essential to understand that data in case studies is not always supposed to be exclusively qualitative because the quantitative type of data could also be used in this type of research to clarify the issues raised by the researcher (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). I will also be required to develop different study themes based on the nature of data that I propose to get. It is, however, essential to understand that case studies do not only focus on generalization, but it also focuses on the uniqueness of the case presented in their specific context.
Based on the explanation provided above on qualitative research methods, it is apparent that I can apply this method in my dissertation. Because my work can precisely work correctly through qualitative methods, the application of the case study will also be considered useful for the study. The reason for choosing a case study is linked to the fact that it will give me an opportunity to look into my research topic by doing interviews and recording the conversations, thus making it a qualitative type of study (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). I will also seek other complementary data sources that will improve the quality of my data significantly.
Despite the applications of these methods being considered useful and of absolute importance to my study, the course has taught us that every approach and method applied has its advantages and disadvantages (Sayer, 1992). The course also equipped me with the right knowledge on how to pick the correct research method that has more benefits than drawbacks (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). The adoption of the methods discussed above has been done after carefully looking at both their advantages and disadvantages. I have looked at their weaknesses in a detailed way for purposes of understanding the kind of trouble that each of the methods offers, and this made me take the technique that will bring me less trouble.
However, even after looking at these effects, there are still some ethical considerations that I need to make for purposes of making sure that everything will happen as planned as without going against the set research ethics (Bond, 2000). Considering all the ethical provisions of scientific research will be the most useful thing to do because it will help me to do my discussions without having to worry about anything or without the fear that my work could be plagiarized or is not as per the set standards (University of Leeds, 2013). The equipment used to record information and data during the research will also need to be checked for purposes of making sure that the data captured is of high quality.
Additionally, based on the fact that the study will be qualitative in nature makes it will be essential for me to develop the right trust that will enable me to get the correct data and information for the study while at the same time helping the interviewees to be comfortable during the entire research process (Bond, 2000). The reason for doing this is based on the fact that failure to make the researchers comfortable will lead to biased information being offered by the interviewees (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). It is also important to understand that the privacy and the security of the researcher will have to be assured. It is essential to understand that the confidentiality of the study participants need to be entirely developed for purposes of making them comfortable and protecting everything that they say because if not well preserved, it could be accessed by unscrupulous individuals to expose issues that are not supposed to be known by the public.
My dissertation will be on “A critical evaluation of factors impacting graduate recruitment and selection in China,” and my main focus will be identifying the factors that have been affecting graduate recruitment and selection in China. To collect the right data on the factors affecting graduate recruitment and selection in China, I will interview a good number of the graduates in different departments in the organization. I will carry out the interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire that will only act as a guide to getting the right information and data from the research participants.
Previous studies have indicated that the factors that have been affecting graduate recruitment and selection in China have also been affecting the rate of graduate transition from college to their various sectors (Boxall, and Purcell, 2003). While various methods have been identified as being instrumental in improving graduate absorption in China, the issue of how effective the efforts adopted are in helping graduates deal with their various issues after graduation in China been widely debated over the last few years (Tomlinson, Muzio, Sommerlad, Webley, and Duff, 2013). To get this information therefore, I will engage a number of graduates who have experienced these issues first hand through their mails and telephone calls. I will also review the existing literature on the same topic to find out what other researchers have found concerning the research topic.
The study will enable me to use both qualitative and quantitative research methods in determining the factors that have been affecting graduate recruitment and selection in China. I will, therefore, need to make some ethical considerations that are aimed at making sure that everything works perfectly towards making the study ethical. In line with ensuring that the ethical considerations for the study are kept, I will make sure that I acquire all the necessary documentation and permissions for the research. Additionally, each of my interviews will be accompanied by a detailed explanation of a consent that will clearly explain to the interviewees the main reason for the research, as well as the dos and the, don’ts. I will also concentrate my efforts in making sure that the study does not affect the privacy of the study population in any way.
The purpose of this paper was to give a detailed discussion of the research philosophy and methods that I would take in my study as well as a detailed description of all the ethical concerns that I will adopt for purposes of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of my dissertation. The paper has highlighted some philosophies that I considered to be highly effective in my study, with my main focus being in explaining the approach that I am more likely to adopt into my dissertation. Secondly, I discussed the linkages between the research philosophy picked and different study methods like qualitative, quantitative, and case studies methods amongst others. The paper has also presented a number of ethical considerations that are supposed to be followed in my study include that of ensuring the privacy of the interviewees, while at the same time meeting all the essential research requirements like getting the right documentation in terms of research approvals for the study. The adoption of this philosophy and research methods will make the project manageable. The data collection and analysis parts of the study will be easy due to the step-by-step guide linked to these methods. The fact that I will be evaluating the factors that have been affecting graduate recruitment and selection in China, I will use both primary and secondary data collection methods. Looking at both the primary and secondary data collection methods will be paramount in diversifying how the source of data and information that I will use for the study.
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21 Running Head: INTERGRATING SUSTAINABILITY AND BSC 1 How sustainability can be
Running Head: INTERGRATING SUSTAINABILITY AND BSC 1
How sustainability can be better integrated with Balances Scorecard
This dissertation explains how the effects of sustainability on the balance scorecard of a business organization. Sustainability of a business is determined by the corporate governance and support from other related business organizations. The corporate governance also affects the balance scorecard of the business organization. In markets scarcity is shown by changes in market prices of products and services, qualitative information such as social and environmental factors are only partially reflected in the price changes yet they are very crucial information about the market. Management reacts to changes in the social and environmental environment by correspondingly adjusting prices of the products but they haven’t been able to accurately determine the effect of the qualitative changes. It is until recently that management has been able to design systems that are able to quantify social and environmental changes and being able to affect the impact on market transactions. This dissertations compares the effects of the corporate governance on sustainability and the effects of the corporate governance on balance scorecard hence enabling the determination of the effects of sustainability on the balance scorecard of a business organization. The dissertation uses case study of Sapa Heat transfer, SKF and ABB Control which are engineering companies from Sweden. The companies selected for this study were sampled from a number of companies for the case study.
.Keywords: Case Study, Sustainability, Corporate Governance, Balance Scorecard.
Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction 3
1.1 Background of the Information 3
1.2 Problem of the Study 6
1.3 Study Objectives. 7
1.3.1 Main Objective 7
1.3.2 Specific Objectives 7
1.4 Assumptions 7
1.5 Scope of the Study 7
1.6 Significance of the study 8
1.7 Conceptual Framework 9
1.8 Research Questions 11
2.0 Literature Review 12
2.1 The Balanced Scorecard Approach 12
2.2 Sustainability of the Balanced Scorecard 14
2.3 The principles of OECD on corporate governance. 15
2.4 Ranking and Measurement of Corporate Governance 15
2.5 Company Performance and the Corporate Governance 16
2.6 Impact of taxation on sustainability of small businesses 17
2.7 Theoretical Framework of Corporate Governance 18
2.8 Benefits of organizational principles of sustainable management. 20
3.0 Methodology 21
3.1 Introduction 21
3.2 Good Corporate Governance Relationship 23
3.3 The Case Studies. 25
3.3.1 The case of Sapa Heat Transfer 25
3.3.2 The Case of SKF 27
3.3.3 The Case of ABB Control 31
4.0: Discussion and Conclusion 34
4.1 Discussion 34
4.2 Conclusion 36
1.1 Background of the Information
According to Schaltegger et. al (2006), Sustainability accounting is a new business trend which evaluates the business environment and concerns about the social, political, environmental and economic performance management of a corporate and it’s sustainability.it can also be viewed as an effort by business to account for the social and environmental aspect of a business on its operation and many organization is recognizing the effects of their economic activities on a social and environmental context of their operations (Unerman, 2007). Sustainability accounting has therefore in modern society become an important business strategy and there have been concerns about the rules and guidelines followed when developing these organization’s activities. Proper management system has been identified as an important factor in the development of sustainability accounting strategy in an organization, which helps to link the social and environmental external factors of business with its business model. A good framework also integrates these factors with economic factors of a business to help in the generating the sustainability report.
Sustainability reporting is a voluntary practice for many companies as there has been no legislation on guiding business on how to prepare this reports and there are no unanimously agreed on standards to be followed when preparing the report. According to Adam (2007), there are however some basic guidelines that followed when preparing reports, they are classified according to the reporting objectives. However, there are no guidelines on how to prepare a report that can address all of the organizational needs, this because different organization have different need and different sustainability report. It is therefore impossible to have standardized guidelines on sustainability reporting.
In today’s ever dynamic business environment business need to be very keen when developing their business strategy in order in the long run to have a competitive advantage. With the adoption of sustainability accounting and reporting the value of the market is no longer only determined to by economic factors alone. Instead is determined by all the business factors of a business including the political, social, environmental, legal factors and how they relate and integrate with the business model and strategies. Therefore the development and implementation of such a strategy are critical to the survival and competitiveness of business.
In markets scarcity is shown by changes in market prices of products and services, qualitative information such as social and environmental factors are only partially reflected in the price changes yet they are very crucial information about the market. Management reacts to changes in the social and environmental environment by correspondingly adjusting prices of the products but they haven’t been able to accurately determine the effect of the qualitative changes. It is until recently that management has been able to design systems that are able to quantify social and environmental changes and being able to affect the impact on market transactions. The duty of companies in attaining sustainability can be weighted on a strategic and instrumental aspect of the company (Hart, 1995). However, it has been a challenge for companies to integrate these systems with their existing system and therefore it has not been possible to factor in these social and environmental issues with the success of an organization putting into question the economic based contribution of social and environmental analysis. If companies are to attain simultaneous increase in the social, environmental and economic business performance due to strong contribution to sustainability then lack of integration will be undesirable( Figge et al,2001). According to Wagner (2001), Analysis made on the economic performance in relation to the social and environmental issue has mainly focused on correlational aspect and to a causal effect. There is scarce literature about the economic benefits accruing from social and environmental issues of business operations.
A Balanced Scorecard (BSC) can be defined as a tool for top management which is used to formulate and measure the organization’s performance in both the non-financial and financial strategies. It can also be defined as an organizational management tool that is used to manage the stakeholder’s demand and to translate the organizational strategies into action. The stakeholders of a business include the shareholders, customers, suppliers, employees among others. The stakeholder’s demands are integrated into the management of the business. The BSC as a management technique is used to identify an important aspect of the business.it evaluates and analysis the aspect of the business that is critical in the implementation of the business strategies and achieving of its objectives (Norton, 1997). Therefore the use of the BSC is an effective way of integrating the social and environmental strategy with the general business strategy.
Indicators provided out by researchers on the sustainable development of a set of BSC can always be in a position of obtaining a number of construction styles depending on its specific objective. A property from a sampled group may be termed to be desirable in most cases as per its objective. An assessment concerning sustainability which is retrospective is in most cases based on the environmental state which includes the stock available as per the other assets of the business. To forecast for the sustainability of an economy in the coming future requires one to pressurize the description of the environmental inter-linkage modelling between the environmental, social, and economic variables as per the derivative causal relationship within the business like as in the economic theory of sustainability. On the basis transition management indicators, the sustainability is aimed at yielding out to the business an additional requirement as the indicators of the system are always constructed in a way such that they support the critical management based on the business in learning, integrating, and communication. The BSC in the recent years has gradually developed and is now been implemented as an organizational instrument indicator and strategic tool of management that is been used up by a number of companies (Kaplan & Norton, 1996).
BSC ensures that it both a range of an extension that can be used by the indicators for balancing and controlling the processes of the business and also to have an organized indicator that will always show on the systematic way of the business. The BSC even in sometimes may lead to a system indicator that is aimed at supporting the strategic development of the business and also the integral consistency of a measurable variety with respect to its own strategy in the business process. The approach aimed by the BSC is mainly adapted for the management of the business that is sustainable and aimed at managing both the profit and non-profit organizations.
This paper explains how the continuous improvement based capabilities strategy were developed using a case study of four manufacturing companies located in a sampled country, Sweden and the implementation of the BSC. A number of case studies were conducted to make it easy to determine how the sustainability can better be integrated with the BSC using the continuous improvement strategy. This paper explains how BSC use was adapted in each continuous improvement strategy. It is difficult to ensure sustainability of the developed capability through the management control system.
1.2 Problem of the Study
The Becht et al. (2000) made an argument on this corporate governance whose problem will mainly arise whenever an investor from outside the sampled country would wish to control and manage the firm on a different charge in the firm. This causes the sustainability of a business by the BSC. It was later identified that a risk outside the investor’s area of exploration is a problem in the corporate governance. The literature that is done recently is mainly based on the new studied premise of the main topic under the study of corporate governance activities problems which are self-centered in the dispersed management out by its stakeholders. The main casual problem of this corporate governance based in a sampled country like the USA is on the alleviation which leads to the conflict of interest and is always an interest in between some small shareholders and the controlling leadership.
This situation described in all the above statements do not in most cases show up for the most possible discussed manifestation of this named problems of the corporate governance. Nevertheless, if the reader of the discussed idea may nature the field under study in this thesis with a less glance in a broad division between the insiders and outsiders. The distinction between control and ownership is described by theories which help up in solving this problem. The cooperate governance, continuous improvement can give the BSC sustainability.
1.3 Study Objectives.
1.3.1 Main Objective
To determine how the sustainability of a business organization can be integrated better with the BSC and its effects on the performance.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
To determine the effects of integrating the sustainability of a profit-making business organization with the BSC.
To determine the effects of integrating the sustainability of a non-profit making business organization with the BSC.
To determine the effect of corporate governance on both the financial and non-financial institutions on the sustainable basis of the BSC.
It is assumed that the quantitative method used for data collection in the field that involves the corporate governance and financial organizations are the best method that can provide accurate data for the study.
The respondents that the researcher gets from both the corporate governance and the financial organizations are positive for the study.
The data collected is the best data, and the methods used for data analyzing will accurately define the importance of the research in this thesis.
All required tools, methods of data collection and analysis are well provided, and the research will perfectly work to achieve all the objectives cited in the already presented research proposal.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This dissertation aims out at exploring the basic potential in a business process based on the BSC approach that supports the strategic sustainability of a society. This approach is by the provision of the rules that are used to organize the indicators systematically on the basis of the judgment of the sustainability progress and by supporting the management of the business critically as required in the process of the sustainable transition. The study of this paper will base on the sustainability as strategized by the Federal Government of an organized Company. It is mainly based on the extent to which the corresponding strategy of the BSC approach is mainly pointed and in most cases some improvement is recommended on the same sustainability of the economy.
Additionally, the research will investigate whether this impacts of corporate governance are positively or negatively correlated with the activities of the business financial institutions. It is hoped that the research will advance the understanding of the impacts of the corporate governance among the available business financial organizations and institutions. After collecting the data, it will be analyzed as per its effect than help us to determine the impacts that are affecting the available business organizations and institutions which are caused by the corporate governance in the business field.
The objectives of this dissertation will determine if sustainability can be made better by the use of a BSC. This paper will first examine the BSC, stating its possible different form. Subsequently, the paper will concentrate on the sustainability of the BSC. It is basically designed to how the sustainability of a business is based on the balance of scorecard.
1.6 Significance of the study
The primary aim of this dissertation is mainly to add an improvement the based on performance degree of financial institutions across the main basic studied measures which are enough work in a content of the business, procedures, and rules in the field, strictness in adherence to practices set up by corporate governance and the reduction in the problems of the employees. This thesis tests a good claim on that corporate governance may lead to both direct and also the indirect economic gain of this financial institution, making this company be more profit making and compete effectively with others. Therefore, from the above, it is clear that the goal of this research is to assess the effects that affect the performance of financial institutions caused by corporate governance. The dissertation targets both the profit-making and non-profit making business organizations. The integration between sustainability of the business and the scorecard test helps in determination of the suitable business progress to run in a given corporate area. The test can also determine what type of business organization one has to get involved. This revolves around both the profit-making and the non-profit making organization. The corporate governance also determines the BSC of both financial and non-financial organizations.
1.7 Conceptual Framework
This study on the sustainability of the balance of scorecard is based on the five explained conceptual premises. Firstly, there are some categorizations of a based team which is strategies in some engineering companies in a sampled country like Sweden. Lindberg & Berger (1997) recognized out in a distinction that was made between the three different strategies which were based in an engineering team of designing, managing and organizing the systems for the continuous improvement in the sampled country as based in the engineering industry. The forces used in this study are an expert task force, wide, organic, process, content or goals. Based on the mentioned companies that actually have adopted the task expert of force strategy in the sampled country, the consumer price index is carried out in an in major projects which are being mainly staffed with some professional officials from the engineering, production and other known limited extent in the sampled country. Management can be defined by the person in charge, the process under control as a particular point and the content activities taking place at a given particular time. In an organic strategy, the team of production can carry out continuous improvement work while the management team is carrying out the control of a set strategy on the goals related to the business. This is all aimed at focusing the strategy of the team experts to work on the predefined process involved in the sustainability of the BSC.
The work was done by the Lindberg & Berger (1997) mainly described the systematic and structural approach of the consumer price index can both be established in this study to determine the how sustainability affects the BSC of a business. The research done by the above-mentioned researchers failed to consider some problematic issues of a third level progressive as proposed by Bessant etal. This also involved the establishment of a capability strategy for the continuous improvement. The key environmental factors of this study level are the second study conceptual and they include characteristics behaviour pattern of the continuous improvement.
The third conceptual concerned premise used in this study is based on the management control system which is used to implement the characteristics of behaviours of the third continuous improvement level as described in the second conceptual premise above. In this study, the researcher chooses to limit the work on the BSC so as to determine how it is affected by the sustainability of an organization. Previous researchers describe out of two significantly different approaches used to help in the implementation and usage of the BSC (Lundahl & Ewing, 1997). They suggested that there should a centralized approach on one side, which was termed to be closely related to the original idea of Kaplan and Norton. Kaplan & Norton (1995) described the BSC as the main tool for the communication in the top management used to formulate the strategies and the hierarchy of the organization. Lundahl and Ewing on the other side described the decentralized approach whose intention was mainly to come up with a development based tool that allows the use of front-line teams of production whom formulates strategies and scorecards associated to the general company strategic planning and scorecard. The support design list has the role to change the company and make it to a more process-oriented emphasizing on the horizontal dimension. The understanding of decentralized BSC slant originates from Lundahl & Ewing (1997) case study on ABB Control Company. An article reported the local effort on continuous improvement in related to the enactment of the BSC.
The forth conceptual premise aims at the design administration control system conferring to the levels of management which are compared to the level of operation for the sustainability of the strategic continuous improvement capability over a period of time. The work tasks in the case studies had the needed information in the learning process of the levels of management and it disregarded the different implementation and use of the BSC which creates a commitment strategy among the members of an organization for a long run (Norreklit et al., 2000). The management control system of a company is highly adaptable to the reference of the organizations that aims at creating a dialogue between the members.
The fifth conceptual premise is the one used to claim the relationship gained in between then organizational work at the level of organization and then continuous improvement. This conceptual was chosen to explain a study further, regarding the sustaining and developing of a strategic continuous improvement capability based on two main reasons: learning opportunities and work process and motivation to improve the process of work in the organizations. First, the use of system and structure alignment on the strategic planning of the continuous improvement of a company is not enough, therefore employees need to be motivated on the level of operation so as to improve the continuous improvement. The theory of redesigning a work specifies the continuous motivation that improves the level of operation to be of a meaningful in strengthening the frontline workers. These are considered as an autonomy in the determination of work which is to be accomplished and the feedback to be received as a work outcome (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Secondly, in the addition of employees’ motivation, an organization should maintain its work so as to provide learning opportunities. The main characteristics of a BSC formulation process according to Kaplan & Norton (1996) is an opportunity that provides double looping which provides learning of the members. These are caused due to the objectives measures and actions are taken on the organizations so as to improve its BSC. Previous researches showed that the target-oriented improved work teams, semi-autonomous with an extensive content of work are also capable in double looping team learning in a fewer improved exertion organization. The above-described causes are allied to learning and motivation which aims at sharpening the relationships between continuous improvement and work organization.
1.8 Research Questions
How can one interface between the implementation and the use of BSC and various team-based continuous improvement strategies to be described in organizations that develop strategic continuous improvement capabilities?
What are specific mechanisms that characterize the use of BSC in regards to the required differences between the levels of operations and the management at an organization that has sustained strategic continuous improvement capability?
What are the roles featured in the organizational work at the levels of operation s as displayed in the sustaining and developing a strategic continuous improvement capability?
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 The Balanced Scorecard Approach
BSC was developed in 1992 as a new performance review approach due to the shortcoming of the Management Accounting (Kaplan, 1992). It was first introduced to the Harvard Business article as a management tool for measuring the performance of the business. The approach is centered on the postulation that the maximizing the benefits of speculation investment is not only the single factor to consider for the competitive advantage of a company but increasingly qualitative features like cerebral property, acquaintance and customer satisfaction. The BSC is categorized into four perspectives each one of them containing strategic objectives, indicators, and method to be adopted to attain them. The perspectives include: Finance, customer, internal processes and Learning and development
In the Finance perspective, which is the most important in any organization. Goals which are alike to the ones in the traditional management and accounting system are included to show the performance of the business. The BSC to these traditional methods it emphasizes on the value drivers of the company to guarantee future profitability.
The customer Perspective targets at the knowing the important customers and the share of the market that helps the company in achieving its financial goals. The use of the BSC strategy in this perspective helps in getting internal processes of a company, its service and products to be in line with the demand of the market currently and in the future thereby facilitating market-based management.
The internal processes perspective uses BSC in the firm as it enables a firm to identify and efficiently structure the internal value driver that is used in processes that are critical towards meeting the demands of stakeholders.
The learning and development is the most critical perspective since it provides the person with the relevant skill in order to achieve the prior perspectives. Human resource and especially labour is a key factor for strategic success learning and development perspective is inevitable. This perspective tries to relate the organization staff with the organizational structure that is important in the re-engineering process in the organization (Weber, 2000).
Business and Organization lack management tools to measure intangible assets which are also called qualitative assets such as efficiency of processes, customer satisfaction, and Knowledge. These assets are very important to ensure sustainability of the business; therefore the BSC provides tools that focus achievement of strategic goals in the future acting as leading indicators, and it also shows the past results to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of past strategies, therefore, acting as lagging indicators. Strategies can be analyzed in a causal-effect relationship, therefore with the BSC, the objectives and corresponding indicators used can be linked to show the causal relationship. The relation is important within each of the objective and also between the various objectives.
The BSC is developed to translate the strategic goals of a company to financial resources and there increasing the profitability of the business and also to the company’s social responsibility which is good for the development and maintenance of the company’s reputation (Bieker et al., 2001). Sustainability BSC integrates the social, environmental and economic aspect of a business into one strategy that aims to address the stakeholders’ issues. The use of BSC tools is critical in implementing strategies and defining the sustainability strategies and helping in avoiding meeting only the financial and corresponding objectives of the company which might no longer be the priority of the business. The Sustainability BSC helps in identifying vital social and environmental strategic objectives of a company’s single business unit or department and aimed so as to demonstrate the causal relationship between the qualitative information and the performance of the organization financially (Bieker et. al, 2001).
The stipulated BSC has evolved into tactical management strategy to be utilized in utilization and implementation of business strategies. This evolution has facilitated in reducing the gap between the planning of the strategy and it’s operationalization to ensure the realization of the company’s objectives. It is a top-down concept both in its development and uses as a management technique, the top-level manager must agree on the strategy to use and to communicate downwards to their subordinates for the strategy implementation.
2.2 Sustainability of the Balanced Scorecard
Sustainability of the BSC aims to address the issues of the company’s contribution to its sustainability. It dictates that for one to achieve sustainability it must simultaneously improve on the social, environmental and economic aspect of its business (Figge et al, 2001). Sustainability management is procedural, firstly one needs to determine opportunities and when there is exist a conflict between the three performances for development in order to get an adequate contribution to sustainability. For a company to have a strong competitive advantage and to guarantee its economic success all the relevant aspects must be addressed when deriving its BSC. All the factors of value creation are considered and a causal relationship is established. The top-down structure of the organization ensure that the business activities are valued oriented from where the objectives are derived
The use of Sustainability BSC as a planning tool enhances potential transparency for economic, social and environmental value added arising from ecological and social factors in preparation of the implementation process of the strategy. It also provides a reference framework which is used in to explain how single causalities between economic, social and ecological targets may arise. The Environmental and sustainability department with the company may familiarize and gain experience with the sustainability BSC strategy and thereby increasing the acceptance within the company.
A forum based on the corporate governance discussed in the year 2002 drafted and presented this a draft of this study. Code to the companies for finalize on the self-regulatory approach based on the address in the capital markets. The primary effect on the negative side of this draft was on the protection of the minority group rights. This forum later came up with seven principles which are not mentioned in this study and brought up a transition on the economies that contributed to the corporate governance regulations, laws, guidelines etc. to finalize on its experience.
2.3 The principles of OECD on corporate governance.
These principles were first given out in 1999 on a benchmarking for this corporate governance in so many states across the globe. In 2004, it was agreed on the current version of this principle which governed the corporate governance. Many of the banks are based on the implementation of the Basel rules on this principle rather than the OECD principles. These principles were benchmarked by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) in almost all member countries. In 2004, these principles were contained in six subheadings as discussed below:
Openness and transparency in a corporate governance.
Equal treatments for all shareholders.
The key ownership to be based on the rights of the shareholders.
Effective corporate governance to be ensured based on the framework.
The management boards responsibility.
The primary and secondary roles of the stakeholders in the cooperate governance.
These principles were mainly made to assist the government in evaluating the legal framework regularities to improve the corporate governance. These principles were also designated to help in the provision of the stock exchange guidance, investors and other parties interested in the corporate governance building.
2.4 Ranking and Measurement of Corporate Governance
To determine the effects of this corporate governance, one has to quantify their practices and aspects on the dimension and measure of the most difficult problems. Many researchers have tried their level best to study on the relationship between BSC and corporate governance. Rose et al. (2010) introduced an industry which referred to a well-known market that rates the corporate governance as an emerging issue mainly in the United States of America (USA). It is the expected that, the effort on the Global Marketing Institute (GMI), International Space station (ISS), and others are undertaken around the globe to finalize the issue and make it reliable on the agencies based on the global rating of well-known agencies in the USA.
Despite of having many definition of the corporate governance, some well-known parties across the globe in the field of business are involved in the corporate governance like the financial institutions. Based on the level of developments on the legality of the field, a number of stages are involved in the various transition. Also, the role that the corporate governance plays on the modern types of economies affects the sustainability of the business. By protecting the interests of the involved stakeholders and maintenance of high confidence, the investors of the affected business are involved in the corporate governance.
2.5 Company Performance and the Corporate Governance
This relationship under the research project between the company performance and the corporate governance is an important area for researchers as shown up in this research report because so many researches have been done based on this topic of research. It relates this to some aspects using a data of the emerging market under the literature review which found a positive correlation between the companies based on the number of investors. A research was done that provided any evidence of this impacts of the corporate law on the company’s values. This made the number like the hood of takeovers to raise and play an important law in risks affecting small agency shareholders. This evidence reported to the committee of an inverse correlation in the cost of equal capitals of the companies.
As from the different researches done it is therefore easy to identify a successful correlation rather than the causal relationship like the one under study in this research project. The main challenge faced is caused due to the dynamic and endogeneity nature of this relationship which is not properly addressed in many types of research. This results will always expect the indication of high construction governance index on all dataset done up by the different researchers. A research was done that provided an evidence on this impacts of the corporate law on the company’s values basing its argument on the sustainability of a business with the basis of the BSC developed within a business field. The performance of the company and the corporate governance and the above argument is of importance in determining the integration of the sustainability and BSC in a business organization.
2.6 Impact of taxation on sustainability of small businesses
For any government in power to match with the growth and the expectations of her citizen in its performance, it is always required to increase the fiscal depth of economy without incurring any cost. Researchers have proven some automated systems in the world to be able to introduce a massive efficiency to the operating business process that will retrieve and increase the revenue. Applying some of this technological solution for a government towards a certain goal transforms the identity that will keep and abreast of the needs in today’s modern world.
In today’s government, the government is increasing the pressure so as to ensure an improvement in the delivery of public activities to a cost-friendly way which is a challenge affecting many governments in the world. To overcome this challenge, the tax authorities in the sampled country are turning the government solutions to an electronic form like in use of the electronic tax filing mechanism (e-filing). Nowadays, the use of the internet computer technology is becoming prominent in the field of business and tax setting. Notably, most tax collection authorities around the globe are in use of electronic tax mechanism to administer and interact with their tax paying citizens mostly in the tax system, administer and compliance system setting. Technology has really affected the way we nowadays work, play and also interact with others. This technology improves the easiness of the tax administration, expands taxpayers’ services and also to enhances the tax compliance that may lead to high attention in both developed and developing countries of the world.
Tax compliance is defines as the full payment of all due taxes to the tax authority by the tax payer while the tax non-compliance system is defined as the difference in between actual tax paid by the tax payer and the amount of tax due at the date of this payment. This difference in most cases occurs due to the cause of the outstating expenses or some deductions and also some outstating income of the tax payer. This non-compliance comprises of both the unintentional and intentional evasion which are always caused due to tax calculation errors and inadequate understanding of the tax laws.
For the tax authorities to get their citizens to pay their due taxes in time is painlessly without the hissing that has been a dream over years to almost all governments across the globe. This task of tax has more complicated until after the establishment of the new information computer technology. Historically, around late twentieth century, this globe has really been experiencing an unknown pace of the improvement in this field of the information computer technology. These mentioned modern technology information on the fields of innovation are been prefunding an effect on tax administration of the fiscal new systems and a way this taxation in country system is administered. The tax compliance is achieved when the majority of the tax payers voluntarily do file in their periodically tax returns and pays the resulting tax in liabilities from the tax administering authorities as stipulated in the tax laws of the country without any enforcement from the tax authority. However, if this volunteering is too low, then the enforcement measures are taken by the tax authority like the tax audit and collection are resorted to by the tax authority of the country. The tax payment has some impacts on the sustainability of a business.
2.7 Theoretical Framework of Corporate Governance
The problems in corporate governance arise from the moment when the management of this firm are separated and an increase in the number of problems of agency. This is where shareholders disagree on the ability of the manager who works mainly because he is interested and the owners. The problem of the agency is one way of showing that common corporate problem normally happens when shareholders disagree with the manager.
One of the main things that worry corporate governance is usually coming up with the way so that suppliers earn from their investments (Shleifer & Vishney, 1997). There has to be a lot of improvements in the areas of financial reporting, transparency among others so as for investors to have confidence in where they invest. Agencies such as the New York Stock Exchange need to have a high number of its members in the management board so as to became independent and get listed.
The board of managing board members is always elected by the shareholders and as a result of management and ownership separation, although in most cases, some members in the board of directors and entire management system serve their interest. The same board of directors occasionally make rules that protect them from being sacked from the positions they serve; this behaviour mostly can increase agency and corporate governance misfortunes.
Since the board of managing directors is a platform where management and investors’ needs and interests can be discussed, it is, therefore, necessary to ensure that duties of the board of directors are not pretentious negatively. The main function of the managing board is mainly to run the affairs of the company that is to make decisions that increase shareholder value since decision making is done by the management. This, therefore, shows that the board of directors is essential to a company’s corporate governance.
Corporate governance and company’s performance go hand in hand in most cases. According to the survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2008 in almost all financial institutions in the whole world, there is sufficient information to show that performance of institutions during crisis period is directly affected by corporate governance. This survey was done in 296 very large financial institutions in 30 countries which the research shows that have gone through the serious crisis.
Others researches (Derwall & Verwijimeren, 2007) argue that goods governance reduces financial expenditure by the agency. From their research in which they considered Governance Metrics International (GMI) involving 2519 companies within the US with the different ratings between periods of 2003 to 2005, the two did the investigation on the relationship between good governance and capital cost.
There are some different ways in which the costs of an agency can be affected and one of it can be in a situation where sampled country lacks or has laws that control rights and duties of the shareholders or management. It is important for managers and shareholders to show good behaviour and proper relation when they are in public since the Initial Public Offerings in most occasions are done in the time of concentrated and time when the agency has low costs.
It has not been easy for researchers to identify if the company has good or bad corporate governance. This is because of a lot of complexity and different dimensions of issues that affect corporate governance. This has resulted in a lack of a common set of variables to be used to know corporate governance practices. But a lot of research has been done targeting to quantify corporate governance practices.
2.8 Benefits of organizational principles of sustainable management.
Different authors defined sustainable development (Dyllick & Hockerts, 2002) as a satisfied development that needs some contemporary time without causing any danger to the future generation ability aiming at satisfaction. The sustainable economic development is a characterized strategy which is aimed at ensuring full satisfaction of the organizational current needs and preservation of natural and human resources as per the future generations targeted by the stakeholders. (Jasch et al., 2005) further defines the sustainable management as an implication of the stakeholders of a business organization of enhancing and protecting both the natural and human resources for their need will be demanded in the near future. Some business organizations are achieving the sustainable development as an implication of both the internal and external affecting the stakeholders. An organization always has the capability of describing the effect caused by the ordinary environments and environmental policies (Sidiropolous et al., 2004). The principle of profitability of a business organization is examined by the implementation of the sustainable management as a concept aimed at the activities of the organization.
In this dissertation, an approach that a bit inductive was followed during the research for the design of the sustainability reporting on the BSC. After the inductive approach, a deductive slant was employed by the investigator in edict to help in testing the design of the study . The research’s conclusion is drawn from a case study of a sampled number of companies. The problem that is solved in this research is asymmetric on the importance of the largest exhibition on the corporate governance. This was aimed out at providing the sustainability perception of the useful designs that can help in determining the approach design that relates to the interconnection of the sustainability of a business operation and the BSC.
A number of multiple case studies were being conducted by the researcher at three companies based to be an engineering industry in a developed sampled country. The companies were known to be industries manufacturing heat transfer or what was commonly known as Sapa Heat Transfer Company, a bearing company known as the SKF Company, and the low-voltage apparatus company known as the ABB control. The case study in the three companies mentioned above was done in criteria of selection using the conceptual framework and research questions described in chapter one of this study. The first one is based on Lindberg & Berger (1997) team-based strategy on continuous improvement represented and Lundah & Ewing (1997) basing on the enactment of the so called BSC approach represented. During the research, the researcher visited other several companies before the selection of the three companies in inclusive of manufacturing and assembly of vehicles but they did not meet the criteria according to the research done on a prior selection of the three companies. The three companies selected where the ‘the best case’ to study so as to determine the affiliation amongst the incessant enhancement and the BSC. The companies were in capabilities of contributing to the required knowledge and the illustration of each combination identified.
The main source of data in the case study of determining the sustainability of the scorecard was a set of data that was previously recorded on a reflection of the conceptual frameworks used in this study. The data were obtained on the company’s website. The work of the Bessant & Caffyn (1997) and Bessant et al (2002) were all used to access and determine if the selected case study companies had strategic developed continuous improvement capabilities. The companies were visited out on different occasions so as to ensure that the researcher studies the capabilities of the continuous improvement capabilities as it was sustained over several years. The managers, those working for the white collar jobs in the organizations in the production sector, union representatives and operators were asked some questions on the study during the case study. Through the case study, the researcher was able to obtain a more balanced picture and understood the difference between levels of operation and management at companies.
We are all aware of the fact that proper corporate governance is basic for proper running of nowadays economy, but researchers have not agreed on the ways of coming up with better cooperate governance that will result to improved performance of firms. These disagreements are due to the absence of the common method of determining the quality of corporate governance, and these differences in opinion by academics and professionals has resulted to divergent views regarding techniques, substance, methodology and other details that are necessary to form direction and type of relationship.
Gompers et al. (2003), from now on Governance Metrics International (GIM), was among the first group of researchers who tried to quantify the corporate governance mode of operation of various firms and analyzed its effect on equity prices. Since then, there has been the number of new ideas from researchers where some conformed with his approach while others opposed it. Most academicians and professional doing research work have faced a challenge of providing convincing evidence for intuitive correlation that is there between the corporate governance and company’s performance. In most cases, one feature of corporate governance that comes out in one study disappears in another study, therefore, making it difficult to find the relationship that is consistent between firm performance and corporate governance. Researchers also find it difficult to identify methods of study used empirical research. Good numbers of researchers prefer using cross-section analysis as the method of study because of the nature of available data but they are faced with econometric problems like the treatment of endogeneity.
Individuals involved in the study of corporate governance have the best understanding of some achievements in the field of measurement of corporate governance quality. The approaches that are used in corporate governance quality measurement are divided into two that is academic and commercial. Gopmers et al. (2003) are the first people to use academic approach while commercial approach was put to practice by agencies specialized in the rating of corporate governance practice of various firms including GMI, Institutional Shareholder Services, and The Corporate Library (TCL).
3.2 Good Corporate Governance Relationship
Some researchers use the IRRC database to help in the design of cooperate governance index which has 24 provisions. From this research, the index with the highest value that is 24 is correlated negatively with the firm when measured by Tobin’s. The same researcher also confirms that the strength of shareholder value is directly proportional to firm value, profits among others. Another different researcher in the same topic argues that 18 out of 24 provisions that were used in the above research leads to the production of ‘noise’ in the index thereby showing no correlation to the firm valuation.
Researches resulted in a new aspect which was very important in the measurement of corporate governance and that is the ability to aggregate the huge number of single aspects of corporate governance to a single index. Therefore, will mean that the outcome of separate aspects of the corporate governance is to be average just in the single index. Presence of some corporate governance at the same time several measures of performance which have been in use in different studies shows lack of theory that is acceptable by everyone in explaining the most important relationship and the factors that are to be considered in the firm evaluation. Availability of several types of research and theories can be attributed to the truth that corporate governance having been considered as a field in science is now receiving much attention as compared before and also the field is relatively new.
A decision to move to corporate governance means that any relationship which has been hypothesized has to undergo testing and also backed up by the data. Therefore, this problem resulted in the show of another problem of the data obtained from corporate governance and later it resulted in the birth of different agencies which specialized in corporate governance. These agencies help in gathering meaningful corporate governance and later evaluate corporate governance practice of companies.
Using the obtained the case studies obtained in this of study we can say the study lacks a support on the correlation between the corporate governance its performance on the valuation of the financial organizations and institutions from the case studies. The variables sign is always a positive and its coefficient has no any important meaning. The findings taken up is of a model with the variable that is a dummy for the listed banks with the index of S&P 500 which has a significance level of 5%. The final interpretation of this variable shows a list which is well and self-explanation. The results of the correlation in the performance on the valuation of the financial organizations and institutions and corporate governance do not support this statement. The variables sign is always positive and its coefficient has no any important meaning. The main challenge under this caused by the dynamic and endogeneity nature of this relationship which is not properly addressed in many types of research. This results will always expect the indication of high construction governance index on all dataset done up by the different researchers. The final interpretation of this variable shows a list which is well and self-explanation on the figure shown below. The important parties who are involved in this based on the level of involved developments on the legality of the field, some stages that are involved in the various transition or the role that the corporate governance plays on the modern types of economies. By the process of protecting the interests of the involved stakeholders and also that of maintenance of high confidence that investors have a main role involved in the corporate governance.
3.3 The Case Studies.
3.3.1 The case of Sapa Heat Transfer
This section explains an expert force of task in continuous improvement in the symbiosis with an implementation of a centralized BSC approach. Sapa Heat Transfer is an international industry made up of group division metals like aluminium sheets and strips used in the application of the transfer of heat. The company has approximately 480 employees of which 75% of them were on the blue collar jobs which involves the typical operation of the machines in the company for the slitting and rolling of the metals.
The Sapa Heat Transfer Company had an organized continuous improvement system for the work of the expert as a strategic task of force done by carrying out on the temporary jobs in the company which are termed as either functional or cross-functional. By definition, cross-functional areas are the ones which are termed to have a great impact on the rate of productivity and are usually extensive with high adeptness. The other popular of the company’s associates are on the white collar jobs but they too participated in the case study as operators. The category known as the participating operators of the company are always appointed by the leader of the project to ensure that there is a floor experience in the operations as involved in the management. This can help in sustaining the management BSC.
The Sapa Company was used to adopt the centralized approach of the BSC implementation as from 1998. In this case study, three specific levels were chosen so as to help the researcher in determining the relationship between sustainability and the BSC. These include the functional level of the company, operational equal and the company level. The company-level scorecard of the company was recorded to have been revised on year based system by the top management of the company. It was said to be comprised of the measures, strategic aims of the company, and the financial actions concerned in the members of the company. The functional level, commonly known as the manufacturing level, had a scorecard which was periodically revised out by the manufacturing manager of the company with the assistance of the front-line controllers. This manufacturing scorecard familiarly relates to the overall scorecard of the whole company. They have almost equivalent measurement and they all target at the formulation of the company level which is aimed at increasing the continuous improvement hence leading to a high gross domestic product. The operational level scorecard was said to have been established by the superintendents of the front-line of the company. These scorecards then are allied together with the built-up scorecard of the company and the company workers are not supposed to participate in the formulation of the target but they are only informed on the new formulated target levels of the company.
The continuous improvement in relation to the BSC can create a link which is aimed at going through the actions and making productive projects. The cross-functional as based on the continuous improvement project are preliminarily linked out to the overall scorecard of the company and the intra-functional projects of the company are always linked to the manufacturing scorecard. When controlling the continuous improvement, there is an emphasis based on the process and content in the company. The above described is achieved by the managing personnel which specifies on what would be completed and helps in selecting the participant to b involved in a particular project as fine as stipulating the period constrictions of the project to be undertaken. The management uses the BSC for the purpose of focusing and giving some actions priorities, and the continuous improvement activities of the company are aligned in a strategic manner for the sustainability of the BSC.
The company is said to be depending on the management ability which helps in identifying some potential areas of the improvement in the company as well as the consumer index work drive passed via a detailed control of both the process and content, ensuring that there are no any issues on the commitment of the front-line supervisors. The one-way approach used in the implementation of the use of the BSC, that is the satisfaction of the manager’s needs only in the company, seems to actually have a linear consistency between the strategy of the continuous improvement chosen. The approach of the continuous improvement-BSC chosen is not always totally flawless, as per the article was written by the manufacturing manager. The manufacturing manager further explains the approach that the company undertakes to ensure that there is an improvement for the adequate order in the company. This also helps in the state of improving the competitiveness of the company and in the near future and increase the innovation pace of the company. The improvement also comes up with the most important situation which engages both the strategic process formulation and the continuous improvement work. The ambition of the manager for the imminent was that the operators of the floor shop would actually initiate the continuous improvement work to a great extent. The manufacturing managers also said that there work is to define a strategic frame as a team while the production team, on the other hand, takes the painting of the real pictures.
A team-based characterized by a light version of the organizational work which is present in the administration and operational exertion. The exertion is independently conceded ready by a sole a single operator who always must have fewer interactions with the others in the company. Some tasks in the industry such as forecasting, quality and maintenance are not deputized to groups or teams for effective operations. The operators of such operations should meet some qualifications and have a common goal which is systematical of the formulation process of the company. From the above explanation, the researcher was able to interpret the organizational work type chosen to be a consistency with the task of expertise and force strategized. The front-line machinists are always not likely to have any contribution to the premeditated continuous improvement proficiency. The situation of the Sapa Heat transfer company helps this researcher in determining how it is possible to integrate the sustainability of the BSC. This is achieved by comparing the case study on the different selected companies and comparing them so as to come up with a vivid conclusion.
3.3.2 The Case of SKF
This case gives out a wide focus in this study which is based on the continuous improvement strategy of the company as the basis of the symbiosis with an approach of the centralized BSC implementation. The SKF is a plant in the sampled country of Sweden. The studied plant in this case study is a part of the global corporation in the country and it deals with the manufacturing of the standardized bearing which is common in the world market. The company has an approximation of 150 employees who are working in it with an approximate of 80% of this population working on the blue collar jobs. The bearings manufacturing is based and organized in the production line which is said to be product-oriented so as to improve the rate of production. The organized production lines are therefore run independently by a production team which is target-oriented with a population density approximated to be of six persons and are supported out by two experienced and trained technicians.
A focus which is actually wide was adopted on the continuous improvement strategy. There were also some continuous improvement teams that were used to meet at least once in every second week of the month for an approximate of two hours in between the shifts operated in the company. All the operators in the company are encouraged to participate in the meetings and those who are doing similar kinds of operations form the continuous improvement team. A white collar job working in the company acts as a catalyst and takes the role of coaching the meetings. The continuous improvement teams have the responsibility to identify problems, plan for actions, do some measurements, determine the degree of priority in each process, and make a follow up on the activities around them. These activities are usually handled as projects with a duration ranging from a month to almost a year. Apart from continuous improvement, there are other expert teams that operate at the plant level. The discussion on these teams is omitted in this topic because they are similar to the Sapa Heat Transfer. There is a mutual agreement between the case studies of SKF and Sapa Heat Transfer companies on the operations of the teams involved in each company.
This company has been using the BSC to formulate and do some strategic targeted communication since 1998. The concept of the use of BSC was implemented using some hierarchical levels which include the plant level, the production line level and the continuous investment team level. The company management team does an annual revision on the scorecard. The management revises the plant levels scorecard which comprises of the financial measures of the company, the strategic objectives, and process and consumer perspectives. The scorecard on the manufacture line level are being advanced and reviewed by the managers on the making streak and this makes it be related to the scorecard of the company. Many of the measurements done are similar and they target a low level which contributes to a set of targeted levels of the company which are formulated by the management. The scorecard on the continuous investment team level is being proposed by the measures and actions of the continuous investment.
A link of activities which is said to be explicit in the continuous investment team level to the production stripe level scorecard is finished through a fashion which is concerned with on a particular target. The activities carried out by the continuous investment team are being identified and categorized by the company’s operators. This identification is being accepted by the fabrication line supervisor. If the continuous investment team is able to link a specific continuous investment activity, they can approximate the contribution of the production line level scorecard as the operational work is in progress in the company. There are twofold reasons for the sustainability of the scorecard in this company according to the article written by the production line manager. First, the continuous investment team have meetings which stop production making this to affect the productivity of the company. Secondly, the solutions used in the company are always entailed in the investment. For one to devote, the economic funds in the operational activities must lead to the general premeditated planning of the company. From the above explanation, it is clear to conclude that the BSC can be defined as a tool that allocates resources, creates priorities and coordinates the efforts of local continuous investment.
The BSC between the orientation of the management and the operational activities are determined through a dialog, and different measures as from the start during the implementation of the BSC at this firm, the company’s overall supervision regulator system always has the mandate to equilibrium the management needs and the continuous investment teams leading to the sustaining and developments of the strategic continuous investment capabilities of the company. Based on one side, there is a top-down dimension which is vertical and aimed to control the continuous investment teams. These teams do not have many permissions and it is difficult to avoid the approach of the centralized implication of the BSC. On the other side, there is an operative dimension which is horizontal to control the continuous investment teams and place a key role in the identification of specific areas that needs to be improved. There is a mechanism which enables the alignment of both the perpendicular and flat dimension control in the discourse and this occurs when the continuous investment groups have to stipulate their contribution and propose the activity to be undertaken under the scorecard pf the production line level. For sample, the based scorecard parameter of the production line level ‘efficiency’ in the company matters less to a worker in the frontline and the scorecard of the continuous investment team parameter ‘the spiral marked bearings’ is what the team understands and identifies it as an activity that improves the monitored parameter. There are varieties of measures used in the company for the comparison of both the operational level and the management level which creates a distinct meaning in the organization.
There is a work organization which is advanced and facilitates the adequate development of the continuous investment group activities and events. Previously, the first-line managers in the company did a research on the plant and drew a vivid conclusion based on the advanced teamwork organization. The work tasks of the first line supervisors were therefore split in between the continuous investment teams and production line managers. Each of the team in the company sat down and appointed four specialists who were responsible in the company to ensure there is quality, logistical, good human resource and working under the engineering principle rules. There was a vivid cooperation between the office bearers and the other departmental staff of the corresponding plant in the company. The continuous investment teams have the responsibility of scheduling their work schedules, ordering the required work materials, ensuring that there is quality insurance and they also ensured team unity among the members by ensuring that each member was proficient of resounding the component maneuvers in the company among the workers.
The overview, responsibilities and work powers of the organizations are based on the entire line and they create a good sympathetic of the commercial operations in the company among the workers. This also ensures that it provides the argument basis which is used by the management to develop the monitoring actions and measures so as to improve on the productivity of the company done by the production line management. The perfect match in the continuous investment teams would suggest of some activities to be done under the scorecard of the production line level. The primary key facilitator based on the ability of a well-known link of local continuous investment work aimed to generalize the overall strategic planning of the company plant is so advanced to local work organizations. This case study can help in drawing a fifth conclusion on how to integrate sustainability and BSC of a company.
3.3.3 The Case of ABB Control
This case study deals with the organic continuous investment on a strategic symbiosis with a defined decentralized BSC approach. ABB control is an engineering company based in Sweden and was sampled to take part in this case study. It is a unit that involves some multinational corporations of the electrical engineering field industry and it manufactures out various types of the low-voltage apparatus. It launched out a program which was focused on the customer and was objected at reducing the lead time of the company by 50% between 1990 and 1993. The operations of this company were only based on the process-orientation and later organized to target-oriented teams in the organization.
The target-oriented teams in the company were given the responsibility to attend to almost all the operations beginning from invoice ordering approach to the continuous investment. The teams initiated a plan that could check the periodic cycle on the identified areas of improvement. There are some specific roles that the team could handle like purchasing of the raw materials, capacity planning, team coordination, quality human resource, budget, and production engineering. If these roles are identified within the area, they help in improving the productivity of the company. During the periodic meetings of the continuous investment teams, they share some plant practices hence improving the rate of production. This is conducted if only the teams are at a point of view since the continuous investment work and do not force the authority to make some decisions outside the group like in production engineering.
The company launched a new project in 1994 which integrated the management control system with the program of the customer focus. The primary aim of this project was to provide an environment which is target oriented for the teams with a supportive system. This made it possible to recognize the continuous improvement in the production process. A BSC model championed by Kaplan & Norton (1992; 1993) which was advanced in the company. This model had a strong resemblance with striking differences. The production team on the target-oriented shop flow developed a scorecard.
The new scorecard developed by this team had some visions and strategized on a point of departure. The team scorecards were always developed from the strategy and visions of the company and not the actions as proposed in the case of Kaplan and Norton’s unique model. A question on the critical success factors of the company, defined in the management article, brought some actions. Researchers who participated in this study of the BSC projects claims of the 1996 working paper (Ewing, 1996). The above paper was essential in interfacing the sustainability and BSC of a continuous investment combined with a decentralized approach. The BSC was secondhand as an instrument for strategic planning and enactment of the team levels done by the frontline organizations. During an interview, the continuous investment claimed to have implemented a BSC and to have matched with the needed area.
In a 2002 article, the BSC was only used by the production team for target orientation. The previous observations from the same company showed that the implementation and use of the BSC had developed a mechanism for facilitating the strategic dialogue between the surprised operational level and the management. The team scorecards were of no use to the management. These were derivative of the visions and policies of the corporation rather than being derived from the concrete of the measures. There were some distances between the perceived teams and the management which created a wide range. The exertions are now presence built to have an alike rear on a track system. In future plans, the system is targeted to be only a team related system with a current scorecard in use. There will be a mutual relationship between the scorecard with some measures and a set of agendas discussed during the meetings on the management. These scorecards are developed by the teams and will have a strong correlation with the needs of the management.
A noticeable prerequisite used to develop a strategic continuous investment has some work organizations. This was featured by multifunctional and skilled teams with knowledge on the areas of specialization. They have the ability to initiate a plan and have a periodic cycle to ensure that there is a relationship between then continuous investment work and the team scorecard. This ability consistently improved on the basis of the area of specialization hence having an organizational approach which was termed to be wide and parallel. The BSC was suitable for the teams and other related departments like the development of the information technology were simultaneously changed. This case study can be compared with the others so as to determine on the methods that can integrate the sustainability and BSC of a business organization.
4.0: Discussion and Conclusion
The interface of developing the continuous investment capability and BSC were found to be different in the three companies as explained above. These cases were controversial to Lindberg & Berger (1997) description on the systematic approach of the continuous investment. This can be explained by a model behaviour established on the BSC. There is sustaining capability of the BSC in the above-described case studies where both managers and frontline workers are committed to a BSC for the control of the operations of the company. The strategic capability of the continuous investment did not seem to depend on the characteristics of work organizations and featured some implementation of the BSC. In order for a business organization to strategize on these capabilities, there need to be some shop flow in the company and not top flow.
The case analysis results show the effects that a financial crisis has mainly in bank valuation study which is approximated as Q. The coefficient of the variables that is estimated is done with the use of a statistical significance across the model as well shown and illustrated an in the case analysis above. The explained case analysis results are supported back by the findings which were done by BebChuk et al. (2010) that during the years of the 2000s an association was discovered between the corporate governance and financial organizations explaining the existence of a correlation. Using mathematical statistics an important variable of the total assets always have a negative sign which shows that there is lack of economic initiative on this relationship explanation and this dummy estimation suggests that some banks have the high list of universe index.
On the other side of this study, the model results show an average of this data during the periods of 2008 and 2009 explaining that their similar properties are well shown on the model in the figure below. The knowledge of mathematical statistics shows an important relationship between the positive correlation between the age of the bank and a negative correlation on the listed S&P 500 of the banks. While making this index consideration on the gauge of the equity market, the correlations between the banks and index on the evaluation are always not negative. The actual support that emerged in the studies is concerned with the regulations of accounting in the recent financial crisis. Using mathematical statistics an important variable of the total assets always have a negative sign which shows that there is a lack of economic initiative on this relationship explanation and this dummy estimation suggests that some banks. The commitment and trust of this corporate governance are identified using the factors that in most cases will show a protagonist in the significance of the governance accompanied by the problems under study. The shareholder’s welfare is increased by the management and researchers are looking for the solutions that can help them in solving this problem which in most cases leads to a division in the ownership and the control of the corporate governance.
From the techniques, we should not generate the significant difference shown between the market and the values of the assets and this crisis has large spaces that show on between this two levels especially the time that the assets cost historic. (Huizinga and Laeven 2011) Raised out a doubt that was based on the ability of customers to rely on the relevance of the bank account statement. The results support Huizinga and Laeven (2009) who did research which indicated that some banks may sometimes get involved in their own accounting and this is statistically of no importance on the correlation of this study which leads to an irregular balance sheet annually. This is caused by the other measure of the value of the bank in market research which isn’t mentioned in a merit of a market to the measure of the corporate governance index. On the other side of the figure, there is the market capitalization which is based on a mathematical natural logarithm of the year 2009. This is controlled by some statistical, mathematical properties which are already presented in the first figure in this chapter.
The diagnostic indication of the specific potential bad problem that is cast by the researchers and removed out as a result of the positive support in the studied relationship.. From mathematical statistics, an important level of approximately 10% magnitudes the effects from an estimated coefficient which always influences the other groups of the stakeholders in the industry. The relationship between market research its interpretation is always 5% as shown in the figure above. Other relationships in the figure are always significant to this relationship of the capitalization on the dummy variable in this research project thesis.
The above analysis of the shown data only lacks an agreement on the academia regardless of this relationship studied between the corporate governance on the banks in the control of the ownership. There is a proof that shows how difficult the relationship under study that it is on the score of the banks. A crisis under this study is found to be similar to the one used in historical time as the USA to mainly investigate the film valuation and cooperate governance in mainly their relationships.
Many organizations in the current time have both social and ecological aspects on their future plans. They make daily efforts on the sustainable development. Some countries across the globe are experiencing a transition in the economies are being achieved in the two different ways. This is an efficient way on legal system managed up by the structure of the ownership focused on the process of protecting the investors involved in the market structure. The bank managers and owners are concerned in the area of processing and increasing the profit which is always the aim of the company.
The shareholder will always value mainly to maximize or increase the approach to the new corporate governance that makes the owners prevent some of the company profits. The corporate management governance sustainability has a positive correlation with the BSC. From the case study discussed in this dissertation, we can conclude that the relationship between the sustainability of a business organization and the BSC is a good co-relation for the study.
The case analysis shows the prerequisite ability of a company to develop the required measures of the production team characterized by the available content. This study in coordination with the model of evolution based on continuous investment behaviour (Bessant et al 2001). The study findings indicate that for a strategic continuous investment capability, a company should have at least four level model for developing autonomy and empowering the individuals to manage their own processes.
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Invocation & Management Decision Making Executive summary 执行摘要为读者提供报告的主要目的，即分析流程，调查结果和建议。 它之所以被称为摘要是没有足够的时间阅读完整的报告，但需要提取足够的信息以做出明智的决定。 执行摘要应该鼓励读者继续阅读完整的报告。 它也可以作为一个在未来的某个阶段快速参考报告的作者。（该部分长度为250-350个单词）建议写完剩余部分回来概括这部分。此部分1.0倍行距 List
Invocation & Management Decision Making
执行摘要为读者提供报告的主要目的，即分析流程，调查结果和建议。 它之所以被称为摘要是没有足够的时间阅读完整的报告，但需要提取足够的信息以做出明智的决定。 执行摘要应该鼓励读者继续阅读完整的报告。 它也可以作为一个在未来的某个阶段快速参考报告的作者。（该部分长度为250-350个单词）建议写完剩余部分回来概括这部分。此部分1.0倍行距
List of Content
Executive summary i
0.1 作业描述 2
0.2 评分标准 4
0.3 写作思路补充 （由于中国企业的社会责任我们都知道是吹B的，所以写作思路不给出社会责任的部分，想写CSR的请单独问我，建议找企业的CSR报告照着写） 6
1.1 Authorization 6
1. Context and Nature of XXX 6
2. Innovation Challenge 7
3. Strategic Innovation Solution 7
4. Action Plan 7
5. Leadership 8
6. Implementation 8
7. Conclusion 9
8. Recommendation 9
List of Reference 10
本作业占总分45% 2500字 正负10%字数
The purpose of this task is to propose a leading edge, strategic innovation solution to address a corporate challenge in the area of corporate social responsibility or sustainability or a challenge in your industry by renewing a firm’s current approach.
To write this report, follow the process (based on the strategic innovation model) outlined below:
Choose and outline one company related innovation challenge (based on Week 8’s material) pertaining to:
A corporate social responsibility challenge or problem OR
A sustainability challenge or problem OR
An industry challenge or problem
Creatively propose a leading edge strategic innovation solution, by using creative idea generation techniques (use appendices to evidence the process) and by drawing on appropriate sources of ideas.
Accurately and relevantly apply the strategic innovation model to outline how you would implement the strategic innovation solution including outlining:
The innovation action plan, taking into account the company’s current approach, change requirements, target market for the innovation and enhancing customer-perceived value.
The leadership needed and culture that would support the implementation.
The innovation implementation with the appropriate process, structure, systems and innovation team (people).
To summarise, you will write a report that proposes an innovative solution to address a CSR, sustainability or other challenge in your industry as well as how the solution will be implemented. This report will need to explain the challenge and solution, use the strategic innovation model, provide an action plan, discuss the leadership that will be required for the solution and how the solution will be implemented.
This is an individual task (2,500 words) in which you need to demonstrate your ability to propose an innovation to address a corporate social responsibility / sustainability / industry challenge, by drawing on the relevant material in this course.
N.B. You need to register the challenge you wish to work on by Week 10 with your lecturer.
See the rubric below to ensure your innovation report addresses the relevant criteria.
The innovation challenge (problem-solving (PLO3): The innovation report identifies and critically analyses the nature, scale and severity of the innovation challenge the company needs to address by drawing on appropriate theory and explaining the challenge in practical terms. (15%)
Evidences an exceptional ability to identify, prioritise, justify and critically analyse the nature, scale and severity of the innovation challenge, supported by quantitative and qualitative evidence.
The leading edge strategic innovation solution (PLO3): The innovation solution is the product of creative, breakthrough idea generation techniques and draws on a variety of sources and ideas to develop an innovative solution to the innovation challenge. (25%)
A creative solution and non-traditional alternatives are generated using several creativity techniques (detailed in an appendix), with alternatives synthesized and evaluated to develop a novel solution.
The strategic innovation model – action plan (PLO6 – Career-Adaptive Self-Management): The report demonstrates adaptability and effective self-management shown in a realistic, practical innovation action plan, grounded in the strategic innovation model. (15%)
Demonstrates highly effective ability to adapt and self-manage the innovation action plan, adapting to change requirements, target market for the innovation solution and customer perceived value with realistic actions and time-lines, rigorously applying the strategic innovation model theory which may impact on future success.
战略创新模型 – 行动计划（PLO6 – 职业 – 适应性自我管理）：该报告展示了以战略创新模式为基础的现实，实用的创新行动计划中所示的适应性和有效的自我管理。（15％）
The strategic innovation model – leadership: The report acknowledges the leadership challenges and by applying relevant theory proposes an appropriate innovation leadership approach, grounded in the strategic innovation model. (15%)
The innovation leadership section contextualises the company’s leadership challenges, applies relevant theory and proposes a realistic and suitable innovation leadership approach, and rigorously applies the strategic innovation model theory.
战略创新模式 – 领导力：报告承认领导力挑战，并通过应用相关理论提出适当的创新领导方法，以战略创新模式为基础。（15％）
The strategic innovation model – innovation implementation (PLO6.1: Career Adaptive): Leverage individual and innovation team’s strengths and weaknesses to implement the innovative solution by proposing the appropriate process, structure, and systems to implement the innovation solution, grounded in the strategic innovation model. (15%)
Extensive and in-depth critical analysis of individual and innovation team relevant strengths and weaknesses to implement the innovative solution by proposing the appropriate process, structure and systems, demonstrating a superior understanding of relevant theory and practice.
战略创新模式 – 创新实施（PLO6.1：职业适应性）：利用个人和创新团队的优势和劣势，通过提出适当的流程，结构和系统来实施创新解决方案，以战略创新为基础 模型。（15％）
Professional report presentation and communication: Spelling, word choice, grammar expression, clarity of structure supports the professional presentation. Academic conventions, such as appropriate Harvard referencing integrated into the report as supporting evidence. (15%)
Well-written report with no spelling or grammatical errors, appropriate choice of words with no ambiguity in meaning, and an easy to follow structure. Referencing accurately follows an accepted style.
0.3 写作思路补充 （由于中国企业的社会责任我们都知道是吹B的，所以写作思路不给出社会责任的部分，想写CSR的请单独问我，建议找企业的CSR报告照着写）
1. 场景背景（公司）介绍 或者行业介绍
2. 识别场景中的挑战是什么 资源可持续性、商业可持续性
按705-1思路，识别列出的challenge分别属于哪些Forces of Change 此处需要定性定量，提供Reference
3. 简述战略创新概念 Goodman P111， 或者Porter,1985 三种竞争战略 （这个东西我讲了好多遍了 还想听的同学请集中找我，麻烦少让我重复几遍就好了）提出你自己的创新方案（审题，老师用的Creatively propose）假如要加入技术创新的， 技术带来附加值则定义为差异化，技术降低成本则走成本优先。
4.-6部分见正文内写作思路 企业情况5或者6部分可以补充创新障碍的识别 Goodman P168 P170 P171
7 . 总结2-6
8 （Patrick Dawson and Constantine Andriopoulos 2017）P312 ADKAR 或者Change Management Best Practice Guide P314； 假如是公司背景的 Burnes and Randall (2016) common rules for managing change或者Dawson
(2003b)也可以用（Patrick Dawson and Constantine Andriopoulos 2017） P319
Context and Nature of XXX
问题： 社会责任/可持续性/挑战（个人/企业） 三选一 第八周PPT
Strategic Innovation Solution
战略创新模型 – 行动计划（PLO6 – 职业 – 适应性自我管理）：该报告展示了以战略创新模式为基础的现实，实用的创新行动计划中所示的适应性和有效的自我管理。（15％）
战略创新模式 – 领导力：报告承认领导力挑战，并通过应用相关理论提出适当的创新领导方法，以战略创新模式为基础。（15％）
企业内部的 就用分析变革的阻力 这个场景可用的理论比较多。
创新对领导带来的挑战 goodman P238
战略创新模式 – 创新实施（PLO6.1：职业适应性）：利用个人和创新团队的优势和劣势，通过提出适当的流程，结构和系统来实施创新解决方案，以战略创新为基础 模型。（15％）
第11周PPT 以及13步创新法的9-13 中选择重点
List of Reference