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t’s a tricky thing to define species in the abstract, and to find agreement on how to group animals

t’s a tricky thing to define species in the abstract, and to find agreement on how to group animals into different species. Please read the following two articles and then follow the instructions for your discussion posts this week.

Please read The End of Species (I ATTACHED IT) The End of Speciesby Colin Barras, New Scientist, January 2019.
Then read Why Should we Care About Species ( ) – Nature Education.
Please use the following guidelines for your posts in this discussion – notice the incremental due dates over the week:

Post #1 – Do by Wednesday 11 pm
Starter – ask a question about one of the articles, post a quote from one of the articles and your thoughts about that quote, think out loud about an example from one of the articles, or draw links between the two articles and the module. This should be a paragraph or two long.

Post #2 – Do by Friday 11 pm
Respond to one of your classmate’s Starter Posts. What are your thoughts or answers or questions about the ideas they raise? Respond to and compare and contrast examples from your classmates’ experiences. If you see a Starter post that doesn’t yet have a direct response, please consider responding to that post.

Post #3 – Do by Sunday 11 pm
Wrapper – What have you learned from the discussion? Is there a quote or question you understand better now? How? Has your thinking changed in any way about this issue?

1 Managing Human Resources BUS2025 Student’s Name Institutional affiliation Date In what


Managing Human Resources


Student’s Name

Institutional affiliation


In what ways can Human Resource management make a difference in the workplace.


The world of work has changed dramatically over the last decade, partly due to the improvements in technology, changes in legislation, and a change in attitude towards work. These changes have come with new ways of managing employees and workforce management: put, the way companies manage their human resources. This essay will examine some of these ways HRM can make a difference in the workplace.

What is HRM?

HRM is an area of management concerned with the efficient and effective use of people to contribute to improving business performance in line with the stated vision and mission. It is also concerned with ensuring the fair treatment of employees, ensuring they have a good work-life balance and that they are happy in their work (Aust et al., 2020). HRM is also concerned with finding and recruiting employees, managing the performance of existing staff, employee relations and training and development.

Additionally, HRM is about ensuring appropriate, sustainable and talented people are available to contribute to the development of business objectives and the delivery of services whilst managing the talent within an organization from recruitment to career management. In essence, it’s about getting the best out of people (Agarwal & Al Qouyatahi, 2018). HRM is achieved by aligning organizational structures with business objectives through effective workforce planning, talent acquisition, selection and development; HR service delivery; organizational communications; training and development.

HRM’s major concerns and processes include:

Talent acquisition, appraisal, selection and development.

Performance management.

Staff relations and health, safety and welfare.

Integrated Human Resources encompasses delivering the full suite of HRM activities across all functions. This is achieved via an integrated approach to Talent Acquisition, Selection and Development across both the short term and career paths. Particular emphasis is placed on agile recruitment via social media, with a strong focus on digital talent networks.

Ways Human Resource Management Make a difference in the Workplace

HRM can ensure that employees are treated fairly, no matter their background. Firstly, by providing a clear career structure and path for an individual, so there is a common understanding of the goals and objectives of an employee from day one of employment which can be achieved through a variety of methods such as leadership roles, team development programmes or having a representative to the workforce.

Secondly, there is important to ensure employees are working in a safe environment and not at risk of injury or harm. By providing training in health and safety, staff development, work organization and performance management, HRM can ensure that employees are aware of issues before they happen (Jonathan & Mbogo, 2016). Moreover, this knowledge can be passed on to the public, ensuring that unsafe working conditions do not occur. According to scholars, it is argued that the existence of HRM makes a difference in the way employees are treated, and this, in turn, can create an environment where employees are motivated and have pride in their work.

It is widely accepted that human resources management has its function in society, as it plays an integral part in satisfying its client (Smith, 2010). This can be demonstrated by reviewing the various elements of HRM, which focus on employee experience and their development.

Employee Satisfaction.

HRM can make a difference because it can offer a service that is beneficial to the welfare of all employees, both current and future. As a result, this can improve employee morale and satisfaction both now and in the future. HRM’s function should be reviewed regarding their duties and responsibilities for their departments to produce favorable outcomes for all employees – not only current but also future ones (Goklas, et al., 2021). Organizations must focus on employee satisfaction to ensure continued commitment and maximize their performance.


HRM plays a vital role in staffing if one considers that the outcome of employee performance is a reflection of their working conditions and environment. Human resources management is responsible for continuously creating a conducive working environment that improves employee morale and satisfaction while maximizing their performance. This can be achieved by incorporating the latest techniques in HR practices and keeping abreast with trends and new technologies. Recent studies suggest that human resources management is one of the more important elements in management as it deals with issues concerning employees, which makes them accountable for what they produce (Smith, 2009).


HRM provides great importance to training, as this is seen as one of the most effective ways for an organization to maximize employees’ knowledge and skills. Training helps increase employees’ productivity and creates an environment that shows employees their value within their organization. According to Smith (2010), good training is crucial for staff performance, and HRM plays a crucial role in shaping the training. HRM plays an important role in the development of employees because it helps individuals understand their roles and responsibilities and how they should take the best care of their colleagues and promote a healthy environment. As such, HRM is viewed as the central element of a company, where all activities occur, so if that is done well, the whole organization will be strong.

Performance management.

Human resources management plays a crucial role in performance appraisal and the process towards this, as HRM helps managers develop employees through training and to set goals for staff. Through performance management, HRM plays an essential part in shaping employees and providing them with a better understanding of how they fit into their organization. In addition, performance management provides a perspective to employees on what they could be achieving and what is expected from them. It should not be forgotten that HRM is responsible for the whole performance appraisal process, which is one of the key aspects of developing employees (Smith, 2010). Nowadays, the HRM department may develop employees’ skills and abilities to suit their specific organizational needs. As a human resource manager, one of the main responsibilities is to manage and develop a team to perform all their job duties effectively. Therefore, HR managers need to clearly understand the team members’ traits, skills, and qualities.

Health and safety.

There has been an increasing importance placed on health and safety in many workplaces in today’s society. Health is seen as key to everything we do because we need it to survive and succeed. As a result, health and wellbeing are now an essential part of everything people do, including work. In addition, this also includes trying to ensure a safe environment for employees. As such, organizations need to promote health and safety at work as a vital element of their business to provide a safe environment for all employees. This can be done by ensuring all employees are informed on the importance of health and safety (Jonathan & Mbogo, 2016). Learning how to avoid injury or illness in the workplace will help reduce the risk of accidents and increase their productivity. Therefore, organizations should promote health and safety by offering training sessions for all employees to ensure they are aware of the importance of this. According to the recent literature review, this is one of the most important aspects of employees and how it affects their performance. As a result, if an organization has a poor health and safety record, it will affect its productivity.


It is normal for organizations to have positive cultures which reinforce the work process (Smith, 2010). It is necessary to have a positive working culture so that employees can feel at ease and produce good quality work. This should be achieved by treating employees with respect and dignity whilst also focusing on the importance of achievement, cooperation and motivation. The more employees can feel valued and appreciated, the more they will be motivated to achieve good results and work towards making their organization successful. Therefore, HRM has a role to play in shaping an organization’s culture and creating a positive working environment for employees. The more employees feel valued, the more motivated they will be towards achieving success for their organization.


Human resources management plays a key role in assisting organizations with their employee mobility by ensuring that all employees are aware of the available opportunities to advance their careers. Organizations must have several career progression routes available to enable employees to have open choices on how they can advance (Hedge & Rineer, 2017). As a result, this will help reduce the amount of time that employees spend in limbo and increase the rate at which an organization can provide career development opportunities for its staff. This is crucial to employee retention, as it will show employees how well they fit with their organization and their views on how they could fit better and progress further. Employers need to ensure that all employees understand the importance of keeping their skills up-to-date by providing them with regular training sessions.


The performance appraisal process is very important in motivating employees and keeping them engaged. It is more effective in motivating employees if they are appraised regularly to ensure that their skills, abilities and knowledge are kept up-to-date and relevant for the job they have been given (Tool, 2012). This will aid in increasing productivity levels because staff members will understand the importance of knowing what their key performance indicators are and how they can improve after each appraisal session.

In organizations where employees feel they cannot get their voice heard and have no clear direction, this could lead to a breakdown of morale and lack of self-confidence. With this in mind, employees must be given the opportunity to articulate their ideas so that they can be heard and then work on ways of taking action. As a result, making sure that employees feel valued by their employers will help them appreciate their jobs and support the organization’s vision and strategy for the future. Additionally, the performance appraisal process can be used as a form of reward in motivating employees, rather than just focusing on developing employees’ skills.

Performance management.

Performance management has many benefits for organizations and employees (Cowle, Mahon and Smith, 2010). By having an effective performance management system, an organization will be able to improve its activities by improving the quality and quantity of jobs that they complete. It is also effective in helping to prevent job burnout and absenteeism through encouraging employees to provide feedback and suggestions. Providing feedback will help ensure that all employees are getting the proper level of training and support they require to do their jobs effectively. As a result, it will help increase productivity levels by improving the effectiveness of all jobs. This can be achieved by ensuring that all employees know how they could improve in their roles and also how they could help each other by giving feedback to improve overall results. There has been a lot of research done concerning the effectiveness of the performance management process and how it affects productivity.


The more an organization can reward employees for their hard work and level of expertise, the more motivated they will be towards achieving the goals set by their employers through their HRM policies. Therefore, organizations need to ensure that they have a clear rewards policy to reward employees for good performance and recognize their contributions through awards or bonuses. Implementing a rewards policy that ensures that all employees are given suitable recognition for their efforts and achievements will help with the retention of good staff members because they will be able to see the value and importance of contributing to an organization. It is also essential to ensure that all employees receive an appropriate reward level for the amount of effort they put in by ensuring that there is a fair proportion of reward concerning how much work they do daily.


Human resources management involves partnerships between employers and employees because this is a positive way of working together to achieve goals. This will help nurture the relationship between employers and employees and boost staff morale because the employer is being seen as a provider of health and happiness. Human resources management should help create employee engagement by involving employee representatives in decision-making processes on internal committees, such as equal opportunities or disciplinary procedures. There are various approaches that employers can take to develop strong partnerships with employees. The first one is by offering multiple routes for staff to progress their careers through a career ladder, which provides employees with more choices and allows them to reach new heights.

The second way is by incorporating partnerships between staff and the employer but managed within a structured hierarchy. The key here is to put the needs of all parties before all else so that there will be mutual understanding and support for the overall goals of both parties. These goals will also help strengthen the relationship between both parties. This can be achieved through training and development programmes that will help employees learn new skills and abilities, which will help them to develop their skills and strengths to be better employable. It can also be achieved by providing different levels of rewards for the use of different skills sets. For example, employees in more technical roles could receive a higher reward level because it will allow them to develop their abilities within their job roles.


This paper has looked at ways Human Resource management makes a difference in the workplace. The paper has looked at how human resource management can go a long way to enhance a company’s productivity. The key objective of HRM is to increase employee productivity and improve organizational performance. Organizations need to follow a strong HRM policy, which will help them build their reputation in the market through positive results. This will help develop the reputation of your organization and provide you with the tools and skills to achieve these goals.


Agarwal, S., & Al Qouyatahi, K. M. S. (2018). HRM Challenges in the Age of Globalisation. International Research Journal of Business Studies, 10(2), 89-98.

Aust, I., Matthews, B., & Muller-Camen, M. (2020). Common Good HRM: A paradigm shifts in Sustainable HRM? Human Resource Management Review, 30(3), 100705.

Callan Associates Limited: (2008) The HRM Gap. London, UK.

Cowle, J and Mahon, K and Smith, S: (2010) ‘Performance management: a critical resource for an effective Workforce Strategy’ Knowledge Management & Innovation, 10(3): 5-17.

Goklas, A., Riyanto, S., Sihombing, J., AM, E. N., & Sunarsi, D. (2021). Management Of Organizational Performance: The Role Of Human Resource Management Strategy. Jurnal Ad’ministrare, 8(1), 245-254.

Jonathan, Grace Katunge, and Rosemary Wahu Mbogo. “Maintaining Health and Safety at Workplace: Employee and Employer’s Role in Ensuring a Safe Working Environment.” Journal of Education and Practice 7.29 (2016): 1-7.

Tool, H. R. (2012). Performance management and appraisal.

2 Business Application Name Institution Affiliation Course Tutor Date Business Application To

t’s a tricky thing to define species in the abstract, and to find agreement on how to group animals Writing Assignment Help 2

Business Application


Institution Affiliation




Business Application

To promote a new room cleaning robot on social media, I would start by creating a profile on various platforms, including Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. I would then create content that highlights the features and benefits of the product. This content would include images, videos, and infographics. I would also create blog posts and articles that compare the product to similar products on the market. I would use hashtags and keywords to ensure that my content is seen by people interested in room cleaning robots. Finally, I would run ads on social media platforms to target people in the market for this project.

The first “p” in marketing is “product.” When promoting a new product, it is essential to focus on the features and benefits that make it unique and appealing to consumers. In the case of a new room cleaning robot, you would want to highlight its ability to clean floors quickly and efficiently and the features that make it superior to other room cleaning robots on the market (Grönroos, 2018). There are a few different ways to use the product of marketing to promote your new room cleaning robot. First, you can create a website and post information about your product. You can also create social media accounts and post regular updates about your product. You can also create promotional videos and post them online. You can also distribute flyers and posters to local businesses. You can also hold events and demonstrations to show people how your product works.

The second “p” is “price.” When setting the price for a new product, it is essential to consider the competition and what consumers are willing to pay. In the case of a new room cleaning robot, you would want to set a competitive price with other room cleaning robots on the market while still providing value for the consumer (McCarthy et al., 2018). To market a new room cleaning robot to compete with Roomba, it is essential to consider the product’s price. The price should be set to attract consumers and promote the product. To do this, the price should be lower than the price of Roomba. Additionally, discounts and promotions can be offered to attract consumers.

The third “p” of marketing is in place. The “place” of marketing is all about getting your product into the hands of consumers. It can be done through brick-and-mortar stores, online retailers, or direct marketing channels like door-to-door sales or infomercials. A new room cleaning robot needs to get the product in front of as many potential consumers as possible (Grönroos, 2018). This can be done through online ads, targeted social media campaigns, and print or television ads. It is also essential to make sure that the product is available at various retailers so that consumers can easily find and purchase it. This can be done by partnering with major retailers or selling the product through online retailers like Amazon. Finally, it is essential to provide a good customer experience so that consumers are more likely to purchase the product and recommend it to others. This can be done by offering a money-back satisfaction guarantee, providing excellent customer service, and a warranty on the product.

The fourth “p” of marketing is promotion. There are a few ways that the fourth P of marketing, which is promotion, can be used to promote a new room cleaning robot to compete with Roomba. One way is to use paid advertising, such as placing ads in newspapers, websites, or TV. Another way is to use public relations, such as holding a press conference or sending out press releases (English, 2019). Additionally, word-of-mouth marketing can be used to talk to friends and family about the new product or post about it on social media. Finally, sales promotions can be used to offer discounts or give away free samples. By using these promotional strategies, the new room cleaning robot can be successfully promoted.


iRobot is the company that created Roomba, so it’s no surprise that they would be one of the companies competing in this market. iRobot has a lot of experience with robots and cleaning, so they have a solid foundation to build off of.


Robotics Neato Robotics is another company with a lot of experience in the robot vacuum space. They offer a few different models of robot vacuums, so they have a good understanding of the market.


Ecovacs is a Chinese company making robot vacuums for a few years. They have a few different models on the market, and they are continuing to innovate in the space.


English, J. (2019). The four” P” s of marketing are dead. Marketing Health Services, 20(2), 20.

Grönroos, C. (2018). Keynote paper From marketing mix to relationship marketing‐towards a paradigm shift in marketing. Management decision.

McCarthy, E. J., Shapiro, S. J., & Perreault, W. D. (2018). Essential marketing (pp. 29-33). Ontario, CA, USA: Irwin-Dorsey.

Surname 3 Name Professor’s name Course Date Business Study Case Jennifer Compton,

Surname 3


Professor’s name



Business Study Case

Jennifer Compton, an entrepreneur, owns a large kid’s retail store worth £80 million, known as Under 10s. Initially, she applied her entrepreneurial capabilities while in her A-level studies, where she operates a baby-sitting agency. After running a small store, she begins purchasing cheap housing around Preston and uses them to offer accommodation services to students. After four years lapse, Jennifer sells her property for £27 million. Owing to her passion for business growth and development, she realizes that the small store she worked in earlier was offered for sale and decides to buy it and expand her chain. She makes significant changes in the store to enhance profitability and includes a wide range of products to complement her customized clothes. Her hard work and desire for growth lead her to open six additional stores annually for a span of five years and twelve shops for ten years. She is now a renowned business person and the CEO of Under 10s, a reputable retail chain, and used her entrepreneurial experience to motivate upcoming business persons to develop their businesses. In her motivational speeches, she uses her real-life experiences in the industry. She gives examples of reputable entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates and Warren Buffet, whom she was also inspired by while running her businesses. The Right formula is also an example of a sports marketing agency that Jennifer used to instill motivation among aspiring business owners. Jennifer Compton’s entrepreneurial journey depicts her passion for growth and development: her entrepreneurial capabilities motivate prospective managers and entrepreneurs to realize their full potential.  

           I support Jennifer’s ambition in business as it depicts hard work and passion. Business development requires high levels of innovation and invention, qualities that Jennifer utilizes in her passion for expansion. Her innovation capabilities are evident when she constantly thinks of new business ideas. She initially owned a kids retail store and a baby-sitting agency, after which she bought cheap houses and used them to provide accommodation services to Preston students (Introduction to Business). She does not give up and consistently applies her entrepreneurial capabilities to realize her dreams. Whenever she recognizes a business opportunity, she maximizes it for growth. Jeniffer weighs the impact of a business move before adopting it for efficient business activities. Her enthusiasm is evident when she realizes that a previous store she was working in was on sale and decides to buy it (Introduction to Business). I agree with Jennifer’s ambition to offer consultancy services and motivate business enthusiasts (Introduction to Business). Her motivational workshops enhance the morale of prospective leaders and entrepreneurs towards initiating their businesses. She uses her personal experiences to motivate her audience, which makes them gain positive energy that their businesses will be successful upon hard work and commitment (Introduction to Business). Jennifer serves as a role model in her speeches, and by incorporating renowned businesspersons such as Bill Gates, she instills the drive for growth and development in business. 

The Rationale

           The rationale behind my support for Jenifer’s entrepreneurial journey is that she is focused on profitability in business. After buying a store that she worked in earlier, she made changes, including offering a wide range of imported products. This business move aimed to complement her tailor-made clothes to attract more customers by meeting their needs. Jennifer was specific about her services as she concentrated on the sale of clothes and decided to enhance her offers. Her main objective was to broaden her clientele base and offer better quality products that would attract more customers. These customized services made her achieve her business goals as she expanded and opened additional stores. In a span of 10 years, Jennifer has opened twelve shops annually, a sign of a broadened clientele base, quality services, and high customer satisfaction levels. Significant business expansion depicts the provision of customer-centric services that match clients’ needs and exceed their expectations. Jennifer prioritizes the interests of clients who, in return, become loyal. The linear growth theory by Walt Rostow supports business growth and development (Sergi et al. 4). Walt argues that business or economies have to undergo the developmental stages to achieve greater growth. It is a model that applies in Jennifer’s case as she began with a small store and gradually expanded through maximizing opportunities and profitability. Jennifer was also passionate about her business, had set goals for expansion, and worked towards them through commitment and incorporating new ideas. 


           I recommend that Jennifer embraces technology in managing her newly opened stores. She should adopt business digital models that enhance effective management of products for greater profitability and seamless operations (Guggenberger et al. 3-4). Through technology, she will monitor the sale of products and identify any gaps that require immediate action. She will also evaluate her daily sales, assess her stores’ viability, and know whether there is room for expansion based on the revenues accrued. Systems simplify administration roles and make it easy to manage and oversee all activities within stores (Guggenberger et al. 3-4). When she needs to make core changes in pricing, she will do so electronically and ensure immediate implementation in the targeted departments (Sergi et al. 25). Online systems also ensure effective management of customer expectations (Guggenberger et al. 3-4). Jennifer will manage clients’ feedback and offer timely responses, which is key to enhancing service delivery. When customers complain, Jennifer will provide timely resolutions to promote customer loyalty. In case Jennifer needs to make an internal communication to her employees, technology will effective and timely relay of information. Timely regular updates will be effected for workers’ convenience when executing their roles and responsibilities. She does not need to make individual calls to pass information as through online systems, information reaches the targeted group in time. Effective communication enhances teamwork and enables efficiency in service delivery. 

           In Summary, business goals are achieved through commitment and passion. Entrepreneurial capabilities are essential as they guide business persons on the right commercial moves. Influential business people are enthusiastic, embrace innovation and aim at profitability and growth. Jennifer is passionate about her business and incorporates her entrepreneurial abilities in managing her stores. She initially starts small but gradually experiences growth due to her innovativeness and creativity. The linear growth theory supports her drive for growth and development by Walt Rostow. For effective business management, Jennifer should embrace technology. She should adopt systems that will make the coordination of activities in all her stores easier for seamless operations. Systems enable effective monitoring of business activities. Jennifer will also assess the viability of her stores and know whether there is room for expansion. Customer relationship management will also be simplified through technology. 

Works Cited

Guggenberger, Tobias, et al. “Towards a Unifying Understanding of Digital Business Models.” PACIS. 2020. 2/publication/341452557_Towards_a_Unifying_Understanding_of_Digital_Business_M odels/links/5ec2300f458515626cb0b27d/Towards-a-Unifying-Understanding-of-Digital- Business-Models.pdf

Introduction to Business-3502FETQR. Case Study.

Sergi, Bruno S., et al. “Entrepreneurship and economic growth: the experience of developed and developing countries.” Entrepreneurship and Development in the 21st Century. Emerald publishing limited, 2019.


2 Discussion Board Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Name and Number Professor’s


Discussion Board

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Number

Professor’s Name


Discussion Board

Quality can be defined as the product’s ability to meet or exceed the degree of excellence requirements established by the manufacturer. Quality is quite important when it comes to any product or organization (Bangert, 2019). Poor quality may damage the company’s brand, incur huge operational and financial expenses, and weaken consumer relationships. Mistakes might result in the dispatch of faulty goods, which may raise freight expenses, lost revenue, and chargebacks. It is extremely crucial to keep the quality of items in any organization. Therefore, in maintaining the quality of products, organizations must always ensure they abide by the eight principles of TQM. This discussion delves into my personal experience with product quality, intending to identify the lacking principle in organizational quality management.

As a consumer, quality plays a major role in assessing the goods, I would like to purchase. Before making any purchase, I always make sure that it is of high quality and meets the normal company standards; if not, I always seek alternatives. This approach makes it easy for me to identify the simple mistake that most consumers often overlook. I had an experience with low quality a year ago when I purchased bread and brought it home believing it was the best available. I had faith in the product because I had ingested it multiple times and had had no adverse side effects. After eating a mouthful on that particular day, I was underwhelmed. Unlike normal, it was a little saltier than usual! The following day, I purchased another loaf of bread from the same brand hoping that it would not disappoint, but it did, in the end. As a result, I surmised that they overlooked some quality management guidelines.

I believe the company lacked the customer focus principle. Earlier, Several consumers expressed their dissatisfaction, but the company did not consider their concerns. In turn, the company continued to produce low-quality bread. If the company had focused on its consumers, the production could have been stopped and evaluated. According to Sila (2007), both existing and prospective customers should be the primary priority. In addition to meeting or surpassing customer expectations consistently, businesses should assess customer happiness. Failure to satisfy consumer expectations, on the other hand, should be recorded as well and every function and department included in this process.

In addition, the company lacked the process approach principle, which should have defined the stages necessary for production success. Activities were not managed as processes, measurements were not taken, and links between activities were not discovered as they should have been, resulting in poor production. It was impossible to track down improvement opportunities, even after problem identification. The success of an organization is dependent on procedures that take place behind the scenes, which were not taken into consideration in this situation. Furthermore, the success of a business is closely linked to the quality of its products and services.

The organization did not adhere to another fundamental element of quality management, namely, improvement. Companies will ultimately be outperformed by their competitors if they do not modify or enhance their operations (Thürer, 2013). Therefore, performance should be improved regularly, a factor that the bread company did not consider. The company should have been consistent with its objectives, and workers given the authority to make progress. If all advances were measured and appreciated, the company could have rectified the quality of its products. Conclusively, adhering to the quality management principles presents several advantages to the organization. Quality impacts an organization’s reputation, which is especially true with the advent of social media, where customers may express their thoughts and critiques of products and services. It also ensures higher investment returns since the cosnumer would buy the product repeatedly due to its high quality.


Bangert, M. (2019). The principles of quality management. Quality Magazine | Quality Assurance & Process Improvement News. management.

Sila, I. (2007). Examining the effects of contextual factors on TQM and performance through the lens of organizational theories: An empirical study. Journal of Operations Management, 25(1), 83-109.

Thürer, M. (2013). Principles of quality costs | Financial measures for strategic implementation of quality management. Quality Management Journal, 20(4), 52-52.

INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 2 Running head: Interpersonal Communication 2 Business Executives and their


Running head: Interpersonal Communication 2

Business Executives and their Employees Interpersonal Communication

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Author’s Note

Business Executives and their Employees Interpersonal Communication

Effective interpersonal communication between business executives and employees is a critical element in the effective performance of an organization (DeVito, 2019). Organizations with effective interpersonal communication strategies tend to be successful, while those with disorganized internal communications flounder. Successful business executives know how and when to pass some message to guide business practices and processes towards achieving the defined organizational objectives (Radovic & Salamzadeh, 2018). Excellent communication is paramount among business executives because communication is what separates the exceptional and the poor leaders. Employees are expected to work according to the instructions of their managers (Mukhtar et al., 2020). Thus, employees can only work effectively if they clearly understand the roles and responsibilities that their managers have provided them. Effective communication between business executives and employees will improve productivity, reduce errors, and effectively redress employee grievances.


Communication involves using symbols to pass information (Nofia, 2019). It is a social process where two or more people transact information and share meaning. Interpersonal communication refers to a process of exchanging ideas, opinions, and information between people. It can also be described as a soft skill involving an individual’s ability to communicate with others, either through verbal or non-verbal approaches, face-to-face interactions, or virtual ones. According to Hardjati and Febrianita (2019), 44% of effective management is associated with routine communication. In organizations, communication refers to all networks, patterns, and systems of communication. For effective interpersonal communication in organizations, both business executives and employees act as senders and receivers of messages that they pass between each other. Through vertical and diagonal communication channels, interactive interpersonal communication between business executives and employees occurs.

In vertical communication, information flows between business executives and employees to help the executives exercise their control in the organization and enhance coordination (DeVito, 2019). The management can decide which information flows across the organization. However, vertical communication is not an interactive channel of communication. Diagonal communication should be considered for effective communication, as it is healthier for a business (Radovic & Salamzadeh, 2018). Diagonal communication involves multi-directional communication that uses various channels, including upwards, downward and horizontal communication channels. It is better than vertical communication because it is not unidirectional providing but enables employees to fully exercise their knowledge and expertise in informing organizational decisions. In diagonal communication, employees do not have to consider the hierarchy of the organization or the chain of reporting (Mukhtar et al., 2020). It also encourages informal conversations purposely to enhance departmental communication and increase employee morale.

Effective business executives and employees’ communication should incorporate the seven Cs of effective communication to eliminate any cases of misunderstandings while fostering constant motivation and promoting effective team development. The Cs include conciseness, correctness, clarity, completeness, concreteness, coherence, and courtesy (Radovic & Salamzadeh, 2018). Good communication should be complete to improve decision making, correct without grammatical errors, concrete by avoiding being too general, and concise by highlighting only the key subject. It should be courteous to both employees and executives with clarity that emphasizes its goals. The message should also be coherent by being presented in a coherent manner, connecting all involved points (Mukhtar et al., 2020). Moreover, it considers the interests and capabilities of both the executives and employees.

Interpersonal communication between business executives and employees demands the following measures for it to be productive. First, it should be well researched and planned, in that the party communicating the message should have gathered all relevant data and facts for it to be accurate and clear on meeting its objectives (Radovic & Salamzadeh, 2018). Either the business executive or the employees should clearly understand their audience. Business executives passing the information should understand the employees’ personalities and attitudes before initiating the communication for them to use the most appropriate communication style that will fit the business situation (Mukhtar et al., 2020). Some communication may need email communication, while others need face-to-face meetings.

Research Analysis and Synthesis

Business executives and employees’ communication requires interpersonal communication (Nofia, 2019). It is complex to imagine any organization that does not require people from all organizational levels cannot interact with each other. Business executives like managers can use interpersonal communication during business meetings, employee interactions, and task discussions. Whether planning, leading, organizing or monitoring, business executives need to communicate with their junior employees, implying that interpersonal communication can affect their performance. Employees can use interpersonal communication when giving reports to their business executives. Good interpersonal communication is critical for employees to have an impactful effect on the organization (Radovic & Salamzadeh, 2018). Accordingly, organizations should emphasize interpersonal communication between managers and employees.

Interpersonal communication is important in promoting business executives and employee communication in a business. First, Putri (2018) provides that interpersonal communication is critical in facilitating the exchange of ideas within an organization facilitating healthy decisions. Healthy discussions are important and should be encouraged in organizations to ensure that it enjoys faster and more constructive results (Mukhtar et al., 2020). If an excellent idea is not shared in an organization is irrelevant. Executives should communicate with each other to brainstorm ideas that can benefit their teams and their entire organizations. Secondly, interpersonal communication is critical for business executives and employees in the workplace to accomplish their objectives within the scheduled time frame. If executives work alone, they would definitely require more time as compared to when they work with employees (Nofia, 2019). Managers should communicate effectively with their employees for them to understand their key areas of responsibility and what is anticipated of them. Proper communication ensures effective work delegation of work amongst team members.

Besides, according to Hargie (2021), interpersonal communication fosters effective communication between executives and employees to reduce work duplication. A manager should understand what the other teams aim at. Both managers and employees should stay abreast with the latest issues and developments in the firm. It would be only possible when the executives and employees communicate with each other in the organization. In addition, through interpersonal communication, business executives can easily communicate with their employees to comprehend and address the grievances they air (Mukhtar et al., 2020). Managers are anticipated to solve employee problems. Employees use interpersonal communication to air their problems to the executives, and the employees should have the liberty of talking with their managers. Their problems should be managed at the early stages to prevent any further problems (Nofia, 2019). Managers can handle their employee issues by communicating through notices, circulars, and notices, all forms of interpersonal communication in the workplace.

Furthermore, interpersonal communication aids managers in setting targets and objectives for the organization in consultation with their subordinates (Mukhtar et al., 2020). Managers cannot set business objectives alone. Therefore, they need to interact with all the employees to develop objectives for the organization. Lastly, interpersonal communication helps business executives and employees prevail during a crisis. In critical situations, each employee in the organization, regardless of their level in their designation and hierarchy, should come on a mutual stand, communicate with each other adequately, and help the firm maneuver the crisis effectively (Nofia, 2019). Interpersonal communication between business executives and employees acts as a lifeline during a crisis and binds all employees together.

However, Nordby (2021) also found that the interpersonal communication between business executives and employees’ experiences is not always that effective. Business executives should interact with each other and their subordinates regularly to ensure that everything is effectively accomplished and ensure employees commit to their workplace (Nofia, 2019). But there are various barriers to effective interpersonal communication between executives and employees. A significant barrier to interpersonal communication among managers and employees is likely experience partiality and office conflicts. Andersson (2019) found out that managers should not be biased or partial when communicating with their employees for effective management to be effective, as it is entirely unprofessional. Each employee should be listened to and treated equally. Some managers ignore their employees because they do not like them, limiting any possible interpersonal communication.

Saad et al. (2018) also noted that managers tend to communicate with their subordinates who are their friends or acknowledge what they have to say, which is wrong in accomplishing interpersonal communication. They, therefore, advise all managers of all their workers and address their issues. Misunderstandings and problems occur when there is inadequate interpersonal communication, as employees would feel ignored. In their study, Newnam and Goode (2019) found that responsible managers should avoid office conflicts as it undermines interpersonal communication. Office conflicts result in negativity in the organization and a surge in stress levels among executives and employees. As a result, interpersonal communication is strained. When executives avoid office conflicts, they can easily avoid jumping to conclusions, promoting easy interpersonal communication in the organization. Furthermore, Mikkola and Valo (2020) observed that for effective interpersonal communication between business executives and employees, they should not always interact verbally or use any other channel that their employees can easily forget. During verbal communication, employees can forget what their executives communicate to them after a while. Therefore, managers must consider promoting other forms of interpersonal communication, including emails, in the workplace. In essence, for executives to ensure that their interpersonal communication uses appropriate communication channels that employees can easily refer to in case they forget.


Interpersonal communication is an effective tool for the business executive and employee communication. Appropriate communications offer employees the necessary requirements expected of them in the organization and facilitate feedback for them to achieve organizational goals. There are different approaches for enacting interpersonal communication, including verbal or written communication. Interpersonal communication helps executives to communicate with each other and with other employees within the firm. However, interpersonal communication needs to be clear and well understood to be effective. Accordingly, it helps to ensure a smooth flow of information among managers and employees towards achieving organizational goals.


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