A plot summary of Antony and Cleopatra would suggest that it is a tragedy. The play focuses on the downfall of Antony as a Roman warrior due to his love affair with Cleopatra, as well as the suicides of both the protagonists. However, despite these incidents, the play lacks the somber note of Shakespeare’s other tragedies. Cleopatra, who represents the merriment of Egyptian society, lends a sense of humor to the play that contrasts with the seriousness of Rome. Antony’s preference for Cleopatra over Rome is validated within the play, and his failure as a warrior is a Roman loss that is counterbalanced by his consequent success as a lover to Cleopatra. Furthermore, the ending of the play itself has a sense of triumph that does not suggest a tragedy. Although Caesar achieves victory over Antony and gains world power, he is not able to destroy the more valuable love between Antony and Cleopatra. Antony and Cleopatra’s suicides are not dismal and desperate ends, but an escape from imminent Roman imposition and a means to further their love in a freer and happier life together in heaven. Therefore, although the plot suggests tragedy, the greater value of Antony’s love for Cleopatra over Roman success, and the perpetuation of this love allows for a sense of comedy.
The play is marked by the tension that Antony feels as a result of the conflict between his love for Cleopatra and the pleasures of Egyptian life, with his sense of duty as a Roman warrior and a member of the triumvirate. Although he returns to Rome to carry out his duties, Antony places superior value on the love that he and Cleopatra have for one another. Cleopatra is worth the world to him and he declares to her…
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…shers, 1988. 109-35.
Barton, Anne. “‘Nature’s Piece ‘Gainst Fancy’: The Divided Catastrophe in Antony and Cleopatra.” Modern Critical Interpretations: William Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. 35-55.
Bloom, Harold, ed. Introduction. Modern Critical Interpretations: William Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1988.
—. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: Riverhead Books, 1998.
Kittredge, George Lyman. Introduction. Antony and Cleopatra. By William Shakespeare. Waltham, MA: Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1966.
Markels, Julian. The Pillar of the World: Antony and Cleopatra in Shakespeare’s Development. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1968.
Shakespeare, William. Antony and Cleopatra. Ed. Barbara Everett. New York: Signet, 1998.
Clash of Virtues in Othello
Clash of Virtues in Othello
Perhaps it is just human nature, but people have a way of going to absolute extremes. Whether exhibiting severity in the way one loves, or the way one is loyal, or the way one strives for ambitions, people, in general, have a tendency to take their emotions or actions “all the way.” It’s an exhibition of passion. Being an expert on the human condition, no one knows or can illustrate this better than Shakespeare. Particularly in his tragedies, Shakespeare very precisely defines aspects of the human condition. He additionally exhibits the polarity of those conditions, and the consequences when they interact with their opposites. Shakespeare’s beautiful tragedy Othello is a particularly good example of such clashing virtues. Love and hate; good and evil; loyalty and betrayal; This work takes a wide tour of human character. Throughout the play, many characters exhibit evil and distrust. These villainous traits clash head on with their polar opposites, and this leads to the death and destruction of the innocent. Superficially, it would seem as though this play, with all of its tragedy, does not uphold the sanctity of love, loyalty and devotion. However, under closer examination of the love and death of Desdemona and Othello, it becomes evident that Shakespeare is indeed supporting the strength and virtue of love. Though the lives of these characters, and thus the play, end tragically, the nature of their deaths speaks a message of invincible love. Though humans themselves are mere mortals, Shakespeare asserts that the virtuous human conditions can hold steadfast through a clash with polar opposites.
Right from the opening scene, Othello presents an aura of evil and disloyalty. The play begin…
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…1988) Othello: An Introduction to the Variety of Criticism Hampshire: Macmillan Press
Hale, Steven. Class lectures. Georgia Perimeter College. April 20th –30th, 1999
Jones, Eldred. “Othello- An Interpretation” Critical Essays on Shakespeare’s Othello. Ed. Anthony G. Barthelemy Pub. Macmillan New York, NY 1994. (page 39-55)
Neely, Carol. “Women and Men in Othello” Critical Essays on Shakespeare’s Othello. Ed. Anthony G. Barthelemy Pub. Macmillan New York, NY 1994. (page 68-90)
Shakespeare, W. (1997) Othello (c. 1602) E. A. J Honigmann (Ed.) Surrey: Thomas Nelson