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job analysis for a health care organization. Some of the positions there include occupational therapists, physical therapists, masseuses, art therapists, and administrative personnel.
Which approach, task-based job analysis and competency-based job analysis, would you use? Be sure to tell the advantages and disadvantages of the two kinds of analysis and justify your conclusions.
Ideally, a human resource professional should be able to deploy two different types of job analysis when determining the most appropriate personnel to fill certain roles in a healthcare organization. A task-based job analysis may be deemed most appropriate for lower-level or entry level employment functions that require certain basic skills or tasks of employees. An administrative assistant with a wonderful rapport with people and a great character will be of little use to patients if he or she cannot use the necessary word processing software demanded by the job.
For personnel who must deal with the patients, and the public on a regular basis, however, a different approach on the part of the human resource department of the organization is required. Of course, to be considered for their respective positions, prospective occupational therapists, physical therapists, therapeutic masseuses, and art therapists must possess the necessary certification under the law to be considered qualified. But what makes one art therapist better than another art therapist cannot be reduced to possessing a degree and certification alone, or even a proven track record at previous institutions. Therapy is more than a series of rote tasks. The individual must ‘fit’ the specific organization, and be able to deal with the type of patients the facility most commonly treats. Someone who has great skill working with autistic children might not possess the same finesse working with adults.
Likewise, physical and occupational therapists must possess the necessary qualifications. But their previous experience in various subfields must be taken into consideration, as well as their ability to deal with the demographic of their patients and the hospital as a whole. Working with injured athletes may be difficult for someone more used to working with the elderly, and working in a large, urban hospital is different than working in a smaller and more intimate environment within a general practitioner’s office.
A competency job analysis focuses on the competency as a whole by breaking down a task into specific necessary areas needed to fulfill the position. A competency is broken down into a series of tasks “which share some general knowledge and skill,” and if the candidate can only perform some of tasks he or she does not possess the competency (What is Competency Mapping and How Can it Help? 2001, What is JA?). For example, an art therapist who should be able to work with children and the elderly would not be rated as competent if he or she did not have the experience or the necessary coursework to do so, even if he or she was a certified therapist.
The degree to which certain competencies were necessary for the health care facility, of course, would be open to debate before opening up the candidate search, but once the core competencies had been set, this would be used to narrow down the field of candidates. For higher-level occupations that have a series of components and facets, a competency-based analysis is more useful. For example, to ensure that the individual had rapport with patients served by the facility, one of the competencies might be defined as working in a hospital environment in a major urban location. While “competencies include knowledge, skills, and abilities, they “are more than that. There is a component of behavior, performance outcomes, motivation, and attitude included in the concept” (Senior Professional in Human Resources Exam Prep: Workforce Planning and Employment, 2007, Pearson Education).
If either competency or task-based analysis must be selected for the entire organization, given the critical nature of the health providing personnel, the former should be selected over the latter. Furthermore, it could be argued that even the most basic administrative tasks will be successfully executed, if the ‘right’ people are found, who possess the certain core administrative competencies like organizational ability, even if they must be trained in some of the standard operating procedures of the office. Overall, “traditional or task-based job analysis focuses on the job and what is actually being done, whereas competency-based analysis focuses on the person and how the job outcomes are to be accomplished,” which is why competency-based analysis has become more favored in the current occupational environment (Senior Professional in Human Resources Exam Prep: Workforce Planning and Employment, 2007, Pearson Education).
All jobs require some training, and eventually, all jobs will require a certain amount of on-site retraining, but if the right person is found, this is usually not an obstacle. Flexibility and commitment is vital, and cannot be reduced to a task for most occupations. “Many organizations believe that the use of competencies is a more strategic approach and better aligns employee behavior with the organization’s mission and values than do description of tasks and functions” (Senior Professional in Human Resources Exam Prep: Workforce Planning and Employment, 2007, Pearson Education).
The only problem with the use of the less clearly defined, but more useful competency-based job search approach is that focusing on the “how” a job is performed and the person performing the job can be legally problematical, given that it can give rise to charges of discrimination law if not enough focus is put on what is done and instead is turned to a focus on the candidate’s personality and ability to meet the tasks of the job. However, given the value of the competency-based approach, this should not necessarily be an obstacle to using this approach. However, job discrimination law must be kept in mind by human resource personnel when creating job descriptions, analysis, and embarking upon a job search.
Senior Professional in Human Resources Exam Prep: Workforce Planning and Employment.” (2007). Pearson Education. Retrieved 16 Sept 2007. http://www.examcram2.com/articles/article.asp?p=438037&seqNum=6&rl=1
What is Competency Mapping and How Can it Help?” (2001).Institute for Job and Occupational Analysis: What is JA Website. Retrieved 16 Sept 2007. http://www.ijoa.org/WhatIsCM.html
Vendor Application Recruitment Term Paper history assignment help online
Recruitment is an important phase, as this provides the opportunity to develop relationships with potential candidates. These relationships will then contribute towards the final staffing decision. Recruitment is also an opportunity to make use of existing staff. Word-of-mouth information can for example be provided to existing staff regarding the availability of the position. As the staff presumably have the best interest of the company in mind, they can help in recruiting the best future staff members. Other methods of recruitment include tapping social board funders and academic networks, publicizing in employee referrals, networking in industry groups, conferences and trade shows. Building and keeping a potential employee database is another method that can facilitate recruitment.
In terms of the initial training plan, employees will be provided with the policies and procedures of employment at Serenity Health Services. In this regard, they will complete a program that includes elements such as orientation to the health needs of clients, CPR, First aid, health and safety policies and procedures.
2. In addition to the above-mentioned training in basic elements of work, employees will further receive training in elements such as medication, seizures, interactions with clients, ISPP process, communication with families, client rights and confidentiality. Direct care personnel members will also receive training specific to their responsibilities, objectives and assignments. Such staff members will also be required to annually review agency policies and procedures, and plan for potential contingencies in terms of emergencies and disasters. Other elements of training will include client intervention techniques a provided by a professional. Basic training will therefore include practical, on-site training that will help staff members provide each specific community with their specific health care needs. An awareness of legislation in combination with an understanding of client rights will form part of this training.
3. Being a health service, it is vital that Serenity Health Services Mental Health LLC (SHS) provide its community with the best of uninterrupted service at all times. This is the responsibility of the Clinical Director. The Director is to provide the community with appropriate treatment by qualified, professional staff. This means that capacity demands must be met in a timely fashion. To accomplish this, the Director needs to determine whether additional staff are required to provide sufficient and timely service. Specifically, the Director will meet with the Chief Administrative Officer on a weekly basis, with the purpose of reviewing census reports. These are to indicate whether additional personnel must be hired in order to meet capacity demands. In order to provide the necessary human resources, a pool of potential employees will be created to determine the best choice and quality of future service. A web site will also be created for the purpose of staffing.
4. Policies and procedures are implemented in order to address neglect and abuse allegations internally. These include definitions and prohibitions in terms of the allegations, the detection of neglect and abuse both within and outside the agency itself, and intervention to prevent recurring incidents. Intervention will occur immediately, as soon as possible after the initial allegation. Reporting will be handled with the necessary sensitivity and discretion, after which a thorough investigation is launched into the allegations. When reports are found to be grounded in fact, corrective action will be taken immediately in order to prevent and discourage further abuse. In all cases, the rights of the community will be taken into account, as well as how these are supported and integrated with legislation. All procedures and policies will occur according to these rights and the law. Abuse and neglect will include actions such as smoking and drinking, that could impact negatively upon the comfort and right of fellow residents. Adequate staffing procedures will be implemented to handle these issues.
5. Externally, policies and procedures are put in place to address the alleged neglect and abuse of residents. Definitions of abuse, along with prohibitive rules, will be put in place in accordance with external law-making agencies. Possible neglect and abuse will be monitored continuously, with detection paradigms in place both inside and outside the agency. As with internal reporting, immediate intervention will occur in cases of neglect or abuse, and measures will be in place to prevent further abuse. Reporting will occur in accordance with legislation, and neglect or abuse revealed by investigation will result in setting review and corrective action. The comfort level and rights of residents will also be taken into account, and prohibitive measures will be taken in terms of smoking and drinking. Policies and procedures will be put in place by means of which residents can report abuses internally, and in the event that issues cannot be resolved on the premises, external reporting procedures will be followed. Policies and procedures will be submitted to the Division for approval.
6. The internal review process is supplemented with corrective action. This process is based upon incident reports. Incident reports regarding client affairs and staff concerns. Specifically, these reports are filed whenever violations of the SHS Code of Ethics are committed by any person involved with the agency. Specific procedures need to be filed when such violations occur, and the SHS Clinical Director is directly responsible for all complaints filed against SHS employees. Such reports are written on an SHS Incident Form and filed for 12 months after the incident. It is registered with a licensing body within one working day of the incident. Incidents may include death, abuse, neglect, or exploitation, suicide attempts, and physical injuries. The procedure to follow when incidents are reported includes an interview with all parties involved, the documentation of all specifics relating to the incident, including the location, time, and date of the incident.
7. Complaint and grievance forms contain the specific elements of the incidents reported. In the case of minors, the names and addresses of minors and their parents or caretakers are included, the age of the minor along with the extent of the grievance suffered, and any other information necessary to establish the cause of injury or neglect. Minors are encouraged to enter all the details of the incident, so that an accurate assessment can be made regarding corrective action. Minors are also encouraged to follow the specific steps included in grievance reports in order to validate the grievances suffered and claims made.
8. Grievance procedures include specific steps. Firstly, all complaints are to be directed to the Office Manager, a position at Serenity Health Services Mental Health, LLC currently held by Melissa Whalley. Cases that Ms. Whalley cannot resolve herself are referred to the Clinical Director, Kenneth Rose. If the complaint still cannot be resolved, more information is requested. In such a case, the complainant needs to submit the complaint, the reason for the complaint, and the requested resolution, if any to the Controlling Manager. The written request is then assessed and a response can be expected within sixty days of submission. Complainants are to be as specific as possible regarding all the elements of their case, including the sequence of events leading to the complaint, as well as all the persons involved in the incident. Furthermore, complainants are asked to be specific about the resolutions they would like for their complaints.
9. Policies and procedures regarding the submission of complaints and grievances follow a process from the lowest to the highest levels. Administratively, some complaints are easily resolved via informal channels on the premises, while others are more serious and need to be submitted to higher levels of management. Policies and procedures are implemented to facilitate resolutions and help complainants as soon as possible.
Clients or services providers alike have the right to submit a request for Administrative
Review. The first step towards this is to attempt a resolution of the complaint via informal channels of communication with the Health Plan representative or District Program Manager. If this does not have the desired outcome, a written request for an Administrative Review can be filed with the Compliance and Review Unit within 35 days of the incident. If there is still no satisfactory resolution, a further written request for an Administrative Review can be filed with the Division’s Compliance and Review Unit within 60 days of the incident. In such a case, the Compliance and Review United needs to review the written request. A formal, written decision will then be returned within a certain timer frame. Time frames are prescribed under ALTCS.
It is the concern of agency that clients and workers enjoy the full benefits of the agency at all time. Complaints will therefore be handled within the exact prescribed time frames to ensure that all relationships are fully restored and quality service enjoyed.
10. It is also possible that persons outside of the direct service of the agency may have complaints and grievances. Such persons may include consumers, families, or consumer representatives. In such a case, there are also specific procedures to be followed. Complaints regarding services or staff by representatives of the client will be resolved as quickly as possible under the following policies and procedures: Appropriate procedures will be established for specific complaints and grievances. Clients will receive information regarding their rights to submit such complaints. Clients will also be informed on the different levels and time frames related to the process of submitting complaints. Clients and their representatives will receive assistance in the process of grievances, until the complaints are resolved. It is important to the agency that not only direct clients, but also their family members and other representatives be satisfied with the quality of service at all times.
Complaints or grievances can be filed by any client of the Division of Development Disabilities, their parents, guardians, or other representatives. These persons have the right to make complaints or initiate grievances. Areas targeted for such grievances may be the conditions under which clients are treated, as well as treatment provided by the staff of the Division or other service providers under the Division. Upon receipt of such complaints, it is the obligation of Serenity to handle all complaints in a timely and professional manner. These responses will be handled according to policies and procedures until the client, parent, guardian, or representative is satisfied that Serenity has done all in its power to obtain an acceptable resolution for the complaint or grievance. Being a service provider, client satisfaction, communication and satisfactory service are at the top of the agency’s list of priorities.
12. The complaints and grievances process entails a number of steps to facilitate the process not only for clients, but also to ensure that all staff involved can handle the situation promptly. Appropriate procedures are established for responding to complaints and grievances, as mentioned above. Clients and their representatives receive specific information on submitting grievances and complaints. Clients and their representatives are made fully aware of their rights to submit grievances and complaints. They are also assisted on the different levels of submitting and handling complaints.
13. In addition to their right to submit complaints and grievances, clients and their representatives also have the right to submit input regarding the level of service and conditions provided. Firstly, clients are provided with a documented list of best client interests. This can then be used not only in the complaint process, but also as a basis for submitting further improvements and additions to the list. The purpose of this list is to solicit family support, preserve the integrity of the family in terms of clients and family members, and to involve the family in problem-solving and decision-making in terms of the care clients receive. The family is therefore supported and empowered in order to help the agency in its care giving capacity.
A mailing list is established in order to connect not only individual families and clients with the agency, but also to connect families and clients with each other in terms of support and empowerment. The electronic media provide a very large framework for support, without having to establish a physical location for inter-family meetings. Clients’ families will then be able to understand that neither they nor their disabled family members are alone in their predicament. This alone establishes a very prominent sense of support. Establishing an online community therefore helps families to connect on a community basis. This is then also a channel by which input can be provided to the agency. Family empowerment is regarded as a very important element of mental health in children. Thus, input from families is highly encouraged, since studies have shown that greater family involvement also means better mental health for the children of these families.
14. As involvement is seen as a vitally important element of providing mental health services, measures are implemented by which consumer and family satisfaction with the service is measured. In determining how these measures can best be implemented, what other agencies are doing has been investigated. In Northern Arizona, for example, parents are involved as leaders on the Board of Directors of the Human Service Cooperative, a measure supported by the DES Division of Developmental Disabilities. In Flagstaff, a Community Partnership website has been developed via which information and communication are facilitated. The University of Northern Arizona arranged a conference on Autism in October 2004.
These are measures that can be used as a springboard for ideas in the agency’s future as a service provider. Basically, client and family satisfaction is measured by communication. It is therefore vital to, as seen above, communicate with all involved in the service. Such communication serves more than one important function: it imparts to families and clients their rights, while also soliciting from clients and families their level of satisfaction. The electronic media have facilitated this process to a great degree. What other agencies have done serves as an important springboard for ideas for what can be done locally.
15. In addition to clients and families, the non-related representatives of clients also need to be taken into account when monitoring the level of satisfaction. These persons also have the right to submit complaints and grievances, and thus also have the right to submit input regarding their satisfaction. Specifically, a wider context needs to be established from which to measure the satisfaction of client representatives.
A definitional framework should then be suggested as a framework of consumer satisfaction. This framework should be established on the basis of monitored consumer views. Different contextual settings can also be considered in developing this framework. The established definitions of satisfaction should then be established as being consistent with the consumer views that are collected. The consumer is the focus of care and should therefore be considered as very important in developing the definitions of satisfaction. Concomitantly, consumers should also understand what is meant when the agency uses the term satisfaction. Specific and targeted studies are conducted to establish the different components involved in consumer satisfaction and its various meanings.
16. Because family-centered care is at the heart of our service delivery, it is important that both clients and their families and representatives are involved in as many as possible of the administrative processes that concern them directly. One of these processes is the hiring and evaluation of direct service staff.
It is our concern to establish relationships between families and staff rather than just an impersonal connection of clinical care. Hiring and evaluating staff is therefore driven by the needs of families and children that come to use for service and care. Family-centered care means that families have the right to periodically evaluate the staff members providing them with care. This includes both positive and negative evaluations. In the case of negative evaluations, staff members are made aware of room for improvement and are asked to pay attention to problem areas. Because our paradigm of care is focused upon the needs of human beings, it is important that relationships with professionals occur in a collaborative and mutually respectful way.
17. Feedback within the agency is forwarded to Kenneth Rose, the Controlling Manager. The Controlling Manager takes to heart the specific needs of clients and their families. As such, he involves all the necessary parties in feedback sessions in order to provide the highest level of service excellence to families.
18. Clients and their families, caregivers and/or representatives are not only to provide feedback, but they are also expected to be part of the evaluation process in order to improve services. One of our concerns is therefore to, as mentioned above, help to establish good relationships with caregivers, especially in cases where these caregivers work at their clients’ homes.
In such cases, families often feel unsure and nervous about caregivers within their homes to care for their children. This is particularly the case when caregivers are established in the home for the first time. Families need to be reassured regarding the necessity of care for the well-being of their children. These families therefore need to be reassured by establishing good relationships with their caregivers from the beginning of the care period. Specifically, caregivers are expected to establish open, honest, and respectful communication with families. This will translate into better care for children, who will receive care in a positive atmosphere that promotes learning and health. We believe that such a philosophy of family-centered care best meets the needs of the primary care clients, the children, and their families. Family-centered care occurs in a mutually respectful and collaborative way, according to principles such as: dignity and respect, complete, unbiased and useful information, and a paradigm of control and independence for clients and families. The relationship with the caregiver is therefore seen as collaborative and equal, with families and children continually made aware of their rights to provide input, criticism, and praise when it is deserved.
19. Feedback from former consumers is very important to provide families with the information necessary to make informed decisions about the care of their children and wards. This falls into the category of mutually respectful communication between the agency, its employees, and care recipients. Families have the right to be provided with targeted and excellent care. The disclosure of past evaluations is therefore in the interest of families and clients, and should be provided to them if they request it.
20. In addition to the above, consumers, their families and representatives are provided with many opportunities to be involved in the care provided by the agency. Indeed, according to feedback provided by families, staff are trained in the specific needs of children and their families. Staff are also provided with support from the agency in order to provide families and children with the best possible support.
Families are targeted for involvement by means of events such as training and workshops. These focus on the specific needs of such children, and also on the particular care that is in their best interest. Families are trained to help support their children while in the care of agency personnel. Families of newly diagnosed children are provided with special needs resource packets, including a partnership program implemented by the agency. This provides not only the children, but also the family with the support necessary to help their children achieve their goals.
The agency’s Partnership program has been credited with statewide success. The program enhances good relationships between families and caregivers, which concomitantly leads to the development of better, more responsive services. Ultimately, this leads to excellent customer satisfaction and the growth of the organization.
Families are also provided with the opportunity to interact on a wider scale via the interactive Web site. This provides comprehensive information on the services provided in general, as well as with individualized data for children with specific conditions. Via this web site, families are allowed to communicate not only with caregivers and the agency, but also with each other. In this way, mutual support is provided for the families of children with special needs. This, along with other communication paradigms, helps the agency and its personnel in establishing a holistic view of the family and child. The child as whole person is considered along with the family as a whole unit, instead of focusing only on the disability. Problems are rather seen as challenges, and this is handled within the context of other more positive elements in the child and family.
The family is therefore an equal partner in planning, implementing, and evaluating services. As such, families and professionals can learn from each other. In working together in this way, the responses of both families and professionals are modified to an experience of the situation as less stressful than it would have been without support.
21. Currently, no active community advisory groups are available. Plans are in place for establishing such a community advisory in the future. This will be part of the important process of involving families and community members in the important work done by the agency. It will also be a good way to raise community awareness regarding children with disabilities and their needs.
23. The quality and appropriateness of service are vital, as care is provided to a sector of society whose potential is largely untapped. As such, it is important that the agency continuously monitors its service quality as seen by the community it serves. Because human beings with special needs are involved, the objective criteria for success are neither simple, obvious, nor easy to collect or analyze. The agency has multiple objectives that are often in conflict with each other, once again because human beings and services to human beings are involved. There are very few measurable criteria according to which the quality of service can be measured. This is why feedback by clients and their families are vitally important for such monitoring purposes.
In terms of quality service, the agency’s objectives can be measured against the generally accepted criteria of service organizations. It for example needs to be efficient in its resource use and effective in the eyes of the customer. The problem with the latter is that customers often entail children with their families. Effective service in the eyes of the child is often not the same as effective service in the eyes of the family. Service effectiveness and efficiency need to be established in harmony with each other in order to mitigate such conflicts. In services such as those to children with disabilities, this is done by means of communication. Communication lies at the heart of conflict resolution, as seen above.
Specifically, to implement internal measures for service efficiency with external measures of service effectiveness, elements such as the balanced scorecard are implemented. Such a scorecard then provides the agency with its employees with measurable objectives in terms of corporate goals.
Measures of good service can be taken on an internal or external basis. Internal service measurement techniques do not involve the customer in the measurement process. Instead, employees estimate the customer paradigm by attempting to view the service issue from the customer’s point-of-view. Internal measurement techniques can be done via call monitoring. This technique is often used in call centers, where a third party listens to service interactions taking place over the telephone. The quality of service is then measured according to a pre-created score sheet.
This technique has the advantage that it is unobtrusive; neither customers nor service providers are aware of the monitoring at the time. Evaluation can be done during the actual time when the service takes place. This ensures that no event of customer service is overlooked, and possible problem areas can be addressed as they occur. Because every agent is evaluated against a pre-established set of criteria, consistency throughout the company is ensured.
Some of the disadvantages of the technique include the fact that monitors use their own qualitative impressions to evaluate agents, and therefore more than one monitor will be needed to ensure the consistency mentioned above. A further element of this is that monitors need to be trained and calibrated in order to prevent inconsistency of measurement. Finally, it is important that the criteria on the score sheet should reflect the concerns of the customers. This is often not the case, as weights and values assigned to each item on the score sheet is often established by management and not in connection with what is important to customers.
This technique could also be used in a service agency like the one in focus in this document. It should however be ensured that monitoring occurs without too much intrusion in the care giving process. Customers should also be used extensively in communication with the agency in order to establish targeted score sheet items. Furthermore, it should be ensured that such score sheets are not regarded in a negative light by either customers or employees, as this would disrupt the quality of care being provided.
External service measurement techniques rely directly on feedback from consumers in order to establish the quality of perceived service. A technique often used in this regard is unsolicited comments. This means that the comments provided by customers without being asked for them are used in establishing the quality of service. This is a problematic technique, as most customers will seldom take the initiative to provide feedback. A way in which this problem can be mitigated is by facilitating and encouraging comments.
In the agency, for example, both clients and their families are encouraged to share their feelings regarding the service provided, whether these be positive or negative. Furthermore, customers and their families are often made aware of their rights in terms of complaints or grievances. They are also provided with a list of specific steps to take should problems arrive. Techniques like these make it easy for customers to provide feedback to the agency.
One drawback in the way the agency handles its encouragement process is perhaps that it is very focused on complaints and grievances rather than positive feedback. In addition to providing customers with an easy way of communicating grievances, they should also for example be provided with specific steps to follow for submitting unsolicited positive feedback. This would provide a more balanced view of customer’s true feelings regarding the service.
Solicited feedback to the agency includes service provider evaluation during and after the term of service to the family. These are more balanced in terms of soliciting either positive or negative feedback regarding the customer’s experience.
In a service agency like the one considered here, it is more important to liaise directly with customers in establishing the level of service quality than it is to establish service quality internally. The reason for this is the above-mentioned paradigms of customer focus. The client, or the child, is the primary recipient of care and therefore viewed as the most important agent in the service relationship. The family is secondarily important, in that they can provide valuable information regarding the specific needs of the child. It is important to establish and maintain positive relationship with the family, as this will translate into a positive and effective care giving relationship with the child.
Feedback can also be solicited via personal interviews. This is an especially useful technique for the care giving agency. Indeed, as a personal relationship has already been built with the family, interviews will further encourage the family to provide honest and useful feedback to the company. Interviews can provide very rich details in terms of the consumer experience. They can be conducted on an individual basis, with each family member separately, or collectively with all the family members included.
In order to provide targeted data, personal interviews should be structured, with pre-established questions. This will help to provide the agency with the information necessary to implement corrective action or to establish the best approach towards the family and their needs.
The Internet, as seen above, is also a useful tool for soliciting feedback from consumers. The established agency Web site for example is a rich resource of both solicited and unsolicited consumer feedback. Basically, the most important paradigm for the agency is to focus primarily on the client and then on the family. The quality of care largely rests upon the quality of the relationship that can be established between the care giver, the child and the family. In this way, great rewards can be involved for both client and professional.
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social skills in alternative education: REQUIRED SOCIAL SKILLS of CHILDREN in ALTERNATIVE EDUCATION COURSES
The aims and objectives of this research proposal are focused toward understanding the requirement of social skills specifically for children who are placed in alternative education courses. Certainly, there must exist most specifically within the attentive education environment a requirement that children in these classrooms be capable of tolerance related to the individual differences of other children in this education environment, which is inclusive in nature. This works seeks to make identification of the specific characteristics or social skills required of children in alternative education environments.
The methodology employed in this study is of a qualitative nature, which is held by experts and scholars to be appropriate in studying social phenomenon such as social skills among children. The methodology of this study is interpretive in nature meaning that the researcher, through reviewing available peer-reviewed literature in this study area will determine that social skill requirements of children in the alternative education classroom.
In understanding what is precisely meant by ‘social skills’, the work entitled: “The Power or Social Skills in Character Development” written by Jennifer L. Scully geared specifically toward assisting the success of diverse learners. The individual whom has attained acceptable social skills in today’s word is the individual who: “…knows how to give and take constructive criticism; interrupts conversations only when it is appropriate to do so; evaluates their personal strengths and weaknesses; sets their own goals for self-improvement; handles conflicts in a mature and responsible way; and shows respect for each other – and for you as their teacher – in all their actions ” (Scully, 2000) Scully holds that when the students “learn to respect themselves, the also learn to respect others, providing a solid foundation for improvement in social skills, as well as in the growth of their character.” (2000) it is essential that students are able to “demonstrate not only academic ability but also social competence” in their development and in becoming engaged members of society. The work of Sprague and Nishioka entitled: “Skills for Success: A Three-Tiered Approach to Positive Behavior Supports” states the fact that: “Many students who are at-risk leave school without diplomas and ill-prepared to function as productive adults” and cites as supporting evidence the work of Kasen, Cohen, and Brooks (1998) Students who are those identified as “at-risk” are stated by Sprague and Nishioka to come to school “with emotional and behavioral difficulties that interfere with their attempts to focus on academic instruction. Others may experience interpersonal issues with other students or school staff that makes concentrating on learning difficult.” (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) Stated as ‘best practice’ in working with these students starts with “early identification of emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal needs, followed by interventions to reduce obstacles to successful school adjustment.” (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) the University of Oregon on Violence and Destructive Behavior developed a pilot program, which they named “Skills for Success” (SFS) which is a combination of ‘school-wide positive behavior supports with specialized supports for students who are at risk in the school.” (Sprague and Nishioka, nd)
SES additional supports included “specialized school-based services, family support services, and service coordination.” (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) Stated as “School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports’ are the components of: (1) Best Behavior; and (2) Second Step Violence Prevention. (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) Universal Screening Procedures are stated to include: (1) Multi-gated System; (2) Early Identification; and (3) Systematic School Planning. (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) School-Based Services include: (1) adult mentoring; (2) academic tutoring; (3) Self-management; (4) Check in/Check Out; (5) Inclusion Support; (6) Increased Monitoring in School. (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) Family support includes: (1) parent collaboration; (2) resource linkage; (3) Family Advocacy; and (4) Solution-Focused Planning. (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) Service Coordination is stated to be inclusive of: (1) Multi-Agency Monitoring; (2) Agency Linkage; (3) Individual Service Plan; and (4) Case Management. (Sprague and Nishioka, nd) the work of Stephen W. Smith entitled: “Applying Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques to Social Skills Instruction” relates that management of the behavior of students in the classroom is both: “…difficult and complex” as well as being: “…personally involving and professionally frustrating.” (Smith, 2002) Students regardless of age are noted to sometimes “…engage in behavior that includes disrespect for authority, hyperactivity and inattention, lack of self-control, and sometimes aggression…” which results in a detraction from opportunities to learn as well as precluding positive relationships with their peers. Smith states that a viable tool for remediation of behavioral deficits and excesses may be successful through ‘Cognitive-behavioral interventions (CBI). Cognitive-behavioral interventions are stated to involve: “…teaching the use of inner speech (“self-talk”) to modify underlying cognition’s that affect overt behavior” (Mahoney, 1974; Meichenbaum, 1977; as cited by Smith, 2002. According to Smith, the “internalization of self-statements” are considered by theorists to be ‘fundamental’ in the development of individual self-control, deficient of maladaptive self-statements.” (Smith, 2002) in other words, self-statements of a ‘maladaptive’ nature are believed to contribute to the individual’s negative self-beliefs, which further is a significant factor in behavioral problems in children, and this is stated to include the behavioral problem of aggression. (Smith, 2002; paraphrased) Smith also points out the work of Kendall (1993) who states: “…cognitive behavioral techniques for the remediation of social deficits can incorporate cognitive, behavioral, emotive and developmental strategies, using rewards, modeling, role-plays, and self-evaluation.” (2002) the focus of Cognitive-behavioral interventions is incorporate of behavior therapy, which includes modeling, feedback and reinforcement and cognitive mediation, or the manner in which the individual thinks aloud in building what Smith refers to as a new “coping template.” (2002) Susan Etscheidt (1991) desired knowledge as to whether a Cognitive-behavioral instruction of a specific type would bring about a decrease in student’s aggressive behavior in comparison to students who did not receive the instruction. The program of Etscheidt contained adapted components from the work of Lockman, Nelson, and Sims (1981) ‘Anger Coping Program’, which is a program that provides individuals “with a way to change aggressive responses into appropriate alternatives by modifying their thinking processes regarding the circumstances surrounding certain situations.” (Smith, 2002) the following “sequential strategy” (Smith, 2002) was used by Etschedit:
Stop and think before acting: Students are taught restraint in aggressive responses through the use of covert speech;
Identify the problem: The students are required to distinguish the specific aspects of a problematic situation that may elicit an aggressive response;
Develop alternative solutions: Students generate at least two alternative solutions to a problematic situation, either thinking about something else until able to relax and/or moving to another location in the room to avoid further provocation;
Evaluate the consequences of possible solutions: Students are taught the benefits of each solution that is available to them;
Selection and implementation of a solution: The students carry out the alternative solution that they have selected. (Etscheidt, 1991; as cited in Smith, 2002)
The study of Etscheidt involved three comparison groups with the first group receiving the Cognitive-behavioral instruction and the second group receiving the Cognitive-behavioral instruction and the positive consequences. Finally, the third group, which was the control group, did not receive either of the instructions. The results are stated to have indicated that: “…the two groups who received the CBI demonstrated more self-control than the control group students. In fact, the students in the control group exhibited significantly more aggressive behaviors than those who received the training.” (Smith, 2002) Findings also state that adding a ‘positive consequence’ did not bring about a significant increase in the Cognitive -behavioral instruction effectiveness. (Smith, 2002; paraphrased) the effects of Cognitive-behavioral instruction has also been the focus of study by researchers at the University of Florida with findings stated being that curriculum can assist students in reduction of aggression and disruption of the classroom and moreover, that the: “…effects can be maintained.” (Smith, 2002) the design of the curriculum is such that assists students in learning to seek out positive solutions in coping with problems of a social nature. Specifically, the design of the curriculum is one that uses a “problem-solving framework focused on understanding and dealing with frustration and anger, since anger is a correlate of disruptive and aggressive behavior and can be preceded by frustration.” (Smith, 2002) Included in the lessons are anger management and problem-solving concepts akin to those in Etscheidts’ program through use of a sequential strategy in the approach to problem situations that are inclusive as well of “direct instruction, modeling, guided practice, and independent practice for skill development, along with opportunities for skill generalization.” (Smith, 2002) These lessons are stated to range from thirty to forty minutes in lessons two to three times a week through “following an overview of the general, step-by-step problem-solving approach” in lessons stated to be devoted to “problem recognition, a necessary first-step in any problem-solving skill sequence.” (Smith, 2002) Innovation is needed in the methods employed in teaching students self-control of behavior and this is particularly true in times when student’s activities are not being monitored by adults. Children with learning disabilities often have difficulty in understanding what another person says or means…” As well as having problem with self-expression both of which affect the individual’s interpersonal communication. For example, the child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) may be “inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive – or any combination of these.” (Stanberry, 2002) the work of Stanberry (2002) states that there are three elements of social interaction which include the following three:
Social Intake – noticing and understanding other people’s speech, vocal inflection, body language, eye contact, and even cultural behaviors;
Internal Process – interpreting what others communicate as well as recognition and self-management of emotions; and Social Output – how an individual communicates with and reacts to others, through speech, gestures and body language. (Stanberry, 2002)
Stanberry relates that the work of Janet Giler, Ph.D has outlined three potential problem-areas for students with learning disabilities including:
Kinesis: The inability to read facial expressions of body language;
Vocalics: Misinterpretation of pitch; and Proxemics: A misunderstanding of the use of personal space. (Stanberry, 2002)
The sequential strategy is again noted by Stanberry who states that after the individuals reads another individual’s social cues, next the information is processed, meaning extracted, and then a decision is made as how the individual will respond effectively. Stanberry states that Thomas Brown, Ph.D. has termed this ability “emotional intelligence” explaining that this is a “…form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor feelings and emotions in self and others; discriminate among feelings; and use this information to guide thinking and action.” (2002)
There are several different instruments used in social skills development, which are identified as the following:
Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: A forty item self-report questionnaire in which items are rated on a six-point scale. This instrument has two subscales. Twenty items measure prosocial behavior and twenty items measure asocial behavior. This instrument was developed for assessing social competence and for identification of behaviors that are needed in social skills training intervention. (Indertitzen and Garbin, 1992)
Social Skills Questionnaire: This instrument was established for evaluation of the Second-Step program, which is a violence prevention curriculum for pre-school through middle school. This instrument assessing the student in terms of concept understanding, vocabulary and strategies related to social problem-solving and management of emotions. This instrument’s format is multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank short answers. (Second Step: Committee for Children, nd)
Social Skills Rating System (SSRS): This instrument was developed in a two-phase evaluation study of the “…social behavior and academic functioning of students participating in classrooms where part or all of the Responsive Classroom approach was being utilized.” (Elliot, 1995) the ‘Responsive Classroom’ is inclusive of classroom organization, a morning meeting, rules and logical consequences, choice time, guided discovery, and assessment and reporting to parents.” (Elliot, 2005) This project was focused toward answering six questions:
Do students exposed to the Responsive Classroom approach exhibit higher levels of social skills and academic functioning than peers with limited exposure?
If the Responsive Classroom approach is effective, how can the school system get others to buy into the approach?
What is the acceptance level of the Responsive Classroom approach by parents, and does the level of acceptance vary depending on socioeconomic or ethnic/racial group status?
What is the level of implementation of the Responsive Classroom approach across the system?
What is the level of parent involvement in schools implementing the social curriculum?
What are critical structural and environmental elements that need to be in place for successful implementation of the Responsive Classroom? (Elliott, 1995)
Conflict Resolution Skill Scale: This instrument measures the ability of students to make suggestion of solutions relating to interpersonal conflict that considers both individual’s positions in the solution of the conflict. (Child Development Project: Developmental Studies Center, 1993g)
Social Problem Solving Inventory: This instrument contains five scales used to evaluate community service programs. The six scales of this instrument are:
Social and Personal Responsibility Scale – 21 item Likert type scale that measures sense of responsible attitude towards other; sense of competence to act on feelings of concern; and sense of efficacy-believing that taking action can make a difference.
Semantic Differential: measures attitudes towards adults, others, and being active in the community;
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Ten-item scale that measures the self-acceptance aspect of self-esteem;
Janis-Fields Feeling of Inadequacy Scale: Measures self-esteem tied to social settings;
Problem-Solving Inventory: measure the ability to perform four tasks in the resolution of problematic social situations: (1) generate alternative solutions to the problem; (2) actively seek to resolve the problem and accept responsibility for its resolution; (3) Consider the merits of alterative solutions in terms of their consequences; and (4) developmental orientation/considerations used in the resolution of the problem. Conrad and Hedin, 1981)
Student’s Social Problem-Solving Strengths Checklist: This instrument was developed based on the principles represented by the acronym FIG TESPN as follows:
F: Feelings cue me to problem-solve;
I: I have a problem;
G: Goals give me a guide;
T: Think of things to do;
E: Envision outcomes;
S: Select my best solution;
P: Plan the procedure, anticipate pitfalls; practice and pursue it;
N: Notice what happened and now what? (Elias & Tobias, 1996; p.53)
Peer Nomination Inventory: This instrument is comprised of 48 statements along four dimensions: (1) Aggression; (2) Dependency; (3) Withdrawal; and (4) Depression. (Wiggins and Winder, 1961) Students are instructed to identify all male classmates that the statement applies to in description of personal characteristics.(Hodges, Malone, and Perry, 1997)
Interpersonal Problems Scale: Four factors are identified:
Distributive; and Indirect (Witteman, 1988)
The following table labeled Figure 1 lists each of these instruments for measuring social skills in students along with the age level applicable for appropriate use among student age and school grades, the administration and scoring, and the reliability and validity according to the Character Education Partnership (2007)
Social Skills Instrument Index
Administration and Scoring
Teenage Inventory of Social Skills, Inderbitzen
M.S. & H.S.
Social Skills Questionnaire, Second Step
Preschool, Elem. & M.S.
Social Skills Scale, Elliott
Conflict Resolution Skill Scale, CDP (g)
Social Problem Solving Inventory, Conrad
Problem Inventory, Elias
Students’ Social Problem-solving Strengths Checklist, Elias
Teacher / Rater
Peer Nomination Inventory, Hodges
Peer Nomination Inventory, Wiggins
Interpersonal Problems Scale, Witteman
Character Education Partnership (2007)
The Character Education Partnership has identified “Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education” which are stated as follows:
Principle 1: Promote core ethical values as the basis of good character;
Principle 2: defines character comprehensively to include thinking, feeling, and behavior;
Principle 3: Uses a comprehensive intentional, proactive, and effective approach to character development;
Principle 4: Creates a caring school community;
Principle 5: Provides students with opportunities for moral action;
Principle 6: Includes a meaningful and challenging academic curriculum that respects all learners, develops their character and helps them to succeed.
Principle 7: Strives to foster student’s self-motivation;
Principle 8: Engages the school staff as a learning and moral community that shares responsibility for character education and attempts to adhere to the same core values that guide the education of students.
Principle 9: Fosters shared moral leadership and long-range support of the character education initiative;
Principle 10: Engages families and community members as partners in the character building effort;
Principle 11: Evaluates the character of the school, the school staff in their functioning as character educators and the extent to which students manifest good character.
Variables affecting the sample in this proposed study are identified as the various individual problems that resulted in individual students being placed in alternative education. These variables are inclusive of AD/HD; Autism, Tourette’s Syndrome as well as a variety of other disabilities of students who will be participants in this study. The sample in this proposed research will be relatively small or approximately thirty to forty students and who are students exposed to home environments that may be detrimental to their development. Other variables will therefore include variation in background in social skills development within the home and community as students will be at varying levels of social skills development.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The literature reviewed in this research proposal has clearly indicated a need for social skills development education in the alternative classroom environment. Each of the sources reviewed has indicated a sequential strategy that must be considered in the social skills development initiative. Cognitive-behavioral instruction has been found to be highly effective in this area of development for students with learning disabilities. This study has identified several instruments used in previous studies for measure of social skill levels among students and indicated the appropriate measure according to the age and grade level of students. Recommendations arising from this research include a recommendation for more study to be applied in this area in disseminating what strategies within the sequence are more effective for individuals with specific disabilities in learning.
Child Development Project (1993g) Conflict Resolution Skill Scale – Conflict Resolution Skill Scale -Oakland, CA, Developmental Studies Center Web Address: http://www.devstu.org
Conrad, Dan; and Hedin, Diane (1981) Social Problem Solving Inventory: Instruments and Scoring Guide of the Experiential Education Evaluation Project, St. Paul, MN Center for Youth Development and Research/University of Minnesota
Elias, M.J. And Tobias, S.E. (1996) Students’ Social Problem-Solving Strengths Checklist: Social Problem Solving: Interventions in the Schools. New York, NY. The Guilford Press
Elliott, Stephen N. (1993) Social Skills Rating System (SSRS): Caring to Learn: A Report on the Positive Impact of a Social Curriculum (Report) Greenfield, MA. Northeast Foundation for Children
Elliott, Stephen N. (1995) Social Skills Rating System (SSRS): The Responsive Classroom Approach: Its Effectiveness and Acceptability (Report) Washington D.C. The Center for Systemic Educational Change 1995, June
Etscheidt, S. (1991). Reducing aggressive behavior and increasing self-control. A cognitive -behavioral training program for behaviorally disordered adolescents. Behavioral Disorders, 16, 107-115
Hodges, Ernest V.E.; Malone, Maurice J.; and Perry, David G. (1997) Peer Nomination Inventory: Individual Risk and Social Risk as Interacting Determinants of Victimization in the Peer Group. Journal of Developmental Psychology Vol. 33, 1997. pp 1032-1039. Web Address: http://www.psy.fau.edu/dperry/
Indertitzen, Heidi M.; and Garbin, Calvin P. (1992) Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: An Investigation of the Construct Validity of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: A Convergent Multivariate Approach; Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Boston MA. ERIC ED 360337
Kendall, P.C. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral therapies with youth: Guiding theory, current status, and emerging developments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 235-247.
Lochman, J.E., Nelson, W.M., & Sims, J.P. (1981). A cognitive-behavioral program for use with aggressive children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 10, 146-148.
Scully, Jennifer L. (2000) the Power or Social Skills in Character Development: Helping Diverse Learners Succeed. National Professional Resources, Inc.
Second Step: Committee for Children (2003) Social Skills Questionnaire: Assessing Social Skill Knowledge and Learning (Report) Seattle, WA. Web Address: http://www.cfchildren.orgMarch, 2003
Smith, Stephen W. (2002) Applying Cognitive-Behavioral Techniques to Social Skills Instruction. Tourette Syndrome ‘Plus’ ERIC/OSEP Digest: ED469279. Online available at http://www.tourettesyndrome.net/Smith.htm
Social Skills Instrument Index (2007) Character Education Partnership. Online available at http://www.character.org/site/c.gwKUJhNYJrF/b.995195/k.9B8D/Social_Skills.htm
Sprague, Jeffrey and Nishioka, Vicki (nd) Skills for Success: A Three-Tiered Approach to Positive Behavior Supports. Impact. Online available at http://ici.umn.edu/products/impact/163/prof3.html
Stanberry, Kristin (2002) Learning Difficulties and Social Skills: What’s the Connection. SchwabLearning.org. Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation. 29 April, 2002. Online available at http://www.schwablearning.org/articles.aspx?r=513&f=relatedlink
Wiggins, Jerry S.; and Winder, C.L. (1961) Peer Nomination Inventory: The Peer Nomination Inventory: An Empirically Derived Sociometric Measure of Adjustment in Preadolescent Boys. Psychological Reports Journal. Vol. 9. pp. 643-677
Witteman, Hal (1988) Interpersonal Problems Scale: Interpersonal Problem Solving: Problem Conceptualization and Communication Use. Communication Monographs Journal. Vol. 55. pp. 336-359
Social Skills in Alternative Education
Red Cross: Its Nonprofit Business Model ap american history essay help
Red Cross: Its Nonprofit Business Model
External Factors/Internal Factors
As a non-profit, charitable organization committed to aiding the sick and needy, the Red Cross must be continually responsive to changes in the geopolitical situation, in terms of how it distributes its aid. Although it is a nonprofit, it is still subject to the economic laws of supply and demand, and operates in a world of finite human and physical resources. However, it wishes to give the best quality and most technically sophisticated care to persons in need. It tries to operate where the need its greatest, but it also must address local conditions, as some individuals donate to their local chapters because of the specific impact the organization has had upon their communities at home, as well as far away in America, and internationally.
On its website, the American Red Cross has made use of modern technology by allowing individuals to quickly find their local chapter by zip code, as well as learn about efforts far away. The Red Cross, to maintain its image and functionality as a responsive organization that still addresses crisis situations proudly boasts on its website that it is helping victims of the current, tragic bridge collapse in Minnesota, is continuing to help victims of Hurricane Katrina, and also provides long-standing programs that address on-going rather than crisis-level community and human needs like teaching the autistic to swim (American Red Cross Website, 2007).
Ethically, the Red Cross strives to be politically neutral in most of its efforts — the American Red Cross stresses personal readiness and preparedness on its website, rather than takes a position on anti-terrorist operations, for example, or bridge inspection. For the International Red Cross, political neutrality is of particular concern, as to safely travel in unsafe areas and solicit donations from multiple sources, the organization cannot appear to be biased in its ideology. Its mission is formulated as thus: “The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war and internal violence and to provide them with assistance” (International Red Cross Website, 2007). However, inevitably in the eyes of some people, simply by going into volatile areas and helping civilians in war-torn regions the Red Cross may appear to be taking sides. When it is appropriate and what aid to bestow on an internal level will no doubt be an issue of contention and constant debate within the management of the organization on a continual basis.
American Red Cross. (2007). Official Website. Retrieved 4 Aug 2007 at http://www.redcross.org/
International Red Cross. (2007). Official Website. Retrieved 4 Aug 2007 at http://www.icrc.org