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This week you have read about several areas of financing as it relates to the health care system and

This week you have read about several areas of financing as it relates to the health care system and some health care retail areas that may be of interests. For this assignment, put yourself in a nurse manager, director of nursing, Chief Nursing Officer (CNO), or business owner role. Discuss three or more business principles as discussed in the Greg Fisher Power Point-in the learning activities (in your own words) which are needed to maintain safe, quality, patient-centered care that is fiscally sound, provide supportive data. In your discussion consider:
Why have you selected the business principles?
Are the business principles used at your current facility?
If you feel that they are, give supportive examples.
If you feel they are not give examples of how they could be implemented.
Why are those specific principles important in health care?
Why are those specific principles important to you?
Your initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) references, in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic.

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The Nexus Between Global Citizenship and My Career Citizenship is the right

The Nexus Between Global Citizenship and My Career

Citizenship is the right of a person to participate in civic activities and the associated rights in a town or country; when conjoined with global, it extends this right and a person’s identity to be recognized beyond the geographical and political boundaries of a given country. Against this backdrop, I seek to bolster what Global Citizenship means to me, coupled with how I envision becoming a fully-fledged global citizen through my studies in my future career.

To me “Global Citizenship” involves the awareness that the world is connected as one. The economic, social, and political trouble of a given state is now not unique to that state but attracts the whole world’s awareness. This understanding is further coupled with the knowledge that all individuals are connected as citizens of the world’s humanity. The world is becoming a global village in every perspective of human life, writes Nobel Laureate Sir Ranulph Fiennes and with this I totally agree. Rapid globalization has brought the world closer, exchanges between countries are more frequent, and experiences from the corners of the world may be equated to those of neighbors in a residential area. Global citizenship is imperative since it helps us solve world problems such as climate change with a sense of common responsibility.

I am a hopeful Computer Science student, and my decision was influenced by the idea that everything in today’s world is digitalized. With a degree in computer science, I will be able to acquire a variety of skills for global opportunities and work to improve the world as a digital technocrat. Through my computer science study, I envision becoming a global citizen by developing my digital skills to facilitate navigation on the internet platforms, collaborating with others, and developing software and hardware tools for global problem-solving. I wish to make the world a secure, faster, and adequately connected place through the skills I will acquire within the study period at UNCG for my future career.


This week you have read about several areas of financing as it relates to the health care system and Nursing Assignment Help ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH 2




Institutional Affiliations:


Human health is dependent on environmental conditions. However, environmental conditions can change rapidly and without notice. When environmental conditions change, human health may also change. Understanding how environmental conditions change and the role that human actions play in those changes is the key to human health. Human health is greatly impacted by the environment. Environmental incidents, such as chemical or infectious agent exposure, can have adverse health effects on humans. Understanding the mechanisms by which these agents cause global environmental health incidents can help predict future environmental health incidents and help guide public health response strategies.

The types of environmental incidents we experience on a daily basis can be broken down into two major groups: those that are caused by natural processes, and those that are caused by human activity. Each group has a variety of contributing factors that can lead to an increase in severity or impact of the incident, but regardless of the source, the impacts of these incidents are real. The majority of environmental incidents are caused by natural processes, which can include a variety of weather-related events such as heat waves, drought, hurricanes, and floods, as well as other events such as wildfires and volcanoes (Agathokleous, & Calabrese, 2020). It is impossible to predict which natural events will result in an environmental incident, but there are certain weather patterns that are associated with a higher risk of environmental incidents.

Exposure to environmental incidents, such as chemical, infectious, or radioactive agents, can cause global environmental health incidents. These incidents can negatively impact human health, such as causing cancer, developmental disorders, or Parkinson’s (Agathokleous, & Calabrese, 2020).

Environmental incidents are events and processes that harm the environment and/or human health. They can range from relatively small-scale events, such as organic pollutants from agricultural runoff entering a lake, to major releases of hazardous materials, such as the Bhopal chemical incident (Chowdhary, Raj, Bharagava, 2018). While most environmental incidents are unintentional, human activities can cause environmental incidents. For example, a pesticide spill may cause an environmental incident if it enters a waterway and contaminates the drinking water for nearby residents (Chowdhary, Raj, Bharagava, 2018).

Chemicals, infectious agents, and radiation are all human health and environmental threats. When these agents are released into the environment, they can cause environmental contamination. Environmental contamination can harm the environment and human health, leaving a lasting impact on the environment and the people who live in it. The more you know about the types of contamination that occur in the environment, the better able you will be to protect the people and the environment around you.

Chemical, infectious, and nuclear agents cause global environmental health incidents and contribute to the spread of disease. For example, the Chernobyl nuclear accident released radioactivity into the environment, which caused contamination and health issues for people and wildlife in the surrounding area. The only way to ensure that humans and wildlife are not harmed by chemical, infectious, and nuclear agents is to ensure that plants, animals, and humans are not exposed to these agents in the environment. However, this is not always possible.


Agathokleous, E., & Calabrese, E. J. (2020). A global environmental health perspective and optimisation of stress. Science of the Total Environment, 704, 135263.

Chowdhary, P., Raj, A., & Bharagava, R. N. (2018). Environmental pollution and health hazards from distillery wastewater and treatment approaches to combat the environmental threats: a review. Chemosphere, 194, 229-246.

3 The Extent to Which LMX Theory is Still Relevant in Contemporary


The Extent to Which LMX Theory is Still Relevant in Contemporary Organizations



Professor’s Name




Based on LMX (Leader-member exchange) theory, leaders’ interactions with a member of the organization help form links that influence the behavior of the workers and results. LMX is a primarily relationship-based approach, and its focus is on the two-way relationship between leaders and the employees (Omilion-Hodges & Ptacek, 2021). The LMX theory’s main focus is on the relationship between leaders and followers. Thus the theory assumes that a leader creates an exchange with each of their followers as it is supposed to be a two-way interaction. The latest version of this theory describes the development of two-way workplace influence and team performance based on selection and self-selection of non-formal apprenticeship in leadership (Omilion-Hodges & Ptacek, 2021). The theory is still relevant in modern organizations. To comprehend the blending of roles, both in groups and out-groups, and routinization, it is good reviewing the different aspects of LMX theory. The essay, therefore, discusses how the LMX theory is still relevant to the contemporary organizations through role combination, the theory’s contribution to the relationship between the leaders and their followers, the theory’s outcomes or consequences, its correlation with other aspects such as culture, and attitude and behavior of citizenship. The essay also discusses the question by viewing how organizations use the LMX theory.

Role Combination

Most of us can be lucky to have coworkers with whom we can have complete faith. One individual works hard to achieve the desired results (Kapil et al., 2018). Most managers do have such a person in their team, and they greatly depend on them to have all the tasks completed. In many cases, supervisors do not have to keep monitoring this individual as carefully as they once used to do since they have established a bond and trust with them. There are other individuals within an organization with whom there is no such level of trust, or there does not exist such a positive relationship (Kapil et al., 2018). These are the kind of people who will work for the manager, but the management has not yet developed a strong bond or does not have confidence. The foundation of LMX theory, which explains how managers develop connections with their followers in contemporary organizations, is what we are tackling here. Therefore, to see if the theory is good or bad, we need to examine what makes up the LMX theory hypothesis.

LMX Theory Contribution

In the LMX theory, there are various separate concepts. These aspects or concepts operate in stages, beginning from the first to the last stage, showing how the employee-manager relationship is created. The first stage is taking on the role (Amir & Chaudhry, 2020). This entails the management and the employees meeting and the manager beginning to appraise the employees’ talents. The second stage is making a role. At this stage, the team members start working on the projects. At the same time, the manager can examine how committed the employees are to work at hand. The boss expects the employees to be loyal, work hard, and be trustworthy.

Consequently, the managers may either realize it or not at this stage. Between the two groups, the in-group comes first, and it is the group that the manager trusts. They start taking on more challenging roles, and there is a lot of giving and taking in terms of communication. It can be said that the manager has trust in this group’s members and has started forming bonds with them. The other group is the out-group. This group comprises the employees that the manager does not trust (Amir & Chaudhry, 2020). Since the management doesn’t place a lot of trust in this group’s members, their roles are less demanding and critical. With this group, communication is all about being directive and not give-and-take. The management is the one to tell the employees what to be done, unlike in the in-group where there are discussions.


Various consequences can be applied in determining whether or not LMX theory is a success in contemporary organizations. Some of the outcomes that can be measured include turnover intentions, overall job satisfaction, affective and normative commitment, satisfaction with supervisor and pay, empowerment, and role ambiguity. In most organizations, LMX theory reduces turnover intentions, actual turnover, job ambiguity, and conflicts. The theory is useful in improving the other results, mostly perceptual and attitudinal consequences (Derindag et al., 2021). LMX theory improves performance ratings, ensures better objective performance, causes high general satisfaction, and results in stronger organizational commitment. There is a connection between the members’ thinking about LMX and the leaders’ assessment of the employees’ work performance. There is a strong favorable link between the leader’s perception of the theory and the employees’ job performance ratings. To some extent, the application of LMX theory perceptions causes the boss to develop either positive or negative expectations about employees (Derindag et al., 2021). This can eventually influence the real performance of the employees more than just performance ratings.

Attitude and Behaviors of Citizenship

There are favorable associations between the LMX theory and citizenship behaviors. The citizenship behaviors’ objective cause a moderating influence on the size of the link between the LMX and citizenship behaviors based on the meta-analysis done by Ilies (Liu, 2021). Therefore, specific citizenship actions are more importantly associated with LMX theory than citizenship behaviors directed at an organization.

LMX Theory and Culture

The LMX theory strongly correlates with the organizational citizenship behavior, perceptions of justice, work satisfaction, and trust of the leader in Western cultural practices compared with Asian cultures. A meta-analysis carried out by Rockstuhl 2012 compared the impact of LMX on attitudes related to work like task performance and distributive justice. Interaction form of justice, among others (Liu, 2021). Based on this meta-analysis, in horizontal individualistic cultures, the correlation between the theory and these factors such as intention son turnover, justice outcomes, job satisfaction, and the trust of the leader is strong in vertical-collectivist cultures.

How Organizations Use LMX Theory

The LMX theory can be used to gain awareness of how one perceives the team members. The organization makes use of the three-step process to know how they can achieve this through the identification of the Out-Group, reestablishment of the leaders’ relationship with the members of thethe organization, and offering means and ways for the members of the team to grow (Ibidunni et al., 2021). By identifying the out-group, as a leader, it will be possible to know who is already in your Out-Group. There is a need to take some time to have their names noted down. It is good to analyze why these individuals have fallen out of favor. You need to ask yourself whether they did anything to lose your interest. Another question that needs to be asked is whether these people show bad behavior at work? Is it that they are incompetent or that they have low motivation. Next, under-identification of one’s Out-Group analyzes what has been done and compares the facts with one’s perceptions.

Under the reestablishment of the relationship, the leader in an organization is supposed to make a reasonable effort to ensure they reestablish a relationship with Out-Group members of the team. So the leader and the organization benefit from creating better relationships (Ibidunni et al., 2021). It is good to keep in mind that the group will probably be wary of any attention or support from the leader. At this stage, the team leader meets each member of the team one-on-one. The leader takes time to examine if they are happy with their work. The team leader finds out the career goals of the team members and what can be done to make the members’ work more challenging or engaging.

Another thing the leader does is identify the person’s psychological contact, which entails the unspoken benefits they expect from the leader. If the team members are in the Out-Group, they will likely feel that the psychological contract has been broken. Reestablishing the relationships also requires the leader to discover what motivates the team members (Lanier, 2021). After having a chance to reconnect with the team members, it is critical to continue to touch base with them. Now the leader can practice management as they move around or drop by their office to know if there is a need for help on projects or tasks for the team members.

Under the provision of training and development opportunities, the leader needs to remember the most important benefit to the LMX is that it alerts one to the preference they may unconsciously-and likely unfairly-be showing some of the members of the teams (Lanier, 2021). This enables the team leader to provide all team members with suitable training, development, and advancement opportunities. The team members at this stage should also be provided with low-risk opportunities aimed at testing and growing their skills. At this stage, the leader uses task allocation strategies to assign the right task to the right person. The leader can use employ the Nine-Box grid for Talent Management to reassess the team members’ potential from time to time and to offer them suitable development opportunities.

Nevertheless, it is also good to note that the LMX theory has a challenge since it assumes that all team members are equally worth being accorded the same trust, prestigious projects, and advancement. Even if we may want to perceive everyone as honest, hard-working, and worthy of leaders’ esteem, the truth can be different. Managers or leaders work to have the best results if possible. This calls for having the right people assigned the right task and has been successfully developed and reinforced. With this, the more talented individuals receive more interesting opportunities and maybe serve more attention than those less talented. Leaders in organizations use LMX theory to make sure they are objective in dealing with people without being naïve about how they use it.


Conclusively, LMX theory is still useful in organizations as it determines the interactions between the leaders and team members, forming links that influence the workers’ behavior and results. To evaluate the extent to which the LMX theory is still relevant in contemporary organizations, the essay looks at the importance of role combination in organizations, the contribution of the theory, its consequences, how the LMX theory correlates with culture and attitude and behavior of the citizenship. For instance, most leaders in organizations have that one person they can fully trust and whom they can rely on them to have most of the tasks completed. This is achievable if there is a good relationship between the leader and the team members. The LMX theory, through the three stages, contributes to the success of an organization. The first stage, which is taking on the manager’s role, appraises the talents of the employees. The team members in the second stage can take on projects, and the leaders expect them to be loyal and trustworthy in their duties. In the third stage, the out-group, the manager has the category of the members the manager has less trust. Thus, we can say that the use of LXM theory in contemporary organizations presents several advantages, including an increase in job satisfaction, increased productivity, and the creation of stronger mutual trust and recognition. All these work for the better of the organization. Although the theory assumes that all people are viewed as equally worthy of the managers’ esteem, assigning the right tasks to the right people helps the organizatio9n in attaining the best. Therefore, the LXM theory remains very relevant to contemporary organizations.



Derindag, O. F., Demirtas, O., & Bayram, A. (2021). The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Influence at Organizations: The Moderating Role of Person-Organization (PO) Fit. Review of Business, 41(2).

Ibidunni, A. S., Ibidunni, O. M., Akinbola, O. A., Olokundun, M. A., & Ogunnaike, O. O. (2020). Conceptualizing a teacher-student knowledge exchange perspective: exploring the tripartite relationships between SECI theory, LMX theory, and HEIs’ students’ preparedness for the workplace. Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning.

Kapil, K., & Rastogi, R. (2018). Promoting organizational citizenship behavior: The roles of leader-member exchange and organizational job embeddedness. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 5(1), 56-75.

Lanier, D. A. (2021). Exploring Academic Leadership in Higher Education through the Lens of Leader-to-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University).

Liu, C. (2021, August). Leader-member exchange and Job Performance: Comparing the Influence of Actual and Perceived Cultural Similarity. In 1st International Symposium on Innovative Management and Economics (ISIME 2021) (pp. 522-532). Atlantis Press.

Omilion-Hodges, L. M., & Ptacek, J. K. (2021). What is the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory?. In Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Communication (pp. 3-25). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.




Reflective Essay (About Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples)



Instructor’s Name


Describe a potential health strategy that could be used to achieve the health services envisioned in the NAIHO statement above.

Elimination of health disparity among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples would be a potential health strategy to achieve the health services envisioned in the NAIHO. Health disparity includes segregation of a person on the basis that the person does not have certain pre-existing conditions that are formed on the basis of a person’s own understanding (Cunningham 2013). Health disparity is a phenomenon where a certain group within the society is segregated or forgotten or both in the access to health benefits and affordable health care in dynamic ways (Reiss 2013). Health disparity includes the difference between the numbers of people that get sick compared to the number that get medical attention. Health disparity is an emerging issue that has evidently emerged in many of the organizations worldwide that provide health care (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). The segregation occur among groups such as, certain racial minorities, women and children, old persons, people of diverse gender such as the LGBTQIA, the refugees as well as the persons living below the poverty line (Reiss 2013).

It is important to understand the aspect of health disparity due to reasons such as: some of the persons that are segregated do not have power or authority to advocate for their own rights and therefore it is the moral obligation of the society to ensure that their rights are respected and adhered to (Reiss 2013). The advocacy for the rights of the marginalized groups increases the social value of a person in the context of social welfare (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). In this sense, the welfare of the marginalized groups is always on the hands of the public. Advocating for the health rights of the discriminated groups in the society helps in appreciating the social norms of the society at large. Evaluation of health disparity aspect is crucial in the determination of the social integration of human health rights and the value addition of all persons in the society.

Discuss the implications of participating in the potential health strategy for your own health care practice, including an explanation about how you would interact with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients, their families and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health staff.

The implications of participating in the strategy on health disparities are fulfilling. In this way, the knowledge base is availed and experience gained (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). Interacting with the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients, families and staff would take a simple approach of friendship (Ward, Dahlhamer, Galinsky & Joestl 2014). The patients would need assurance that the health disparity is already mitigated, the staff would learn from the benefits of reducing health disparity while the families would participate in the social cohesion (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). Clearly, an interactive strategy against the health disparity would go a long way in ensuring that the aboriginal persons are free from the disparity. Importantly, involvement of every member of the society would increase the impact to the society.

Describe how the potential health strategy would contribute towards ‘closing the gap’.

Elimination of health disparity would help close the gap in dynamic ways. Clearly, there exists Disparity against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and a strategy to end the disparity would be a great milestone. Further, the notion of traditions has been a key contributor to this disparity (Reiss 2013). Importantly, health disparity slows down the economic growth and development in the society as it denies all the pillars in the economy their strength for rebuilding (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). Importantly, the development of structures that help stop women segregation would be the magic bullet to stopping the menace (Reiss 2013). Additionally, the community services contributed greatly in the sensitization of the society against actions that led to health disparity (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). Importantly, the research found that other actions such as sexual harassment of women contribute to the health disparity in the men dominated economies.

The strategy would help mitigate the cultural aspects contributing to the health disparities among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Clearly, the integration of the culture into the health sensitization would help mitigate the aspects of the disparity (Reiss 2013). Sensitization and advocacy for equal access to health care is a crucial aspect in the endeavors of health disparity. Health disparity against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples has contributed negatively to more than just the health sector (Ward, Dahlhamer, Galinsky & Joestl 2014). The process of economic growth and development has been slowed down by the segregation as it acts as a disincentive to the government and the non-governmental initiatives.

Demonstrate your understanding of the concepts of cultural safety, self-determination and
collaboration in components 1, 2, and 3.

Self-determination is the process in which a country or a group of persons determine, choose and control their own statehood and their own allegiance to the government or ruling authorities. Self-determination goes beyond oneself to the freedom of a group of people to choose and decide their allegiance to certain authorities or ideologies (Reiss 2013). Clearly, the freedom to choose the way to live without the external influence composes the aspect of self-determination. Self-determination helps in the scaling up of the efforts of creating initiatives that are aimed at helping people with disabilities, marginalized groups as well other people in the society whose voices have not been heard in the normal system (Reiss 2013). In self-determination comes the self-determination activities that assist persons that have been marginalized to access and use assistance to get equal opportunities in the social economic system (Ward, Dahlhamer, Galinsky & Joestl 2014). Cultural safety describes the existence of cultural activities that are harmless and focused on improving the welfare of the community (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). An integration of cultural safety and collaboration is a crucial element for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the following ways: self-determination helps in the community inclusions.

Notably, people with disabilities and marginalized persons such as the aboriginals are left with less choices on important issues such as where to live, who to live with and what to do (Ward, Dahlhamer, Galinsky & Joestl 2014). In most cases, these choices are made by the people in influence and people from the majority groups (Brimblecombe, Ferguson, Liberato and O’Dea 2013). When these Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples improve their self-determination, it enables them to stand a chance for equality and having their policies adhered to (Reiss 2013). Secondly, self-determination is crucial in assisting the aboriginal persons fit in their real jobs and help them make informed decisions (Tausig & Fenwick 2016). Additionally, self-determination provides insights for healthy eating and the promotion of the welfare of persons. Further, it is responsible for the improvements noted in the self-advocacy among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the world.


Brimblecombe, J.K., Ferguson, M.M., Liberato, S.C. and O’Dea, K., 2013. Characteristics of the community-level diet of Aboriginal people in remote northern Australia. Med J Aust, 198(7), pp.380-4.

Cunningham, K.G., 2013. Understanding strategic choice The determinants of civil war and nonviolent campaign in self-determination disputes. Journal of Peace Research, 50(3), pp.291-304.

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Gajjar, D., Zwi, A.B., Hill, P.S. and Shannon, C., 2014. A case study in the use of evidence in a changing political context: an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health service re- examines practice models, governance and financing. Australian Health Review, 38(4), pp.383-386.

Hayhurst, L.M. and Giles, A.R., 2013. Private and moral authority, self-determination, and the ‘domestic transfer objective:’Foundations for understanding sport for development and peace in aboriginal communities in Canada. Sociology of Sport Journal, 30(4), pp.504- 519.

Hopkins, K.D., Taylor, C.L., D’Antoine, H. and Zubrick, S.R., 2012. Predictors of resilient psychosocial functioning in Western Australian Aboriginal young people exposed to high family-level risk. In The Social Ecology of Resilience (pp. 425-440). Springer New York.

Inzlicht, M., Schmeichel, B.J. and Macrae, C.N., 2014. Why self-control seems (but may not be) limited. Trends in cognitive sciences, 18(3), pp.127-133.

Ng, J.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M., Duda, J.L. and Williams, G.C., 2012. Self-determination theory applied to health contexts a meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), pp.325-340.

Nguyen, M., 2014. Consulting No One: Is Democratic Administration the Answer for First Nations?The Innovation Journal, 19(1), p.0_1.

Nobles, M., 2014. Revisiting the ‘Membership Theory of Apologies’: Apology Politics in Australia and Canada. In On the Uses and Abuses of Political Apologies (pp. 119-137). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Marks, G., 2014. Two sides of the same coin: Outstations policy and land tenure reform. AILR, 18, p.44.

Phillips, B., Morrell, S., Taylor, R. and Daniels, J., 2014. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people. BMC Public Health, 14(1), p.1.

Ryan, R.M., Huta, V. and Deci, E.L., 2013. Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. In The Exploration of Happiness (pp. 117-139). Springer Netherlands.

Silburn, K., Thorpe, A., Carey, L., Frank-Gray, Y., Fletcher, G. and McPhail, K., 2016. Is Funder Reporting Undermining Service Delivery? Compliance reporting requirements of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations in Victoria. Is Funder Reporting Undermining Service Delivery? Compliance reporting requirements of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisations in Victoria, p.viii.

(Brimblecombe, Ferguson, Liberato and O’Dea 2013)