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This is the order the essay must be in 500-800 words) addressing the following: o Education and work background

This is the order the essay must be in

500-800 words) addressing the following:
o Education and work background
o Life experiences that influenced your interest in nursing
o Life experiences that prepared you to care for a diverse population of patients
o Elements of the TESU Accelerated BSN Program that made you decide to apply
o Anything else you believe the Admissions Committee should know: life experiences, challenges, successes, or obstacles you encountered that may strengthen your application or showcase your ability to be successful in this accelerated program.

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Develop the part of working in a diverse setting in a separate paragraph. Perhaps elaborate more about an experience that exemplifies your experience in this area

Say more about education and work separate the paragraph together

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 2 1 Running Head: ADVANTAGES AND

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS 2

1

Running Head: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CSR STANDARDS

Advantages and Disadvantages of CSR Standards

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University

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Overview

The successful application of an organization’s corporate social responsibility is always guided by the right corporate social responsibility standards. The application of CSR standards is always meant to improve the ethical, social, and the environmental performances of an organization through organizational behavior codification. There has been an increase in the adoption of CSR standards by organizations from different parts of the world, a trend that has been linked to the benefits linked to its application in the organization. The standards define the procedures that should be followed for purposes of achieving socially desirable outcomes within the organization. This paper looks at the advantages and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based application in different organizations.

Introduction

Corporate social responsibility standards can be defined as a set of rules that are commonly and voluntary applied in different settings for purposes of improving the environmental, social, and governance performance of the organizations adopting the standards. They are a set of broad international and global standard that irrespective of the significant differences in their focus, nature, governance structure and monitoring mechanisms share similar objectives. Corporate social responsibility standards are categorized into different categories including the environmental, human rights, philanthropic, and economic standards. Corporate Social Responsibility Standards are categorized in to four different categories. These categories are certification, process, reporting, and principle-based standards.

Certification standards involve a certain degree of monitoring, verifying, and certifying different products, processes, and facilities on the basis of a predefined criterion. A perfect example of this type of standard is the ISO 26000. The principle-based standards are aimed at giving guidelines on the type of practices and behaviors that are acceptable or unacceptable. An example of a principle-based standard is the UNGC. Reporting standards on the other hand offers organizations with the right guideline and frameworks for social, economic, and environmental reporting. Finally, process standards are defined as a type of standards that make it easy for organizations to alter or change how they engage in corporate social responsibility. As such, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based standards.

Advantages of the process-based and the principle-based CSR Standards

A look at the corporate social responsibility standards has been linked to a number of benefits to the organizations that apply them in the right way. The applications of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards in different organizations lead to benefits like CSR operationalization, help in the process of avoiding confusion, supports the CSR uptake, facilitating the engagement of stakeholders, and enhancing corporate reputation. These two standards also act effectively towards promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization.

Corporate social responsibility operationalization

The application of both the process-based and the principle-based standards offers an organization with a series of practical frameworks that help the stakeholders to interpret the presented organizational values and principles. When applied in the right way, these standards act effectively towards helping stakeholders translate the presented abstract concepts into effective tools that are easily manageable (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Through the operationalization process, the application of an organization’s CSR ends up being done easily compared to how it could have been done without the standards. The interpretation process also offers stakeholders with a better understanding of their organization’s CSR, thus enabling them to adopt them in the right way (Smith, 2002). The operationalization process generally makes everything attached to the organization’s CSR to be applicable in all areas irrespective of the impact that it will have to the operations of the organization. For example, the AA1000 offers organizations with a step-by-step guide on what should be done to effectively change their processes for good and in the most effective way possible.

Helps in avoiding confusions in the organization

The application of the process-based and the principle-based standards in an organization plays a significant role in helping stakeholders eliminate any form of confusion in the methodologies and language used in the organization’s operations. For example, the application of ISO 26000 standard makes clear all the acceptable practices and processes in the organization by the stakeholders, thus making everything clear to the stakeholders (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Making the concepts used clear to the stakeholders makes the application of this standard more effective because all forms of confusions are eliminated through its operationalization process. The meaning of this is that, the absence of the right CSR standards could lead to a lot of confusion being created amongst the stakeholders (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010). Additionally, the ability of the standard to avoid confusions from being made during the interpretation process is linked to the fact that it offers a step-by-step guide to organizations on what they have to maintain a positive relationship to their stakeholders while at the same time improving their image to the general society (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016).

Supporting corporate social responsibility uptake

The development and application of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards enables organizations to adopt the most appropriate codified processes and practices that end up promoting the broad adoption of CSR amongst the organization’s stakeholders. It is therefore important to understand that the application of these standards is always beneficial to any organization because it makes a large population of the stakeholders adopt the organization’s CSR without having doubts or contracting questions that could affect the whole adoption process. For example, the application of UNGC in an organization leads to the adoption of the right business practices and behaviors leading to increased productivity and profitability where they are applied. The results of its application make it easy for other organizational stakeholders to adopt every single CSR in an easy way.

Facilitates stakeholder engagement

One of the key functions that CSR standards play in an organization is that of identifying the organizations shared rules through various ways. As such, the application of the process-based and the principle-based standards always achieves this by helping organizations adopt the globally codified principles and norms that offer the stakeholders with a strong engagement and partnership basis to the organization (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). By perfectly explaining the rules of the game, the stakeholders always develop an urge to be a part of the organization’s CSR in different ways. The application of the AA1000 perfectly meets this purpose.

Promoting progressive improvement

Corporate Social Responsibilities that are adopted in different parts of an organization is always open to continuous and experimental improvements that help the organization improve its performance and productivity. Having improvement opportunities through the standards plays a very important role in improving their CSR, and ultimately a reduction in the negative consequences of the organization’s actions to the society (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, the improvement opportunities presented by the standards opens the organization to different improvement opportunities. For example, the application of ISO 26000 standard leads to progress developments in organizations where it is applied.

It enhances corporate reputation

Organizations that adopt the right corporate standard responsibility standards always have a high chance of enhancing their reputation as opposed to organizations that do not adopt these standards. The reason for having these organizations enhance their corporate reputation is based on the fact that the standards adopted acts effectively in offering the stakeholders with an appropriate reference point for the organization’s accountability (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). From the basis provided, stakeholders get an opportunity to judge the performance of the organization as well as the corporate behavior of the employees working in the organization. Additionally, the CSR standards mentioned above also make it easy for stakeholders to improve their understanding of the roles and responsibilities in helping the organization improve its outlook to the general public (Mueckenberger, & Jastram, 2010). The end result of adopting the standards an improvement in the organization’s reputation to the stakeholders. The ISO 26000 is a perfect example of how these standards help organizations to improve their reputation.

Enables self-enforcement

The application of the process-based and the principle-based standard in an organization has been linked to the process of activating a specific self-enforcement mechanism that is linked to the organizations participant’s endogenous motivation (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Its ability to enable self-enforcement in an organization is always based on the fact that a good number of the organization’s stakeholders tend to be more inclined towards behaving in a responsible manner when they rely on becoming responsible employees and managers (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). This leads to a significant reduction in external enforcement costs like sanctions and controls for a given organization.

Disadvantages of using Corporate Social Responsibility Standards

The application of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards in an organization is always linked to different drawbacks. The drawbacks in the application of these standards tend to vary from one organization to the other. Some of the common drawbacks that have been identified to affect the operations of an organization include conceptual inadequacy, introduction of extra operational costs, lack of enforcement, obsession with compliance, inappropriate communication, and stifling innovation as well as systematic failure in driving systematic change.

Conceptual inadequacy

The development and adoption of the process-based and the principle-based standards is purposely done to deal with all the technical issues that affect the smooth running of an organization. However, the CSR development process has been characterized with various methodological issues, thus making the process of codifying both the ethical and social issues a complex process (De Colle, Henriques, & Sarasvathy, 2014). Additionally, the fact that there are a limited number of standards meant to handle the different issues that are experienced in an organization lead to the development of confusions linked to the terminologies used (Fombrun, 2005). An increase in the rate of terminology confusion has generally led to the development of conceptual inadequacies in the application of CSR standards. For example, the development of the ISO 26000 standard might not have been done accordingly, something that could have left some terminologies poorly explained.

Introduction of extra costs

The adoption and implementation of the process-based and the principle-based standards requires an organization to acquire a series of certificates, and this makes the whole process costly both for the small and medium enterprises (Milne, Gray, & Buhr, 2014). On top of the charges that are made when applying for the right certification, the implementation process has also been considered costly because the management has to organize and facilitate a series of seminars and conferences to train the stakeholders on the importance of applying the standards in the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, both the adoption and implementation stages of these standards has been considered to possess significant cost implications to the organizations.

Lack of enforcement

The adoption of the process-based and the principle-based standards in any organization is always voluntary and only applicable to the organization that deems its presence important in its operations. Due to this, their application is always considered to lack legality and strong conformity methods that are available to the law (Tallontire, 2007). Despite the nature of these standards being linked to their reliance on endogenous motivation as opposed to external sanctions, scholars have made it clear that their voluntary nature is a representation of a weakness that when not well solved could lead to the lowering of the standard’s effectiveness (Tschopp, & Nastanski, 2014). Additionally, despite the application of these standards always involving a look at some specific processes or substantive issues, it fails to offer an accompanying schema that would help the stakeholders to evaluate how easy or difficult its implementation could be to the management of the organization (Golob, & Bartlett, 2007). It is however important to understand that this issue can be well handled by including a series of monitoring mechanisms in the organization to look at the effectiveness of the standards.

Obsession with compliance

The adoption of the process-based and the principle-based standards is always followed by an immediate focus on their compliance by the management. The focus of the management is always meant to make improve the acceptability of the standards by the employees while at the same time helping them to learn the link between the standards and the results of their application (Haack, Schoeneborn, & Wickert, 2010). When the focus on the implementation process becomes the only thing for the stakeholders, other important elements of the organization end up being neglected. Issues like building the relationship and trust between the stakeholders always get forgotten by the employees, leading to a reduction in the productivity and efficiency of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). The process of making important decisions in the organization also gets neglected at the expense of the implementation process. It is also important to understand that some organizations may opt to apply these standards without considering any adaptation to their individual characteristics and needs (Delchet-Cochet, & Vo, 2013). The result of the adoption leads to the production of counter-productive impacts in the organization, and this affects its performance and operations significantly.

Poor communication

Communication is always important to the success of any concept in an organization. However, when the communication process is either overdone or done inappropriately, the information being passed reaches the target audience in a flawed format (Christensen, & Murphy, 2004). As such, the use of formalistic compliance has been said to bring various risks like having a lot of data that does not adequately represent the real information being communicated, thus making the involved stakeholders not to be in a position to make informed decisions for the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Miscommunication on the other hand due to inadequate data also leads to poor decisions being made from the assumption that the standards adopted are adequate in guiding the organization meet its key goals and objectives (Tallontire, 2007). As such, the fact that the standards are either over or under emphasized has led to the development of under or over communication in the organization, and this has affected the ability of the stakeholders to perfectly apply the standards in the organization’s operations (Ingenbleek, Binnekamp, & Goddijn, 2007).

Stifling innovation

The process of applying the process-based and the principle-based standards entails codifying or identifying best practices or socially acceptable outcomes. It is however important to understand that the application of these standards has the potential to stifle creativity and innovation in dealing with any of the new issues experienced in the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). As such, the process of stifling innovation is always detrimental to the operations of the organization in different ways, thus affecting the whole process of applying CSR standards (Adeyeye, 2011).

Failure to drive systematic change

Despite the adoption of the process-based and the principle-based standards being linked to numerous benefits, the issue of failing to drive systematic change effectively has been affecting its effectiveness in a significant way. The application of these standards has been found to be very effective in improving issues linked to the social, ethical, and environmental issues that affect its operations as well as the image of the organization to the society. Irrespective of these benefits, the standards always lack the ability to address the issues in a systematic manner or in a way that does not affect the operations of the organization (Husted, Montiel, & Christmann, 2016). Due to this issue, all the involved stakeholders always have a tough time implementing the change brought about by these standards because the period needed for the change does not support systematic operations to be carried out for purposes of affecting the change process (Tallontire, 2007). Generally, the process-based and the principle-based standards on their own are not in a position to bring about systematic change that has been considered in dealing with issues affecting the organization nationally and internationally. The organization is therefore expected to develop the most appropriate strategies that will make sure that the change process brought about by the standards is done appropriately without any rush or delay being experienced by the involved stakeholders.

Corporate social responsibility standards erode individual and organizational responsibility

The application of the process-based and the principle-based standards has been linked to the problem of eroding personal and organizational responsibility in a big way. The behavioral codification process that is linked to these standards has been associated with the development of a counter-productive tendency because the involved members tend to align their behaviors to the outcomes and processes of the organization through these standards (Adeyeye, 2011). Importantly, the disadvantage of codifying individual behaviors to match the requirements of the organization is that of having some individuals limit their responsibilities and roles to what the standards designate them to do. When this happens, some of the common roles that individuals used to undertake and make sure the organization is run smoothly get neglected, thus creating an opening in the organization that need to be occupied by employing another employee, a process that is always costly for the organization to adopt (Koszewska, 2010). The general result of this is erosion of the roles and responsibilities that individual undertake in their work place.

Conclusion

Corporate social responsibility standards are a set of rules and guidelines that guide organizations to keep a positive image to the society while at the same time working towards reducing the social, environmental, and economical issues that are experienced by the organization. The main purpose of this paper was to give a critical analysis of the benefits and disadvantages of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards in organization. From the discussion, the paper identified various CSR standards benefits to the organization including CSR operationalization, avoiding confusions in organizations, playing an important role in supporting CSR uptake, and facilitating the process of stakeholder engagement in the organization. Additionally, the presence of CSR standards in an organization has been linked to the process of enhancing corporate reputation, promoting continuous improvement, and enabling self-enforcement in the organization. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages that have been linked to the application of the process-based and the principle-based CSR standards in the organization as discussed above include lack of enforcement, introducing extra costs into the organization, being characterized by conceptual inadequacy, and obsession with compliance amongst the employees.

References

Adeyeye, A. (2011). Universal standards in CSR: are we prepared?. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 11(1), 107-119.

Christensen, J., & Murphy, R. (2004). The social irresponsibility of corporate tax avoidance: Taking CSR to the bottom line. Development, 47(3), 37-44.

De Colle, S., Henriques, A., & Sarasvathy, S. (2014). The paradox of corporate social responsibility standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(2), 177-191.

Delchet-Cochet, K., & Vo, L. C. (2013). Classification of CSR standards in the light of ISO 26000. Society and Business Review, 8(2), 134-144.

Fombrun, C. J. (2005). A world of reputation research, analysis and thinking—building corporate reputation through CSR initiatives: evolving standards. Corporate reputation review, 8(1), 7-12.

Golob, U., & Bartlett, J. L. (2007). Communicating about corporate social responsibility: A comparative study of CSR reporting in Australia and Slovenia. Public relations review, 33(1), 1-9.

Haack, P., Schoeneborn, D., & Wickert, C. (2010). Exploring the Constitutive Conditions for a Self-Energizing Effect of CSR Standards: The Case of the’Equator Principles’.

Husted, B. W., Montiel, I., & Christmann, P. (2016). Effects of local legitimacy on certification decisions to global and national CSR standards by multinational subsidiaries and domestic firms. Journal of International Business Studies, 47(3), 382-397.

Ingenbleek, P., Binnekamp, M., & Goddijn, S. (2007). Setting standards for CSR: A comparative case study on criteria-formulating organizations. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 539-548.

Koszewska, M. (2010). CSR standards as a significant factor differentiating textile and clothing goods. Fibres Text. East. Eur, 83, 14-19.

Milne, M. J., Gray, R., & Buhr, N. (2014). Histories, rationales, voluntary standards and future prospects for sustainability reporting: CSR, GRI, IIRC and beyond. In Sustainability accounting and accountability (pp. 69-89). Routledge.

Mueckenberger, U., & Jastram, S. (2010). Transnational norm-building networks and the legitimacy of corporate social responsibility standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(2), 223-239.

Smith, K. (2002). ISO considers corporate social responsibility standards. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 25(3), 42.

Tallontire, A. (2007). CSR and regulation: towards a framework for understanding private standards initiatives in the agri-food chain. Third World Quarterly, 28(4), 775-791.

Tschopp, D., & Nastanski, M. (2014). The harmonization and convergence of corporate social responsibility reporting standards. Journal of Business Ethics, 125(1), 147-162.

CB9069 Advanced Financial Accounting Assessment Assignment Date Distributed: 06th March 2017 Date

This is the order the essay must be in 500-800 words) addressing the following: o Education and work background Nursing Assignment Help CB9069 Advanced Financial Accounting

Assessment Assignment

Date Distributed: 06th March 2017

Date of Submission: 28th April 2017

Word Limit: 2000

Assessment Weighting: 30% of the total module marks available

“Companies cannot commit to building new plants, launching new research projects or hiring new employees if that cash is needed to fund pensions.

—Glen A. Barton, Chairman and Chief Executive of Caterpillar Inc.

(New York Times, 22 June 2003).”

“Previous changes in accounting principles in the US and UK indicate that companies prefer to have a stable income statement and therefore tend to favour a fixed contribution. This means that many defined benefit schemes have been closed and are replaced by defined contribution schemes.”

Swinkels, L. L. A. P. (2006). Have Pension Plans Changed After the Introduction of IFRS?

Required

Critically discuss the above two statement. The above two statements represent two aspects of the concerns with funding issues for pension funds and reporting issues. Your essay should include a critical discussion on these aspects, also discuss the several reporting standards, their benefits and criticisms.

Guidance Notes

Beware of the temptation to copy from internet sites or other sources. If unacknowledged, this constitutes plagiarism.

Please submit in Arial, font size 12.

Students are encouraged to use research papers, where necessary, to enhance the quality of your essay.

Please submit your essay via the Turnitin link on moodle no later than 28th April 2017, 23:59pm. Note:

Please note that the KBS generic / categorical marking criteria for coursework’s and essays and narrative assignments will apply.

1

Tourism in France The tourism industry is fast growing with the number

Tourism in France

The tourism industry is fast growing with the number of tourists growing year on. The industry has been growing with the wild pace of technological advancements and globalization. People from different cultures and places are interacting easily shrinking the globe to a small village. The demand for leisure has been increasing with the increasing levels of population and more people wanting to take their time off from the busy world and indulge in a peaceful vacation. The industry is not only a source of happiness to the tourist visiting the beautiful sceneries but is also a major contributor the county’s economy the rewards gained both the socioeconomic and financial are immense in the tourism industry. Tourism has been a significant contributor to France much more than any other sector being ranked one of the best elements of trade. The tourism industry is a highly competitive sector that calls for participation from both the government and other contributors to ensure its success.

Lee (2011), argued that tourism is a distinctive mixture of both tangible and intangible experiences encountered by the tourists. Tourism is composed of the collective human nature of traveling and exploring different things, which is part of human life. It involves people moving from one geographical area to another with the aim of satisfying their needs for exploration. The cultural norms and values play a critical role in the industry they are the greatest assets that a country owns which shows the societal patterns of the people in the tourism industry. People desire to change and traveling and having a vacation provides pleasure and leisure while breaking the monotony of daily life.

The movement of people towards cultural attraction is the cultural tourism and entails moving to other places other than the habitual place of residence to fulfill their cultural demands. It is the visiting of places of artistic, historic or scientific interest to a particular group of the community (Lee, 2011). Although cultural tourism has not been embraced by many countries, most cultural communities have embraced the opportunity-accommodating tourist despite having not fully explored the potential. The nature of the world’s economy dictates that people from developed countries travel as tourists to the developing countries much more than the people from developing countries visit developed countries. However, the case has since been changing with people determined to explore any country regardless of economic status. The availability of tourist destination dictates the level of tourism in the country. The quest to provide tourist destination has brought the development of infrastructure in various countries. The demand for beautiful and luxurious hotels is on the rise with players in the industry working towards being the best. The competitive industry has a significant impact on the nation being a contributor to the overall GDP while creating employment for the people.

Tourism has many advantages to the communities in which they visit. The local communities have been working tirelessly to boost tourism with local societies investing in improving the infrastructure that will enhance the tourism sector in their region. Some even go extra miles in learning English a universal language to ensure smooth communication and interaction with tourist from different parts of the world. As tourism is expected to improve the livelihood of the local communities through the revenue collected, the societies are committed to ensuring a thriving tourism industry in the region. However, tourism has its own disadvantages to society (Lee, 2011). It can cause economic dependency which can be detrimental to society in case of unsustainable tourism. Tourism has been known to cause conflicts between the local communities and the tourists. France has been a victim of the conflicts with tourist suffering under the hand of rude communities. The cases of insecurity in France are also on the rise with the target being the foreigner. This besides affecting the tourist also affects the industry leading to reduced revenue from the tourism industry. Nevertheless, the government has been working towards providing a safe country for both eh locals and the tourists with an increased fight against terrorism. The government through the ministry of tourism is also looking at ways including rebranding which places France at its former position in the tourism market (Lee, 2011).

France; A Tourist Destination Above the Rest

Europe is one of the busiest continent owing to its geographical nature. The formation of the continent places it in a better tourism position. The Alps in the southeast and Pyrenees in the southwest, the Atlantic Ocean on the north and the Mediterranean Sea on the west bind France. The mountains, seas, and rivers bound France giving it the essential features of tourism. Besides the geographical features in France, the city have dominant serene views that act as a tourist attraction. The capital city of France also known as the city of light draws a vast number of foreign tourists. The over 30 million visitors annually exceeds any other city in the world. The stunning architecture, the iconic Eiffel Tower, the city’s romantic image, the Louvre museum as well as the stunning sunsets are just but some of the attractions in the country. Disneyland is another major destination for visitors; the theme park receives over 15million visitors per year making France not only the largest tourist destination in Europe but also globally. Many French people shun international tourist destinations and instead choose their country for summer holidays. This is attributed to the sandy beaches, the snowcapped mountains, and the extensive countryside. France has a comprehensive offering befitting different visitors demand. For instance, the German people visit France for the beaches while the Brits visit for the extensive countryside and the Americans for the winegrowers and the culture of the French people. France also enjoys the gift of good weather in the summer (Seraphin, 2017).

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The world is evolving with the era of industrialization. This has made most of the countries a harbor of activities. People being busy all year round trying to make end meets are yearning for an escape from the noisy cities. The feeling of having a peaceful stay and a breath of fresh air has made France a major destination for those people yearning for a countryside kind of life. France is majorly scenery with 80% of the country being the countryside and most of it is tranquil and stunning. Besides visiting Paris, a large number of visitors visit the landscapes with Loire valley and the Provence being popular among the visitors. The rural area is principally popular with visitors from the UK who have a glamorized visualization of the rural life in France. People enjoy the tranquility of the rural areas escaping from the hustle and bustle of the towns and the cities.

France is famous for the gastronomic traditions with France protecting its status in the world’s food capital. The French meal cannot be complete without a glass broad tastes of homemade wines. The country has registered over 24 million visitors in the country yearly visiting the Bordeaux, burgundy and other wine regions in France. Besides the culinary skills in France, the country also takes pride in its antiquity from Napoleon, world wars, and the French revolution. The ancient sites are among the places most visited by tourists. The chateaux, the churches, and the cathedrals complete the décor of the landscapes. France has been ranked fourth in the world owing to the 39-world heritage listing in UNESCO. The art galleries and the museums are a major attraction. Mona Lisa and other thousands of artifacts attract over 9 million visitors from all over the globe. France as a destination for tourists has virtually everything. It entices travelers from all walks of life with the most popular benchmarks, unique art and architecture, breathtaking beaches, beautiful countryside, glitzy ski resorts, sensational cuisines and the astounding amount of history.

Rebranding to increase revenue

The business market has been changing rapidly changing the competitive environment. The customers’ needs are also changing blurring the existing brand position. Consequently, new innovative ideas and promotional ways have changed leading to increased competition which forces the marketers to go back to the drawing board to keep at par with the changing markets. The change of the brand is necessary to fit the consumer needs while maintaining relevance in the competitive market. The most critical question is how to resist the environmental changes and still maintain the market position. The tourists, who are the customers in the tourism industry, are a key factor in the development of strategies that help in gaining an advantage in the market. Just like any other economic activity, tourism faces all the factors affecting the market. Therefore, rebranding is necessary with the aim of maintaining and improving the clients’ relationship (Cloquet, 2016).

The increased competition in the tourism market has forced the destinations to come up with strategies and effective marketing plans to place it in a better position regarding competitiveness and differentiation from the others. Tourist destination branding embodies a means by which destination extricate itself from the mass destinations in the world. To achieve a successful destination rebranding, marketers employ various strategies that focus on the tourist experience. The experiences of the visitors in their stay at a particular destination is used to create marketing messages that will help in appealing to the emotions of potential tourists. However, for a destination to be chosen as the favorite tourist destination, it needs to have more than just appealing messages. It has to create an image that differentiates it from others.

Rebranding as a process consisting of various parts. The first part is the changing of the market appearance. The organization decides on what to change and to what extent the change should be implemented. The extent of change affects rebranding as it depends whether it is a radical change or an adjustment of the logo or slogan. Another part of the rebranding process is the decision making on the market positioning of the firm. Tourism industry faces various external factors that affect its continuity and operations (Seraphin, 2017). In such a case where the external factors such as policies and new regulations affect the industry, the rebranding can be implemented to recreate the brand. To stand out from the rest, repositioning is critical since the changes made in a company are purposely done to change the image of the firm and its overall performance. The information created while rebranding should generate an eloquent picture of the brand. The customer perception is paramount while rebranding as it determines how the customer process the information which then influences their decision making. The perception of information is different among the customers as they have a unique way of receiving the stimulus. With this in mind, the managers in the tourism industry should ensure the rebranding process captures the exposure, attention, and perception of the different target of tourists. The understanding of the perception of customers helps an organization to tailor its offering, image, and communication to influence the customers towards the given brand.

Tourism in France has been a significant economic factor for the longest time (Cloquet, 2016). In 1971, the Paris convention and visitors’ bureau was created with three specific missions. The missions were the welcoming of visitors, promotion of the destinations and informing the public. The convention was created following the joint initiative of the Paris city council and the Paris chamber of commerce and industry. Various factors were considered in terms of rebranding and the placing of France among the leading destination in the world. The first question was on the use of the Eiffel tower. The tower stands as the most significant landmark in the capital city, Paris. It would be difficult to describe the city without a mention of the Eiffel tower. Communication with the international audience is made effective by the referring to the great Eiffel tower. However, the tower was an overused visual territory. Therefore, a concentrated and straightforward typographic desired was considered that suggested a Parisian vista. The drawing of the A evoked the Eiffel tower resulting in the discreet logotype

Paris Passlib

The Paris passlib was the first application of the graphic design. It provided access to various monuments and museums in Paris and Île-de-France. The pass came with a pocketbook that contained all the suitable information for the visitors. The variation in the logo was based on the idea of traveling between several locations. The simple design created room allowing for the drawing of a tourist map of Paris. The previous designs and graphics layouts were based on the combination of the Paris city mad the Eiffel tower. The only different feature in the design was the color. The image and print used in the branding of France as a tourist destination contribute to the increase in revenue. The image created portrays the broad picture of the nation as a tourist destination which in turn entices more tourists to visit the country ultimately increasing the revenue from tourist activities (Corne, 2015).

A favorable nation image is crucial to the success of tourism. The popularity of a nation not only occur due to the features in that particular state but how well they are marketed. France has beautiful sceneries and other tourist destinations. However, the revenue from the tourism sector has not yet been maximized. Nation branding allows the government to better place the nation in a way attractive for tourism and other investments. Branding revolves around creating an image as well as ensuring that the destination is safe for the tourists. In creating a brand, it is critical to major on the most attractive features in a country. France among others has the Eiffel tower which stands out from the rest. The renowned figure has many people yearning to have a visit to the country. However, besides the tower, the country has many other features that can make the country more attractive to travelers. In the past, the country uses the Eiffel tower as its principal brand representative. The city of Paris was also used in the branding. This made the country a target for visitors who wanted to tour the city of love. However, many travelers would wish to visit other parts of nations such as the rural areas. In such a case, the brand may not give a full representation of the country regarding tourist opportunities to tour the countryside.

The lavish French Riviera, the scrumptious cellars and the iconic Eiffel tower places France as the world number one tourist destination. However, it is not number one in tourism revenue to the country’s tourism authority. A campaign to rebrand the country was launched to enable the place already considered by many travelers as a dreamland regain its former glory. The country according to the united nations(UN) world tourism organization receives millions of visitors annually. However, international competition is changing with the change in consumer demand as well as with the superior tourist revenue from countries such as Spain and the united states. This has provoked a serious soul searching for France to enable it to climb the revenue ladder.

The French government launched a new brand that included a travel campaign and a logo intended to revive the tourism revenue. The logo made of a young woman who symbolizes Marianne, a metaphorical figure and national symbol since the French revolution. The tagline “Rendez-vous en France,” is designed to entice visitors to visit France and have a taste of the fine wine, food, and fashion. Marianne invokes what the mansion de la France, and the tourism authority term as the qualities that make the country unique. The escapade and impulsiveness, the amusing history and the romance are all found in France. On a closer look at the logo, one notices the word France just above the tagline forming the upper half of Marianne’s body. The previous logo was more revealing with the uncovered breasts joined by letters R and A. the version was however considered too seductive to the foreign tourist market.

The Marianne image forms the mantra of tourism in France. According to the ministry chief, more visitors should spend their time in France. He wants to let the world now that there is more to see in France other than the Eiffel tower and the beautiful urban stretch around the monument base. The choice of logo and tagline has significant effects on the tourism industry as it gives a rough picture of what to expect in their adventure in France. Tourism just like any other business needs marketing strategies that will ensure it is better placed regarding competitiveness, customer loyalty and retention, and also new customers to the business. A well-designed logo and tagline not only plays a paramount role in the advertising and marketing of a firm but also ensures that the brand stands out from the rest. France has in the recent past faces hurdles in the tourism industry with the visitors in the country besides the beautiful sceneries are left with a feeling of a rude encounter with the people in France (Corne, 2015). The government through the ministry of tourism is working daily to ensure that the public has a sense of welcoming towards visitors. Although the country is leading in terms of the number of tourists in the country, it is still behind regarding sales. The poor sales are attributed to the rudeness of the people. Although a few people go home with stories of rudeness, the ministry is committed to ensuring the tourists have a different story on their experience in France. The ministry employs a combo of diversification and accommodation to its marketing strategies. The website rendezvousenfrance.com. Contains heritage sites, regional vineyards, summer festivals among other elements aimed at giving the tourists a glimpse of what to expect in their visit to France(Corne, 2015).

The new logo shows a stylized version of France’s figurehead and features a new strapline. When launching the initiative, the tourism minister emphasized the need for a new approach as France was headed in the wrong direction in terms of the revenue generated from tourism. France had lost its number one spot in the European tourist market, and it was time to reconsider the whole tourism industry. Foreigners termed France as arrogant and as such the minister insisted on France showing its different side. For tourism to thrive, the people need to be more welcoming to the line a nation rich in diversity and accommodative to all. The female figure shows a young woman as she looks towards the future. The image shows a promise for a better future ahead. Another memorable thing about the logo is the tagline “Rendez-vous en France,” which is more appealing to those people who have a sense of fashion, love for good food and fine wine. The design of the logo from marine to the tagline labels France as a unique tourist destination(Corne, 2015).

The new logo and tagline appeal to audiences who have a unique love for great things. France is known to be among the leading destinations identified by its famous countryside, art, culture and history, cuisine and its broad array of fine wine. A person looking for a place to have a beautiful view of the countryside while dining on the French specialist and have a couple of glasses of homemade wine is the primary target of the logo. The loo is appealing to different kind o visitors ranging from the young who love city life, the lovers who want to visit the city of romance and also to the old who want a peaceful vacation at the countryside. The rebranding of the tourism logo is meant to raise the awareness of the French tourism and increase the number of visitors into the country and ultimately optimize on the revenue for the tourism industry (Corne, 2015).

Over 87000 voters chose the picture and tagline. The online contest brought about different voters from the country who participated in the selection of the image and the tagline. The choice of the tagline is one of the best choices that the tourism ministry of France made as it is not unique, but it also has a way of seducing people to visit France. The picture of the young female can be used to represent the future. Women are known to be the mothers of society. The use of a young woman shows a woman ready to mother the tourism industry leading it to the future. The figure can also present the hospitality that the tourist can expect during their stay in the country. Generally, women are polite and hospitable beings, and in the tourism industry, all hat the visitors yearn besides the beautiful scenery is welcoming society. The French people have been accused of rudeness to the tourist in the past. The minister for tourism had been working tirelessly in changing the notion of the foreigners towards the French people and also the attitude of the people towards the tourists (Corne, 2015).

Touriste; A Good Idea

Some fears hold back a person limiting them from experiencing more from a given opportunity. One of that fear is the fear of a new language. People fear traveling to countries where they do not speak the language. Communication is the basis of life and not being able to communicate can be frustrating and at times scary. Personally, touriste is not my first language, but due to my nature of wanting to explore different grounds, I took the time to learn the language. Touriste is an essential language to people visiting France as it not only makes the stay easy but also allows the individual to have ease in interacting with the locals. Learning of the basic terms of a foreign language comes in handy especially if a person intends on touring that country someday. Although English is the universal language of travel, sometimes local languages can be used in signs at the tourist attractions. Some sites also have tour guides that have no or little idea of English. In such a case, a person is required to use the basic language learned to communicate and also at times translate to the other tourists.

Although it is not good for people in the hospitality industry to be conscious of the cultural difference of the visitors, it is critical to have a little knowledge of the local culture of the people in the area of the visit. This not only ensures the visitors navigate easily in the region but also helps in the interaction with the communities which is a sign of respect to the locals. The French people like to be complimented, and with the knowledge of the language, it is easy to relate with eth people.

Conclusion

The tourism industry is among the leading industries in the world’s economy. The revenue collected from tourism activities goes a long way in increasing the total GDP of a country. The availability of beautiful sceneries, wildlife, and other attractions automatically places a country in a better position in the tourism industry. However, just like any other business, tourism requires efficient marketing strategies that will the tourist destination is known as well as making them being the first choice among competing destinations in the world. Branding and rebranding strategies ensure that the industry and a country is marketed well to the world and is ready to face the stiff competition and emerge the winner measured through the total revenue collected from the tourism sector. Security in a country is also paramount as tourists need a peaceful and safe destination that they can have their vacation without fears of attacks. France although having experienced terror attack in the recent past that shook the tourism industry, it is still fighting to retain its former glory and being the first tourism destination in the world (Seraphin, 2017).

References

Cloquet, I. (2016). Tourism, recreation, and regional development: Perspectives from France and abroad. Tourism Management, 57, pp.1-2.

Corne, A. (2015). Benchmarking and tourism efficiency in France. Tourism Management, 51, pp.91-95.

Lee, A. (2011). Tourism branding: communities in action. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), pp.343-344.

Seraphin, H. (2017). Terrorism and tourism in France: the limitations of dark tourism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(2), pp.187-195.

LCS300 Assignment Plan 2018-9 In order to focus your research from the

LCS300 Assignment Plan 2018-9

In order to focus your research from the outset, you are required to prepare an assignment plan. Please fill in all the sections of the template below and respect the recommended word limits. Before embarking upon the plan, you should engage in a certain amount of reading and private investigation.

As preparation for your final submission, please prepare a draft plan using this form. This will help structure your research and crystallise your ideas. Once completed, print your draft and bring it to a ‘plan discussion session’ with your supervisor. This is a formative exercise that will take place in w/c 5.11.2018.  Feedback and suggestions from your supervisor should be taken into account when compiling your final version. You should submit your plan via Moodle, clicking on the icon bearing your supervisor’s name, no later than noon (12 p.m.) Thursday 15.11.2018.  The plan accounts for 30% of your module mark.

Name:

Supervisor:

Section 1

Proposed Area of research (10 marks)

In this section students should either provide the working title of their assignment or give a precise, focused description of their research question or give a hypothesis. (Maximum 50 words)

To aim for: A clear and focused working title, hypothesis or description of the area of research in which you are interested.

To avoid: A title, hypothesis, description that is too broad, poorly formulated and lacking focus.

France has been leading in the tourism sector being named the most popular destination in the world. However, in the recent past the country has been facing crimes threatening to the tourism industry. This paper aims at understanding the history and market dynamics in France as leading tourist destination.

Section 2

Identification of aims and objectives (10 marks)

This section should start, ‘The aim of my written assignment is to …’ and give a broad description of what students hope to achieve as a result of carrying out their research. Objectives should follow in a formatted list and should be more specific in character. (Maximum 70-80 words)

To aim for: A clear account of what the student hopes to achieve as a result of their research, followed by the steps/strategies that will help achieve the goal. Unlike goals, objectives must be specific and measurable.

To avoid: Unclear or vague aims that fail to specify the direction of the research. Objectives that are not SMART.

The aim of my written assignment is to have a comprehensive understanding of the tourism market dynamics, which will help the student have the knowledge of how tourism market works.

To explain the rise of France among the largest tourist destination in the world which gives a clear description of France as a tourist destination.

To explain the methods of marketing that France used in the past and currently which helps in placing the country at the top.

Section 3

Indicative Content (50 marks)

Students should concentrate in most detail on this section. They should give a clear idea of the issues they wish to explore, together with a detailed explanation of how they are going to organise and structure their ideas. (Maximum 300 words)

To aim for: A detailed account of issues under consideration. A clear explanation of structure and internal organisation.

To avoid: An account lacking detail. Poor development of ideas, vague treatment of issues under consideration, lack of clarity regarding structure and organisation.

The tourism industry is fast growing with the number of tourists growing year on. The industry has been growing with the wild pace of technological advancements and globalization. People from different cultures and places are interacting easily shrinking the globe to a small village. The demand for leisure has been increasing with the increasing levels of population and more people wanting to take their time off from the busy world and indulge in a peaceful vacation. The industry is not only a source of happiness to the tourist visiting the beautiful sceneries but is also a major contributor the county’s economy the rewards gained both the socioeconomic and financial are immense in the tourism industry. Tourism has been a major contributor in France much more than any other sector being ranked one of the best elements of trade. Tourism industry is a highly competitive sector that calls for participation from both the government and other contributors to ensure its success. France is home to most of the famous sites in the world and is leading tourist market in the European travel industry. The sector has since become a major contributor to the country’s GDP. The destination, however, faces various hurdles including insecurity, which has significantly affected the industry.

This assignment will begin by exploring the tourism industry and the history of France as far as tourism is concerned. The analysis of the various factors that contribute to the ever-growing tourism industry in France and their impacts. France has faced attacks in the recent past, which have affected the industry with fears on insecurity. With and in-depth look into past literatures from selected sources, this paper will provide in-depth study on the same while providing recommendation to ensure the country maintains its position as a tourist destination.

Section 4

Identification of key sources of information (20 marks)

In this section, students should show that they have already engaged in reading by referring to four key sources of information (and/or data) that have helped them identify their research topic.  For each they should evaluate why, in the context of their proposed study, the source is important.  Students may wish to link the selected sources to specific aims given in section (ii). Details of all sources should follow the normal referencing conventions (i.e. Harvard system). (Maximum 60-70 words per entry)

To aim for: Four summaries of key sources that address a range of appropriate and clearly justified aspects of the research to be undertaken.

To avoid: Fewer than four summaries and/or entries that are limited in terms of quality, age and relevance to the research question.

Cloquet, I. (2016). Tourism, recreation and regional development: Perspectives from France and abroad. Tourism Management, 57, pp.1-2.

In this journal article, the author explains tourism as a source of recreation and the development in the tourist destinations. The source will be of help in this paper as it gives a clear view of the impacts of tourism in the various destinations.

Corne, A. (2015). Benchmarking and tourism efficiency in France. Tourism Management, 51, pp.91-95.

The purpose of the journal is to increase the understanding of the French tourist paradox. The article carries a technical analysis of the French hospitality sector. The literature is critical in the study in explaining how the hospitality sector influences tourism in the country. It also explains the major hospitality destination and preferences bay tourists.

Lee, A. (2011). Tourism branding: communities in action. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(1), pp.343-344.

The article explains the advantage of creating a brand in tourism and the community participation in the branding. It will be helpful in the development of literature in explaining the participation of the inhabitants during the branding process and in some of the promoting actions and the overall tourism in the region.

Seraphin, H. (2017). Terrorism and tourism in France: the limitations of dark tourism. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 9(2), pp.187-195.

The article talks of terrorism in France and how it have affected the tourism industry. Tourist are shunning France due to the recent terror attacks in the country. The article will be used to provide a basis of review while developing the argument on terror and its impact in tourism.

Section 5

Reflection on challenges/hurdles/obstacles (10 marks)

In this section students should detail any hurdles, obstacles, challenges that may arise when researching into their chosen subject area. (Maximum 80-100 words)

To aim for: A reflective and clear account of the challenges that could be encountered when conducting research in this particular field of study.

To avoid: Little or no reflection viz. the possible pitfalls that could be encountered and should be addressed, in the chosen field of study.

Leisure and tourism is a broad topic and it may not be exhausted completely in a single study. There is a broad array of literature on tourism but few that major on France tourism. The likely challenge in the study is the publication of sources using French. However, with the availability of translating tools, the challenge can be easily solved. Another challenge is the availability of information on the history of French tourism. Many sources talk of the current tourism dynamics in France.

Introduction In the modern era, media, society, economy, and politics are no

Introduction

In the modern era, media, society, economy, and politics are no longer considered to be separate fields despite increasingly being interrelated. The interrelatedness and interconnectedness of these aspects has been fueled by the rising levels of globalization and high levels of technological advancements in all parts of the world. The result of this is that it, will link local, national, and transnational phenomena in our journalistic and academic discourse. The rapid development of communication technology has promoted the process of globalization by making it easy for people from one of the world to the other at whatever time they wish to communicate. Thus, the news media has been significantly affecting the behavior of their audience as a result of the varied information from varied cultures from different nationalities. This thus makes the concept of frame a very important factor in news media. It provides a “cognitive window” (Ulrika, 2009) for the delivered news to transform social reality into subjective thinking. As such, this essay seeks to explain the distinction between news framing, agenda setting and priming as well as the method to integrating culture into the framing process.

News Framing

In recent years, research on framework has always been a hot topic in communication research. According to Dietram (2007) & David (2007), framework theory as based on cognitive psychology and society indicates that some similar decision plans always have different performances. Therefore, news framework always affects people’s choice and evaluation by different expression like choice of words, rhetoric, and thematic (Ulrika, 2009). For example, Irwin (1990) & Daniel (1990) argued this through a famous experiment that was carried out by Tversky and Kahneman that was meant to look at the effects of a fatal infectious disease to the population. The results of the experiment showed that an approximated 600 people were infected by the disease, thus leading to death.

Therefore, the researchers designed two rescue programs that were to be applied in making key decision choices concerning the infection. The plan was to expose part of the infected population (200 people) to a treatment plan. The other plan was to treat one third of people while letting the other two thirds die. The result of the experiment indicated that 72% of people chose the first plan. In fact, the results of two programs were the same, but the framework of their expressions was different. The way in which the expression plan is made contributes significantly towards determining the decision made by the affected population. If the framework adopted is positive about a specific plan, then a majority of the population will prefer that specific plan. On the other hand, if the framework is negative, then people will shun off from the strategy being highlighted, thus preferring the adventurous choice. Due to the development of the framework as a current communication tool, some other cognitive campaign effects like agenda setting and priming usually reappear, thus making the new system to experience a significant change. In the current world, media effects have become highly complex compared to what used to happen previously because it engages people’s existing attitude instead of changing them.

Agenda setting

According to Dietram (2007) & David (2007), agenda setting means that the more a subject is emphasized by the mass media, the higher the attention given to the issue by the public. Thus, according to this dramatic relationship, the mass media usually contributes significantly towards setting the society’s agenda. Priming on the other hand is used to define the emphasize placed on previous influences that made it easy to recognize the effects of the influences to the population that is usually understood as an extension of the agenda setting (Dietram ,2007 & David ,2007). For example, SARS is a very serious illness that is characterized by serious colds. In 2003, a large area of China was infected with this virus and the mass media engaged in massive publicizing of the virus presence by highlighting the number of people who had died as a result of being infected by the virus. As a result of the publicity that was given to the virus, when people from this area get a cold, the first thing that they always thought of was SARS.

Concept Distinction

On looking at both the news framework and agenda setting concepts, it is clear that both of them look at people’s way of thinking rather than the object of thinking. In addition, they pay more attention to how much the issue or object in the media is being described rather than which topic or object is reported significantly. On a different note, Framework focuses on the content of mass media, such as language, symbol, and image while agenda setting focus on the relationship between the agenda of the mass media and the agenda of the audience which means the influence of audience by media.

Moreover, framing theory is the most commonly used research method in the field of communication science. According to Van Gorp (2007), the source of framework theory has two aspects, one is psychology and the other being sociology. Psychology refers the formed frame as the frame while sociology refers frame formation process which is framing. In relation to this, Zald (1996) defines culture as a collection of organized belief, code, and values that are shared in a collective memory of society. He goes further to state that frame is the most important part in culture because it is a useful part for cognition and culture. The approach of integrating culture into the framework has four important features.

One is the distinction of event, the content of media and frame. The actual frame is not included in the media content because frame is part of culture, thus making text and frame to be independent of each other. The second element is reconstruction of the frame package. Frame package is a set of logical organization devices that is made up of frame that has the same core idea. Despite frame being a part of the culture, a cultural phenomenon is not equal to the frame because they always lack definition and understanding of other events (Van Gorp, 2007). However, frame can be associated with common cultural phenomena, and narrated by cultural resonance. For example, frame work can be expressed by some special symbol. During the US attack on Iraq, if one of media houses used more justice word such as counter terrorism, anti-dictatorship in report, the other media would definitely use injustice frame such as resource competition, intrusion to understand this war. Thus, the relationship between frame package and cultural phenomena is the other approach to integrate culture into the frame.

The last method is frame sponsors and key events. According to Van Gorp (2007), if the event becomes part of the collective memory, a key event can be activated. For example, frame sponsors will convince the media to write a press release based on their frame in press conference. Because the aim is to convince the receiver by informing them as much as possible despite most of the media houses depending on the same news source.

On the other hand, research frame is labor intensive because there is no production guarantee. In addition, researchers will make some decision in the process of research, so it may have some subjective thinking thus making the receiver to have some issues in accepting the information offered to them. However, it is also beneficial on constructivist approach when compared to framing. It makes it easy to explore some new perspectives for frame research. Importantly, frame is a persuasive invitation that is read in news in a specific way. Therefore, it is easy to understand its definition, theme, and moral. A perfect example is the China’s Sanlu milk powder incident. In the report of this major emergency, the mainstream media distributed a huge number of articles that continuously reported the government’s actions in this crisis. These reports made the recipient aware of the progress of the incident. Furthermore, people learned about the harmful substances of Sanlu milk powder through media reports. From this incident, frame in mass media has been considered to have some important effect for current society.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this essay has examined the complex relations between frame, agenda setting, and priming as well as how to use them in mass media. This new system changes people’s attitude to some event due to the different description of the event. In addition, the integration of culture and framework makes people easier to understand the content of news. The constructivist method highlights the interaction between the recipient’s explanatory activities and the power of the frame that exists in many elements of the media content. Frame theory especially the news frame theory is mainly based on the activities of the traditional mass media. With the development of new technologies and the enrichment of communication resources, more and more individuals or groups are involved in the production of news and other information. It may make the subjective consciousness of information more serious. This kind of change for the structure of future realistic construction and meaningful production is also a new topic facing for frame theory.

References

Dietram, A.S., & David, T.,2007, ‘Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models’, Journal of Communication 57,pp.9-20

Irwin,p.L., & Daniel,P.C., 1990,‘Risk taking, frame of reference, and characterization of victim groups in AIDS treatment decisions’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 26,pp.421-434

Ulrika,O.,2009, ‘Global warming-global responsibility? Media frames of collective action and scientific certainty’, Publica Understanding Science 18,pp.421-436

Van Gorp,B.,2007, ‘The Construction Approach to Framing: Bringing Culture Back In’, Journal of Communication 57,pp.60-80