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ANALYSIS OF UNILEVER COMPANY art history essay help: art history essay help






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Executive summary

Unilever is a multinational company based in London. It deals with fast-moving consumer goods. It also sells its products to almost 200 countries. It has numerous consumers brand on a large scale. Unilever has changed due to competition, economic growth, technology changes, peoples’ lifestyle, and downturn.

Unilever was founded in 1930 after a Soap Machine, Lever Brothers, and Margarine machine took a loan together and started Unilever company in 1930. This company is increasing its products every day. It has five laboratories globally which aids in making new and improved products. Unilever has a common goal for all their employees which is understanding and good behaviors.

The anticipated change entails a change in prices and new designs because of diversity (Kuncoro and Surian, 2018). Unilever should create a communication channel whereby the employees’ decisions can be considered. They should also come up with a slogan that will inspire all the workers. This slogan will create a favorable and conducive environment for all workers, and in turn, workers will portray comprehensiveness. Of late Unilever, has new management, impacting new changes to the company with a new mission and vision. These changes have created a good relationship between the company, employees, and customers. These new changes have also portrayed a good image of Unilever. Apart from all these excellent outcomes, Unilever is facing severe threats that can instill significant damage to Unilever’s profit margins and international position in the fast-moving consumer goods industry. New products in the market, increasing competition, high taxes, and policies are the main obstacles to Unilever’s success. Unilever has to overcome these challenges by improving its I.T. services, examination, and external monitoring.


            Unilever is a Dutch multinational company. It deals with products such as beverages, cleaning products, and personal use products. It is the third biggest consumer goods product globally and the number one ice cream maker in the world (Hasan, 2015). It owns over 400 brands; some of them are Knorr, Rexona, sun silk, and many more. It is listed as a dual company with Unilever N.V. in Rotterdam and Unilever PLC in London. These two companies have the same directors, and they operate as a single business. Unilever was established in 1930 when British Soap Maker Lever Brothers and the Dutch Margarine maker came together. This company has achieved various corporate acquisitions like Chesebrough-pond in 1987.

Unilever established its first onshore operations in Bangladesh in the year 1964. This happened when it set a soap company in Chittagong. This factory in Bangladesh is the market in seven out of eight categories it operates in. It mainly deals with personal care products and foods. This company in Bangladesh provides employment opportunities to over 10,000 people directly and indirectly.

Unilever Driving Power

Sustainable growth

In the year 1883, sunlight bar soap was introduced in the U.K. This idea was innovative, and it had a reason. The main reason for launching sunlight bar soap was to bring about cleanliness to many people. Unilever company wants to do more every to the ordinary people. Unilever wants to enhance people’s lives with their products. This company has been developers, go-getters, and future-makers for over one hundred and twenty years. We hope for sustainable growth always.

Strategic choices

            Our ambition is to be a global leader in this business. To be leaders in sustainable business, we must show our purpose, our future and deliver good business performance. Our vision is to collaborate with genuine partners and drive the whole system to change. This vision will help in tackling the challenges that we face in our business. We believe our brands can make a difference to over 800 million consumers (Frynas and Mellahi, 2015).

Developing our collection into high growth places

Our main issue is hygiene; we want to evolve with the changing lifestyle. We mainly concentrate on skincare products, beauty products, plant foods, and essential nutrition. We are improving peoples’ healthy lives, and we care for our environment. All these factors are driven by different science and improved technology. We ought to improve on our technology to give people quality products. We are powered by determination and originality.

Leading in key growth markets

We have to strengthen our presence in key market areas. Countries like the U.S., China, and India are potential areas where we can build different scales.

Business integrity

Our values determine how we do our business. Every employee in Unilever has to be an ambassador for our high-principled standards. We create a scenario where our workers will uphold values like integrity, respect, and responsibility; with these values, our workers will be vigilant in identifying potential concerns and confident enough to speak in such situations. We are run a business with principals.

Environmental Background

            Our company can address external and internal environment. It contributes to prominence in the marketplace PEST identifies external factors, PEST analysis model is a perfect tool for managers to understand the external environment’s influence. In Unilever’s case, these factors vary a lot because it is an international business. However, we must focus on maximizing business performance through plans. Unilever can achieve all it wants through strategies to help overcome the most vital threats through PEST analysis. PEST analysis will help Unilever plan opportunities for growth.

Political Factors

            Political scenery affects Unilever’s performance in a significant way. PEST analysis looks at how political stability affects Unilever (Cheng, 2021). The following political factors affect Unilever.

The political stability of some countries (opportunity)
Issues in European Union (Threat)
Free Trade growth (opportunity)

Political stability is essential for a business to grow. Political stability provides opportunities for Unilever company to flourish. The political stability in the USA helps Unilever to minimize the challenges faced in the marketplace. Issues in the U.E. are possible threats against Unilever to thrive in the region. However, the firm can expand based on free trade relations, especially in developing countries (Kuncoro and Surian, 2018). According to PEST political external factors, there are opportunities for this company to thrive, although challenges are linked to political instability in the European Union.

Even in countries that are always stable, political instability can have significant consequences on businesses. This can mainly result from a change in the legal framework. Political instability can affect the global supply chain. Political instability in countries affects its economic setting (Frynas and Mellahi, 2015). For instance, the difference in democrats and republican rules affects factors such as taxes and government expenditures. When the government changes policies, this harms a business.

Economic factors

Our company depends on the economic factors globally. The following economic factors determine Unilever’s performance in the industry.

Developing countries are increasing their wages.
Growth in developing countries
Economic stability

Increased wages in developing countries is an opportunity and a threat at the same time. Increased wages create more significant profit margins in Unilever from the high sales. When customers have enough wages, they buy many consumer goods from Unilever, increasing their profit margins. Nevertheless, when customers’ wages are increased, it poses a threat because of the increased cost because Unilever has many manufacturing companies situated in developing countries. However, this presents an opportunity for growth as these countries create more extensive sales. Economic stability prevents businesses from losses and risks. This creates gradual growth in developing countries.

Social and Sociocultural factors

Unilever’s business performance is affected by both social and sociocultural trends. The sociocultural factors affecting Unilever company are;

Increased Health consciousness
Rising environmental awareness
Dismantlement of gender

Unilever is a multinational company; to keep up in the competitive marketplace, Unilever has to launch unique products and market them to reach a greater audience (Cheng, 2021). Unilever is aware of this, and that’s why we advertise our product in various languages. For example, the advertisement of bathing soap in India must be in different languages like Hindi, Malayalam and Telugu; this is appealing to the social demographics. Also, the massive range of beauty products makes people yearn to look beautiful and younger.

Technological factors

Technology is very vital in every business. Unilever depends greatly on technology to support its business. In Unilever’s case, the following factors technological advancement is needed;

Rising automation in business (great opportunity)
The rising cost of R&D (significant threat)
Decrease cost of transportation

Unilever needs to keep up with the pace of technology to keep up with the competition in the consumer products in the marketplace (Hasan, 2015). Technological advancement will increase efficiency and keep down the cost. Funds are supposed to be allocated to research and development so that new products can be launched with ease. Having automated operations will help save time because more products will be launched instantaneously. Decreased cost of transportation leads to lower cost of operation, leading to business growth. Nevertheless, a decrease in transportation cost is a fair threat because it leads to competition from other companies.

Unilever has also managed to keep up with competition because it uses Porter’s five forces. Unilever competes effectively globally in the consumer product industry because of these vital factors. Porters’ forces create a strategic platform for Unilever to thrive. Michael Porter’s five tools are important to keep business on track and also help managers understand the effect of external aspects. In Unilever firm, competition is a great threat in combination with consumers’ bargaining powers (Cheng, 2021). For Unilever to be a leading company, these forces must be addressed.

Competition and rivalry

Competition is a significant threat in every business. Unilever faces a lot of competition from its rivalry. Unilever faces competition in the following sectors;

Numerous firms (durable force)
The aggressiveness of firms (solid force)
Small switching costs (stout force)

Many firms are dealing with consumer goods in the marketplace. This an external force that is a severe threat to Unilever. These firms are not only many, but they are aggressive; this adds to competition intensity. Unilever also faces competition due to low switching costs. For instance, it is a more likely situation for a customer to switch from one company to another. This creates stiff competition among firms. According to Porter’s force analysis, there is a need to address competition rivalry in the industry environment.

Bargaining power of customers

Every business depends on the consumers’ response to a company’s products. Unilever will have to address the following external forces that lead to the bargaining power of customers.

Los switching cost which is a strong force
Accessibility to high information (vital force)
Small sizes of consumers (weak force)

Low switching cost from other firms makes customers switch from Unilever’s products to other products (Hasan, 2015). This makes consumers have high bargaining powers. In addition to this, when customers have access to high information about consumers’ goods, customers find it easy to switch to other products. A good example is when consumers access product information online, this makes it for them to compare different products from the information. Unilever produces high-quality products the consumers are happy about Unilever’s products, so this is not a big problem. However, Unilever must try as much as possible to keep their products original to avoid any chances of comparison. The small size of individual buyers is a weak threat to Unilever; however, low switching cost and access to information online overshadows small sizes of individual buyers. The first two factors are strong forces that affect Unilever company.

Suppliers’ bargaining powers

            Suppliers impact Unilever’s industrial environment by affecting the supply level available to Unilever. These factors contribute to the bargaining power of suppliers;

A reasonable size of individual suppliers
Moderate suppliers
Overall supply

Unilever has many suppliers, for instance, foreign firms that supply oil and paper. The number of Unilever’s suppliers is moderate, which moderates the consumer good industry settings. A reasonable size of suppliers imposes substantial but less impact on consumer goods companies (Hasan, 2015). Nevertheless’ overall moderate supply impacts such effects on suppliers. For instance, if a supplier changes production level, it will have fewer effects on Unilever because other suppliers provide Unilever raw materials.


            The threat of substitutes is brought about by other companies switching their prices; this will significantly affect Unilever because customers will opt for low-priced products. Unilever should normalize its prices to deal with this threat.

New entrants

This is a weak threat because Unilever is an established company, and it has its brands in the marketplace already. However, these new entrants reduce the price of their goods, and customers opt for cheaper goods.

Unilever’s Current Strategy

            Unilever managers use Porter’s five forces to their advantage (Hasan, 2015). They understand that these forces add to their advantages like profitability.

New entrants

            New entrants in the consumer goods industry pressure Unilever; they handle this threat by lowering their prices and providing propositions on new values. Unilever has managed this threat by creating quality products and investing in R&D (Kuncoro and Surian, 2018).


Suppliers bargaining power

            All companies involved in personal care products get their raw material from various suppliers. The bargaining powers of suppliers reduce profit. Unilever handles this threat by having multiple suppliers using different products to produce their products. If one product goes high, they can shift to another and create a partnership with firms that supply them.

Buyers bargaining power

            Buyers sometimes put pressure on Unilever when they want to buy a product at a low price. Unilever tackles this threat by creating s a large number of consumers, creating new products, and offering discounts on the new products.

Substitute products

            When a new product hits the market, it creates a threat to the existing products, reducing profit margins. Unilever handles this threat by mainly focusing on service provision rather than on products only, a clear understanding of what customers and increased low coast switching.


            When rivalry is intense among players in an industry, competition is intense, resulting in low cost of products and reducing profits in business. Unilever tackles this threat by working together with competitors and being creating unique products to protect its marketplace.

Unilever organizational performance

            Unilever’s success is directly proportional to its organizational structure and the rules the managing directors implement. Unilever is a consolidated global company, and any change in one sector leads to change in other areas. Characters of each sector affect the whole organization. Influential leaders in Unilever bring about improvement in the organization and success (Wibowo and Gunawan, 2015). It has the following performance characteristic; performance focus and organizational culture mainly focus on quality output. This has been since the company started; it has helped the business grow from local to global. Employees can focus on quality, and because of quality, Unilever can stand competition.

Future Projections

            In 2020 Unilever recorded sales growth of 1.9 percent (Cheng, 2021). It mainly focused on ways to do away with the competition, and successfully it made it in the competition performance. Unilever advanced in strategic plans by setting up new ambitions, targets, and actions to build a reasonable and comprehensive culture. The fusion of legal structure under a single company was completed, and the evolution of a better portfolio will be achieved. Unilever plans to grow a strong cash flow and growing shares. Saving will grow up to 2 billion Euros per year and ensure that profits grow before sales growth. Unilever will change its structure to categorized it into three Divisions; beauty products and personal, home, food and refreshments. It will ensure empowerment and possible ways to make strategic plans in the long run. This strategy will also strengthen Unilever’s organizational governance.



            Unilever is one of the most influential companies globally. Its central plan is to provide products that will help people in their daily lives. This plan helps in global economic growth. Unilever was established after merging two firms from two different countries. Unilever has faced several challenges just like any other business. Unilever produces products like beauty products, refreshments, and personal care products. The organizational culture adopted by Unilever has helped it grow. The use of Porter’s five forces and PEST has helped the organization know that they need some changes due to the changing business environment (Cheng, 2021). The management needs to adopt the Nudge theory of change to enable shifting from one stage to another.





Cheng, Y., 2021, February. Analysis on the Opportunities and Challenges of Unilever’s Differentiated Competition by Using SWOT and PEST. In 6th International Conference on Economics, Management, Law and Education (EMLE 2020) (pp. 280-284). Atlantis Press.

Frynas, J.G. and Mellahi, K., 2015. Global strategic management. Oxford University Press, USA.


Galpin, T., Whittington, J.L. and Bell, G., 2015. Is your sustainability strategy sustainable? Creating a culture of sustainability. Corporate Governance.



Hasan, M.M., 2015. Marketing Analysis of Unilever. Total Quality Management, 11, p.13.


Kleinknecht, R., Haq, H.U., Muller, A.R. and Kraan, K.O., 2020. An attention-based view of short-termism: The effects of organizational structure. European Management Journal, 38(2), pp.244-254.


Kuncoro, W. and Suriani, W.O., 2018. Achieving sustainable competitive advantage through product innovation and market driving. Asia Pacific Management Review, 23(3), pp.186-192


Maclean, M., Harvey, C. and Clegg, S.R., 2017. Organization theory in business and management history: Present status and future prospects. Business History Review, 91(3), pp.457-481.


Wibowo, W. and Gunawan, H.M., 2015. Implementing Good Corporate Governance in Indonesia: A Strategic Approach. Journal of Accounting, Business and Management (JABM), 22(1).


Issues Surrounding Historical and Theoretical Models history assignment help company



Issues Surrounding Historical and Theoretical Models in Psychopathology

Psychopathology is a wide field that has had a tremendous investment in research-based recognition, evaluation, and treatment of mental disorders. This study on mental disorders started from a superstitious viewpoint as a condition in which the patients were accused of being tormented by demons. This caused the mistreatment of the patients in such ways as trepanations in exorcising the evil spirits (Jutras, 2017). Better approaches to this pathology have continually been formulated with the advancement of technology and research. More discussions on psychopathology research’s evolution are discussed in this essay, with technology and psychology knowledge as the paramount parameters anchoring psychopathology models.

The contribution of psychology education and research has a remarkable impact on the psychopathology theoretical models’ progress. Sigmund Freud and John B. Watson are among the pioneering psychologists between the 19th and 20th Centuries. They introduced the theory of psychodynamics and the theory of behaviorism, respectively. The psychodynamics theory explains the pathology to be associated with uncertain unconscious motives where open dialogue with the patient provides a remedy. The theory of behaviorism is still popular today and links the pathology to behavioral conditions. Behaviorism suggests the patient be treated through adaptive reconditioning. These two theories are the basis of the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology. Based on these concepts, researchers were able to explore the pharmacological perspectives around this disorder and have come up with drugs that can enhance catecholamine levels, such as monoamine and reserpine oxidase inhibitors (Jutras, 2017). The availability of a variety of researchers has made it possible to have a wide dimension of psychopathology.

The presence of many psychological researchers also has a negative impact on the theoretical models. Different views from different researchers on the same concept have a critical consequence. Complaints are made that the psychopathology is not unified and has caused conflicting information in the pathology treatment. There has been a lack of consensus among the socio-political sectors, clinical and scientific levels. These changes interrupt the treatment, and more unified concepts have come, such as the psychopathology factor (p-factor).

Another factor that has shaped the psychopathology theoretical models is personality psychology. This concept has been able to digress the understanding of factors of the pathology as internalizing and externalizing domains. The internalizing factors are those that are hosted inside the patient, such as anxiety, phobia, and depression, among other negative emotions. On the other hand, the externalizing factors are those that relate to the relationship of the individual with the environment such as substance-use disorder and anti-social behaviors (Krueger & Markon, 2006). This concept helps in understanding psychopathology in a wider spectrum

Technology has also been effective in the enhancement of the psychopathology theoretical models. In 1952, computational technology gave rise to the concept Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), which is occasionally reviewed, with the latest version being DSM-5 (Vlessides, 2020). The previous version, DSM-IV-TR, depicts mental disorders as categorical and homogenous, thus enabling easier treatment. This progress would not be achieved without there being effective statistical tools that can perform this investigative task. This technology is, however, limited by the limitations cited in the previous discussion. The variables used as input in this model are not similar for a given diagnostic class of data. Further, these classes are not mutually exclusive. This makes the DSM technology difficult to use globally.

Another factor where the technology is applied is the use of molecular genetics. This technique combines genetics with the knowledge of molecular neurobiology. This technology helps expound the structure underlying the phenotypic organization. Through the conceptual organisation of these ideas, it is possible to know what psychopathology is and why it occurs. For example, this knowledge is effective in understanding that the genes are structured in functional systems.

They are inherited in groups that are parallel to the encoded protein functions. This method is more effective than the previous models in terms of a homogeneous approach. The study further suggests that genetic models can develop functions on how individuals in a family exhibit a given psychopathology pattern. This makes it easier to predict the next generation based on the resemblance of their potential environment. (Krueger & Markon, 2006). Knowledge of molecular genetics appears easy to use and effectively analyzes such cases as psychopathology in twins.

Similarly embodied cognition model makes use of technology to simulate the neural networks of a human brain. Sensorimotor is used to monitor the interaction of the individual with the environment using a homogeneous neuro substance. The sensorimotor patterns are made from a recursive function. This model is harmonious and is more effective globally than the p factor model (Claudia Venuleo et al., 2020). It is able to accomplish the diagnosis of mental pathology with ease and faster. It is also multi-purpose for all the human brain can be monitored irrespective of their condition.

. Cumulatively, the psychologists, pathologists and other scholars has had a role in the modernization of psychopathology as it is now. For example, Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a merge between cognitive and behavioral theories discussed above. It deals with the human mindset (thoughts and beliefs) and how it influences the personal moods and actions. Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck had their work combine the two ideologies, which was later to be a solution for mental disorder, especially on anxiety related disorders. Such knowledge from the past is also essential in the production of anti-psychotic drugs (Jutras, 2017). With the advancement of technology, such as the growing ‘internet of Things’ concept, more advancement in psychopathology research and treatment is expected. Automation helps in resolving many challenges in life, and psychopathology is not exceptional. Thus, psychologists and pathologists should put more effort into understanding technology and using every available opportunity to automate their solutions.

In conclusion, psychopathology is a field that has gradually grown over time. It started from a superstitious point of view where the patients were regarded to as demon-possessed individuals. This had an unfair treatment on those individuals varying from their segregation to the painful way of finding remedies. The 19th and 20th Centuries brought the significant insights that have been a ground for the current ideologies, drugs and research. The cognitive and behavioral approaches gave back to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), anti-psychotic drugs among other solutions. The theoretical models have been propagated by the availability of psychologists, pathologists, and other scholars. The diversified approaches have brought in contradictions and corrections to this remedy such as p-factor have been devised. The use of technology and molecular genetics have also been significant factors form homogeneous solutions. Personality psychology have also played a role in the understanding of the psychopathology concept.

Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers history assignment writing help: history assignment writing help

Commentary and adaptation of syllabus: Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (CertTESOL)






Today, many people demand English as a language of professional and business communication globally. English fluency is emerging as a must-have requirement if one is to achieve career development and entrepreneurship objectives. It has become a language of science and research (Trinity College London, 2016). As a result, people from all parts of the world are seeking to learn the English language. Therefore, English teachers need a practical syllabus that can help them satisfy learners’ needs as a second or third language. The Trinity CertTESOL is a teacher training syllabus developed for teachers with no or little experience in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) (Mishan and Timmis, 2015). Teachers participating in the CertTESOL course must be highly competent in written and spoken English and must possess the basic skills needed to teach English to speakers of other languages (Teach Abroad, 2021). This report evaluates the CertTESOL syllabus and suggests ideas to improve it.

Overview of CertTESOL syllabus

CertTESOL is a comprehensive English course consisting of five units. These units include teaching skills, language awareness and skills, learner profile, materials assignment, and unknown language. The learning units will also include other learning elements such as professional awareness and development courses, a reading list, tutorials, and assessment of the course units. Upon completion of this course, trainees should be able to demonstrate their knowledge of grammatical, phonological, and lexical features of Standard English, awareness of individual and group learning needs, ability to create and sustain learners’ interest, ability to stimulate and manage learners’ active participation in-class activities (Trinity College London, 2016). The learner must also assess, utilise and adapt published materials and develop teaching material upon completing the course. The CertTESOL syllabus enhances learners’ awareness of the need for continued development as ESOL teachers and how to find TESOL post after training (Teach Abroad, 2021).

CertTESOL is equal to both TESOL and TEFL certifications. Like TESOL certification, this course is practical with several activities designed for trainees lacking English teaching experience (Mishan and Timmis, 2015). These activities are also appropriate for trainees with some English teaching experience but lack formal training in either TESOL or TEFL field. On the other hand, CertTESOL is similar to the TEFL course. It familiarises the trainee with English teaching principles and helps them develop practical skills to teach appropriately. CertTESOL seminar sessions encompass TESOL theories and practices intended to develop the trainee’s language knowledge, preparedness to enter the TESOL industry and sharpen their teaching skills (Mishan and Timmis, 2015). Trainers of this course must have extensive experience teaching ESOL and preparing practical aspects of the course. CertTESOL classroom activities include learning to effectively use materials such as textbooks, audiovisual aids, and other supplementary materials.

CertTESOL learners’ profile

The learner is a 23-year-old Engineering female student from Italy. The learner acknowledges the benefit of studying English as an engineer. She believes that learning English will be essential in opening future job prospects. In class, she is a pleasant and attentive student. She comes from a biracial family and is the first person from her family to study abroad. As such, she has found it relatively challenging to adapt to the demands of her new setting. Despite coming from a non-English speaking country, the learner has a strong background in learning English. She began to learn English at the age of seven while attending a bilingual Italian-English school in Italy. She attended English classes till the age of 12. Currently, she is attending English classes in the United Kingdom as part of her preparation for the Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English. She has an approximately ninety-five percent attendance rate.

The learner’s preferred learning style encompasses multiple factors, including socio-cultural background, psychological and cognitive factors, and educational experiences. The learner is a Catholic Christian. However, she has relatively liberal views on many issues. Her education was mainly in Italy. During her earlier education, the learner exhibited an analytical brain that built a solid scientific foundation.

Nevertheless, the learner also had a keen interest in learning English. The learner exhibited a contentment demeanor and team player. She was able to work as a pair or in groups and showed a strong desire to listen to the teacher and take notes. The learner’s preferred learning style was that characterised by problem-solving, reading and taking notes, and listeners. The learner prefers to be corrected in private to immediately in front of colleagues. The learner also feels uncomfortable letting other students go through her work.

The personal desire to achieve is the main motivator of the learner. Motivation is generally defined as the effort, desire and attitudes towards achievement of a specific objective. In this regard, the learner’s motivation originates from the desire to learn English. Association with the English speaking culture is also a major motivator. Extrinsic motivational factors such as goals, career development opportunity, financial rewards and passing exams play vital role in learner’s desire to succeed. Success in learning tasks leads to satisfaction. Exams at the end of the semester and support from the family are also important motivational factors. The learner indicated that she was motivated for the future opportunity to travel and work in Canada or the United States.

As a result, the student was hugely motivated to learn English. These findings recommended that integrative and intrinsic factors helped the student to perform in English learning tasks.

Discussion of the syllabus and potential changes

The British Council accepts CertTESOL as primary TESOL or TEFL qualifications for English teaching in its accredited teaching centers. UK international teaching organisations also use this syllabus for their international teaching operations (Long and Doughty, 2009). In the meantime, Trinity independently moderate Trinity CertTESOL. Trinity ensures that the quality of training the learner receives is of highest standards. Significantly, CertTESOL syllabus nurtures the learner to perform a wide range of tasks. For instance, it acts as a guide towards development of the learner’s practical, knowledge-based skills and analytical skills. The five units under this course enable the learner to become a student to reflect on their experiences with learning language (Trinity College London, 2016). The syllabus also provides an opportunity for the learners to observe experienced teachers and reflect on how the lessons should be delivered, evaluated and new recommendations decided. The syllabus also provides justification for the learning approaches and materials.

CertTESOL minimises pressure that English teachers often face in preparing foreign students. Though CertTESOL involves an enormous amount of work and information, the experience and practical skills gained from this course make it easier to lead English classes as an instructor (Trinity College London, 2016). However, one cannot ignore the amount of written work that CertTESOL trainees must complete during the course. These works include four written assignments which amount to approximately 12000 words. The assignment specifications are often broad and encompass personal understanding, critical reviews and reflective writing. Another assignment is about the learner profile which reviews the background of the learner, first language, learning styles, learning needs and techniques to address the needs. Murray and Christison (2011) indicated that learner profile assignment is the most challenging for many learners. To address this problem, the trainees must develop appropriate work schedule and prepare adequately.

CertTESOL emphasizes the value of lesson planning and time management. Apart from completing the assignments, this course also involves preparing and submitting full lesson plans on the 5 units taught in this course (Trinity College London, 2016). The instructors expect the learners to deliver quality lesson plans which cover all areas from the beginning of the course. Also, learners must take notes and familiarise themselves with the teaching routines and lesson structures. These lesson structures and teaching routines can be used in future classes. Reflective writing is another important element of CertTESOL course. Learners are advised to challenge themselves and write on their observations of teaching, participation in unknown language lessons and class assignments. This course therefore focuses on improving the learner’s ability to reflect on what they are doing and make appropriate improvements. Murray and Christison (2011) showed that reflection was an important part of being a successful or effective teacher. Reflection also allows the learner to acknowledge that mistakes are part of learning and they must always find ways to make things better.

CertTESOL primarily focuses in the trainees’ concerns and challenges and comparison of their abilities to perform certain tasks. Ellis (2005) criticised this approach linking it low self-esteem and failure to recognise other skills that the learner may possess. Also, researchers found that international teacher candidates in teacher education course suffer from self-perceived low English proficiency. Sometimes, the students lacked the British schooling experiences and understandings that could negatively impact on their overall learning outcomes. These students were also pressurized to unlearn their old cultures and learn everything afresh. To solve these problems and achieve improved learning outcomes, the syllabus should focus on improving learning experiences. Educators can achieve improved program experience by focusing on techniques that enhance self-confidence and self-perception, ensuring equity and collaboration in access to learning and improving awareness (Murray and Christison, 2011). Educators can also modify practicums and develop new aspects of language proficiency.

Despite the huge workload, studies observed that there were still many learning areas which were not taught within classroom contexts. In this regard, this report recommends that tutors should explain the teaching objectives at the beginning of the course. This can help to lower the expectations of the trainees, avoid resistance and achieve realistic goals (Long and Doughty, 2009). As teachers aim to influence the future teacher practices of trainees, they should believe in the power that they possess in changing the perspectives of their students. Due to this, this report suggested that teachers leverage on critical evaluation skills to ensure that all the course participants are able to effectively apply what they have learnt and mastered the teaching contexts. The report suggested that educators should carefully deliberate the course content and encourage critical thinking among students. The educators must embrace the value of technology in contemporary learning. For instance, they should promote information sharing about cultural, linguistic and social background differences (Ellis, 2005). The new information should promote learning.

Learners are interested in knowing how the course will help them develop. In this case, the educators should ensure that the students understand the course content and how the lessons learnt will help them develop. The educator must also remind the students of the attitudes, behaviours and values that they must change to achieve their goals (Long and Doughty, 2009). The educator should also communicate the nature of the course and its content to the administrators. Apart from informing the students, a good syllabus should also provide a course record to colleagues who may teach it in the future. Sharing of the course content can improve institutional curriculum planning and support effective assessment of the program effectiveness and objectives. This report also recommends clarification of the evaluation and grading procedures and scales. Students’ evaluation procedures and criteria should be clear (Murray and Christison, 2011). The students should know how they will be graded, policies regarding deadlines and penalties for late submission of assignments. It is therefore important for the teachers to faithfully comply with the policies and requirements set in the syllabus. A good syllabus should clarify the responsibilities of every stakeholder. In this regard, teachers must also make sure that they meet deadlines and implement all the course requirements.


The goal of this report was to establish effectiveness of CertTESOL syllabus in teaching English and how the educators and administrators could improve its effectiveness. From the analysis it is evident that a good syllabus should be based on specific goals, have unique components and answer crucial learning questions. The syllabus must also be focused in addressing the student needs. The learner profile highlighted the uniqueness of a single student. The learner profile helps us in understanding the individualism associated with learning objectives. As such, the trainer should always strive to improve their understanding of individual students. Many people criticised CertTESOL for the workload and lack of focus on individual students’ needs. However, this report provided important insights into how to demand success from the CertTESOL course.



Ellis, R. (2005). Principles of instructed language learning. System, 33(2), 209-224.

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Canadian Model of Occupational Performance do my history assignment

The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement (CMOP-E) is a word-related execution model developed from the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP). The CMOP-E incorporates three fundamental parts: individual, climate, and occupation. In this model, the internal part addresses “Individual,” and its middle is the otherworldliness of an individual. Different parts encompassing an individual’s otherworldliness are emotional, physical, and intellectual capacities. The middle of the road circle addresses “Occupation,” which the individual performs in the climate and incorporates three spaces of self-care, efficiency, and relaxation. The furthest circle addresses the outer “Climate,” including the customer’s physical, social, social, and institutional climate. The communication between the individual, climate, and occupation brings about word-related execution, which is the individual’s capacity to perform occupations and everyday commitment. When contrasted with the CMOP, the CMOP-E goes past word-related execution to cover the idea of the word-related commitment. This development identifies how this model can empower customers to pick and play out their significant occupations in their current circumstances. In assessment, word-related advisors can utilize the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) to recognize the degree of trouble in the customer’s word-related execution. The customer can likewise offer scores to the degree of fulfillment and execution of those recognized troublesome occupations. Word-related specialists are in this manner ready to give treatment as per the customer’s individual necessities. This will assist word-related advisors in creating customer-focused treatment plans. It will likewise permit the customer to arrange and increment their inspiration and consistency in treatment.