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A potential transnational security threat summary ap art history homework help: ap art history homework help

 

Introduction

A potential transnational security threat that is of interest to me is Transnational Organized Crime, more specifically: the illegal, unregulated, and unlicensed fishing (unreported and unregulated) which harms biodiversity, as well as the security of the food supply, water quality and availability, and animal and human health. I chose this topic, knowing minimal information about it, yet I would love to dive deeper and discover more research, seeing as Global Climate Change is a very serious issue at hand and biodiversity is already being affected. Illegal fishing on top of the suffering Climate Change is inflicting on the Earth, these illegal actions may just exacerbate the process. This then affects international human security for when food supply, water quality/availability, biodiversity and etc. becomes thrown off, the survival, livelihood of people are at risk.

There are those who have already taken measures to address this particular transnational security threat. So far we have nonprofit organizations such as National Geographic, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Wildlife Conservation Society, and the African Wildlife Foundation who have called to action in response to this threat. There are government organizations such as USAID and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) have also been doing their part in working to mitigate wildlife poaching and illegal fishing[1]. The United States tends to natural life dealing and illicit fishing through the Eliminate, Neutralize, and Disrupt (END) Wildlife Trafficking Act of 2016 and the U.S. Official Executive Order on Enforcing Federal Laws with Respect to Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International Trafficking 2017[2]. This paper will also cover how the international community is responding to the matter as well.

Illegal fishing is one of the world’s most critical challenges today, influencing a large number of individuals and a great many natural life species, and it’s a pressing matter that needs to be addressed if we want a future for humanity.

[1] Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Stefano Mammola, Pedro Cardoso, Global wildlife trade permeates the Tree of Life, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108503, 247, (108503), (2020).

[2] Wyatt, T., Johnson, K., Hunter, L. et al. Corruption and Wildlife Trafficking: Three Case Studies Involving Asia. Asian Criminology 13, 35–55 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-017-9255-8

The Wildlife Conservation Society Sampled summary art history essay help

There are those who have already taken measures to address this particular transnational security threat. So far we have nonprofit organizations such as National Geographic, World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the Wildlife Conservation Society, and the African Wildlife Foundation who have called to action in response to this threat. There are government organizations such as USAID and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) have also been doing their part in working to mitigate wildlife poaching and illegal fishing[1]. The United States tends to natural life dealing and illicit fishing through the Eliminate, Neutralize, and Disrupt (END) Wildlife Trafficking Act of 2016 and the U.S. Official Executive Order on Enforcing Federal Laws with Respect to Transnational Criminal Organizations and Preventing International Trafficking 2017[2]. This paper will also cover how the international community is responding to the matter as well.

Illegal fishing is one of the world’s most critical challenges today, influencing a large number of individuals and a great many natural life species, and it’s a pressing matter that needs to be addressed if we want a future for humanity.

[1] Caroline Sayuri Fukushima, Stefano Mammola, Pedro Cardoso, Global wildlife trade permeates the Tree of Life, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108503, 247, (108503), (2020).

[2] Wyatt, T., Johnson, K., Hunter, L. et al. Corruption and Wildlife Trafficking: Three Case Studies Involving Asia. Asian Criminology 13, 35–55 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11417-017-9255-8

NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL/HUMAN SECURITY history assignment help: history assignment help

the severity of the threat and why it is important for national/international/human security

Firstly, we have to define illegal, unregulated, and unlicensed fishing (unreported and unregulated). According to the FAO, illegal fishing is, “conducted by national or foreign vessels in waters under the jurisdiction of a State, without the permission of that State, or in contravention of its laws and regulations… It is in violation of national laws or international obligations, including those undertaken by cooperating States to a relevant regional fisheries management organization.”[1](FAO, 2021). It’s essential that it’s known that it’s not the same as overfishing. Unreported fishing, which has not been accounted for, or has been distorted, to the applicable public position, in repudiation of public laws and guidelines; or are, embraced in the space of fitness of pertinent territorial fisheries the board association which has not been accounted for or have been distorted, in the negation of the announcing strategies of that association (FAO, 2021). Lastly, unregulated fishing occurs in areas for fish stocks for which there are no applicable conservation or management measures and where such fishing activities are conducted in a manner inconsistent with State responsibilities for the conservation of living marine resources under international law (FAO, 2021).

[1] What is IUU fishing? (2021). Food and Agricultural Organization. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/iuu-fishing/background/what-is-iuu-fishing/en/

How illegal fishing happens, what are the roots of its actions? ap us history essay help

We look at why illegal fishing happens, what are the roots of its actions?

Our seas are in chronic weakness, experiencing the effects of environmental change, contamination and overfishing. “Some 33.1% of the world’s fish populations are overfished, 60% are being fished to their biologically sustainable limit, with the remaining 7% considered “underfished”, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).” [1](Aldred, 2019).

In precise, illegal fishing is an economic crime supported by the advancing global demand for fish and other sea products, as well as the globalization of the marketplace. A few fishers skirt the law in quest for higher catch, exploiting patchy guideline of the commercial fishing industry and helpless requirement systems adrift. Illegal fishing truly has been a generally safe, exceptional yield movement[2]. That is, the odds of being gotten are moderately low just like the expenses of fines and indictment, especially when contrasted with the immense benefits that can be made by selling the fish. The dangers are worth taking in light of the fact that the prizes are immense and the odds of being gotten, little. Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing happens around the world, both inside nations’ selective monetary zones and on the high oceans. Subsidies to vessel proprietors and the fishing industry in created nations and an absence of political will to decrease the size of homegrown fishing fleets have prompted significant overabundance limit (an excessive number of boats getting too hardly any fish, or vessels that are so enormous and incredible that their capacity to get fish dominates the limit of the fish to recharge their stocks). Customarily, as waterfront territories become overfished on account of this overcapacity, these vessels move to the high oceans and into the waters of third nations – the vast majority of which are agricultural nations.

[1] Jessica Aldred November 21, 2. (2019, November 25). Explainer: Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Retrieved April 22, 2021, from https://chinadialogueocean.net/11813-explainer-illegal-unreported-and-unregulated-fishing/

[2] Rizzolo, J.B., Gore, M.L., Ratsimbazafy, J.H. et al. Cultural influences on attitudes about the causes and consequences of wildlife poaching. Crime Law Soc Change 67, 415–437 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9665-