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The Two Sagas of the Epic of Gilgamesh

The Two Sagas of Gilgamesh

Western literature has few epics of any real greatness: readers can probably name most of them and count them on their hands with a few fingers left over. Of these, The Epic of Gilgamesh is by far the oldest. The standard version of the epic grandfathers Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey by centuries. But what does it mean to call Gilgamesh an epic? By the standards of Homer’s outline of an epic, Gilgamesh’s tale could be seen as two distinctly different, yet drawn together sagas.

“There is a hero of great national or even universal importance in a vast canvas, a setting that may be the whole world or larger.” In the beginning we are introduced to our hero as not only the great king of Uruk, son of the goddess Ninsun and the great king, Lugalbanda, but also a great tyrant who became a hero. From the beginning of his story this man is destined for a fantastic journey that spans the worlds beyond what any of his peasants can dream to see. We are told that he is more godly than not, yet still must suffer the same fate as all mortals. With destiny set against his mortal, or physical life Gilgamesh must take the journey to the great cedar forest of Lebanon where he will prove his superior strength (and favor from the gods) to the world.

“The plot involves battles involving superhuman deeds or a long, difficult journey while gods or other supernatural beings are interested and involved.” Gilgamesh does encounter all of these things. Not once, but twice. In the first part of this tale he battles Humbaba, the feared giant who protects the trees of the cedar forest. Alongside him is his trusted friend, Enkido. Enkido was made by the gods, an equal of Gilgamesh which they planted in the wild as a man to grow strong in the wild of the animals. It is after Enkido has become Gilgamesh’s friend that he complains of feeling weak from civilization, and gives Gilgamesh the idea of conquering something great to reclaim his strength and perpetuate their names. In this task they are also helped by Shamash; the god responsible for the cedar forest because he takes pity on Gilgamesh’s mortality. Yet his story does not end at the defeat of Humbaba. Nor does it stop at the return of the mighty king of Uruk.

Marijuana Research Paper Exploratory Essays Research Papers

Marijuana Research Paper My hopes of doing this research project were to specifically determine what effects marijuana in combination with different substances had on the body. I also decided to determine the differences between marijuana and tobacco, due to the high misconceptions about both of them in society today. First of all, I had begun to due research specifically on the subject “Is marijuana more dangerous than tobacco,” but due to the lack of information, I had to broaden my topic. I now understand which one is more dangerous and, for the most part, the long term affects. Through both animal and human testings, it has been proven that marijuana impairs lung functions to a greater extent than tobacco cigarettes do. But, this does not necessarily mean that marijuana users are putting themselves at more risk persay. Actually, a typical marijuana user will smoke maybe two cigarettes a day, whereas a typical tobacco-user will smoke between forty and sixty cigarettes in the same period. Now, the effects of the two have changed roles. Marijuana may have more tar in it, but at the usage rate in society today, tobacco-users put themselves at a much larger risks. Also, there is a chemical called benzopyrene that is 70% more abundant in marijuana than tobacco. This chemical is believed to cause and produce cancer. Tobacco has the same dangerous chemicals in it, yet the main one that it lacks that marijuana has is THC. THC, more specifically known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is the drug that produces the “high” feeling that so many marijuana users become accustomed to. Marijuana usually does not contain more than 1 percent of THC. There are stronger drugs related to THC, such as “hash oil”, which can contain up to a 28 percent THC level. There have been some cases where “street” marijuana has been found to contain up to 5 percent THC content. That is very potent for normal marijuana, and is probably very hard to come by in the United States. Other countries seem to use different forms of THC related drugs such as hashish, and hemp. Both of these contain more THC than marijuana. As far as long term effects of tobacco and marijuana go, they are about the same. Cancer should appear in the lungs of a tobacco-user earlier due to the amount the tobacco-user smokes in relation to a normal marijuana smoker. There have been many assumptions that marijuana will cause long term brain damage and so on, but, clinically, none of this has ever been proven. In fact, in a college survey, the students who use the drug regularly possessed a higher GPA than those who do not use. This is an entire different subject, but it was interesting to learn. Both tobacco and marijuana contain tar. Marijuana contains a little more and will actually “feel” heavier on the lungs after smoking. Tar has been found to produce tumors on the skin of animals that it is applied to. Cancer has definitely been related to smoking and is the largest killer in the United States today. Thus, marijuana contains more of the dangerous cancer causing chemicals than tobacco does. Although this would constitute marijuana as being more “dangerous,” in the society we live in today and the amount of tobacco that tobacco-users consume, this belief is on the contrary. Due to the smaller frequency use of product by marijuana-users, tobacco has definitely been proven the “killer” in today’s society. Additionally, one of the predominant mixes of today is the use of both marijuana and alcohol in combination. Alcohol has already proven to be a “lethal” drug, especially when driving, but together with marijuana, the effects are much greater than either drug alone. As in a comparison between both of them, alcohol has many more damages to the human body and mental psyche than marijuana. Both drugs can become dependent upon, and the effects can be life destroying. Alcohol, as a physical harm places stress upon the body that could make it react by not eating. Alcohol depletes the body of certain vitamins and minerals, causing an unsteady diet. It also wreaks havoc on the bowel movements! As far as marijuana goes, there may be a little redness in the eyes and gaining in weight. The gaining in weight is due to the conception of the “munchies” as many marijuana smokers experience after usage of the drug. Reasons for both of their uses are different, but that really doesn’t matter in the scheme of this paper. As one book supplied a very nice bit of information concerning the usage of these drugs together. Marijuana and ethanol (alcohol) not only modify mental and psychomotor performance but also influence physiological parameters. Alcohol on the subject of driving is more critical also. Although the effects of driving under the influence of marijuana may seem harmful, as listed in my annotations, the fact still stands clear that more accidents are caused by drunk drivers than any other drug or combinations of them. Most of the information I found on the effects of driving under the influence of marijuana were very negative, but they just didn’t seem to make sense since so few accidents are caused by driving under the influence of this drug. One book said, more or less, that there is good evidence that marijuana interferes with driving skills and is a significant factor in erratic driving. That seems like a valid statement. But, another source stated, astonishingly enough after an experimentation , that the experienced marijuana smokers showed “no” impairment of performance in their driving ability. The opposite held true for the counterparts of inexperienced marijuana smokers, but this fact was very contradicting to everything else I had read to this point. There it was, in black in white, researched and everything, that there was “no” impairment of performance in the marijuana smokers driving ability under the influence of the drug. Only one conclusion could be made from that. Driving under the influence of marijuana is a learned skill. I guess Cheech and Chong had it mastered!!! Finally, on to a more personal note. Marijuana and combinations with other drugs have been growing around the colleges for years. I always thought–yeah, yeah, all the parties and events that go on are the places to find them. This assumption was definitely correct, both at Ann Arbor and in Lansing. The surveys were 100% correct with the information that alcohol and marijuana are the highest used drug combination. There are also many other drugs coming back into popularity from both the past and new ones. A new combination that I have heard about is Nitrous (laughing gas) combined with marijuana use. It is supposedly a potent combination and could call for more research. I did a little on my own and found out a couple of things. Nitrous-Oxide, which is normally found in dentist offices all over, is a mixture of nitrous and oxygen and is used to put a patient to sleep for surgical reasons. The other kind going around in circulation is pure nitrous, with out the oxygen compound. The gas found at the dentists office is supposedly safe, as I consulted with a dentist on this topic, but the nitrous in pure form is thought to kill brain cells. Although I didn’t get too far into this research, I found it interesting. I was just curious because the word around is that it is an intense “high.” In no way am I implying that I have experienced any of this! In conclusion, marijuana, especially in combination with alcohol, is a very dangerous drug. After the effects were compared, I changed my point of view on the drug altogether. It may cause more damage to the body than tobacco, but the amount of tobacco smoked by far ough, or especially up to date, on the affects of marijuana that I could make the great decision of whether it should be legalized or not. After all, that is the main goal of all of these papers.

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