Get help from the best in academic writing.

The Two Best Stretches For Lower Back Pain Ib History Essay Help

The Two Best Stretches for Lower Back Pain

Suffering from lower back pain can be a painful and deliberating condition. There are many causes of lower back pain; the most common are disk issues, spasms, and muscle strains. It’s hard to live your best life when suffering from chronic pain. You may desire to maximize your performance and achieve your goals. However, if you are in pain, it could be hard to focus.

Many people seek advanced interventions for back pain, including strong pain medications and surgery to help them alleviate back pain. The good news is that you can alleviate back pain with simple exercises and back stretches. Incorporating a stretching routine into your daily life can help to improve flexibility, loosen the muscles, and strengthen the spine.

Backstretches are just as effective as or even more effective than other methods of treating back pain. A major advantage of stretches is that they provide a natural pain relief solution; you don’t have to stuff your body with medications or undergo surgery. Some of the best stretches for alleviating back pain are:

Knee-to-Chest Stretch

In most cases, lower back pain occurs due to hip tightness. You can relieve this pain by stretching your lower back, hamstrings, and glutes. To perform this stretch, lie on your back while bending your knees and keeping your feet on the floor. Using both hands, hold your right leg just above the knees. Pull your right knee towards up to your chest while keeping your left leg on the floor. You should raise your right knee until you feel a stretch on your lower back. Ensure that you keep the right knee raised for 30-60 cases while relaxing your lower back, legs, and hips.

Release your right knee and repeat the procedure with your left knee. Repeat this stretch three times for every leg. You can make the stretch more effective by bringing both your knees to the chest at the same time.

Pelvic Tilt

You can release tight back muscles and maintain their flexibility using the pelvic tilt stretch. To perform this tilt, you should lie on your back with your knees bent, your arms by your side, and your feet flat on the floor. Arch your lower back gently as you push your stomach outwards. Lift your pelvis towards the floor as you tighten your buttock and abdominal muscles.

If you incorporate stretches in your lifestyle, you will notice a great improvement in low back pain.

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently






CHANGES IN INTELLIGENCE GATHERING IN THE USA AND SOVIET UNION university history essay help: university history essay help


The cold war resulted in the formation of the USA intelligence department. It is during the Cold war period that the USA formulated and created the intelligence community. Nevertheless, intelligence has remained as the work of the government since the foundation of the Republic. Despite experiencing numerous challenges in its functions over time, the USA intelligence served a vital role in giving substantial military support and shaping the USA’s policies towards those of other countries.[1] On the other hand, the Soviet Union’s intelligence community started with the Cheka-secret police formulated in 1917 by Bolsheviks. The Union continued to rename its intelligence institutions like in 1922-renamed Cheka into GPU-State Political Administration and in 1934 into NKVD-People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs. The last Soviet Union’s recognition of its intelligence took place when they formulated KGB in 1954.[2] The essay seeks to present the changes in intelligence gathering in the USA and the Soviet Union.

Russia assembles its intelligence regarding other countries from two primary sources that include undercover agents and secret informants. Besides, the Russians gather their intelligence from legitimate sources that include the military, published materials, parliamentary debates records and scientific journals. However, the only intelligence that Russians take as genuine originates from the secret informants and undercover agents that defy stringent and strict foreign laws to carry out their work. On the contrary, the USA regards the intelligence from publications more than that from the undercover sources. Such occurrences illustrate the difference between Russian intelligence and Western intelligence. Both Russia and the USA intelligence communities always seek to determine the secret capabilities, strategic plans and intentions of other countries, but they never handle the information similarly.[3] The Russians belief indirect procurement of the secrets of such information directly from the government in question its classified files through stealing. In contrast, the USA only beliefs and relies on legally obtained documents as a form of intelligence. The USA monitors communication channels, open materials concerning other countries’ economy, finances, agriculture, industries, trade and population and many other things. The intelligence community uses such information to write a report that benefits the policymakers. Consequently, the USA beliefs that intelligence does not involve the sinister or mysterious issues of individual think. Still, it consists of assembling myriad facts, forms a pattern from them and creates inferences from such trends. Therefore, open sources of information serve as the pillar for the doctrine of America intelligence community.

The first line on the Russian political intelligence involves the diplomatic intelligence that keeps the government informed of all secrets of capitalistic states, contemplated moves and their true intentions towards Russia.[4] Such agents include foreign secretaries, ambassadors and code clerks. The second line of intelligence in Russia is to obtain information on the western military posture, the strength of their forces, firepower, modernization and advancement. Economic intelligence is the line of Russian intelligence that controls the import and export operations. The misinformation forms the fourth line of the Russian intelligence community. Such intelligence seeks to mislead and misinform foreign governments on Russia’s intentions and position on external matters. Infiltration into intelligence services and security agencies of foreign states is the fifth line of  Russian’s intelligence. The secret agents occupying various positions in foreign government form the sixth line of intelligence for Russia. Industrial intelligence is the seventh line of Russian intelligence. On the other hand, the USA has not divided its intelligence like the Soviet Union they contain the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the lonely body responsible for all forms of intelligence.

In the USA George Washington pioneered the utilization of intelligence agents in 1790 when Congress formulated the Contingent Fund for foreign intercourse. Before the formation of the intelligence community, the USA leadership created their spy networks that later resulted in the creation of the secret service bureau.[5] In 1863, the Union forces formed the primary professional intelligence organization known as the Bureau of military intelligence. The organization prepared reports on the strengths of the confederate forces during the civil war. After the war, the organization dissolved, resulting in the formation of the secret service in 1865. Therefore, the earlier intelligence organizations in the USA only focused on assembling information to support the forces only. In 1882, the Navy formed the Naval Intelligence office to gather information during war and peacetime. President Theodore Roosevelt intensified the use of intelligence in the USA by using it to annex Panama revolutions and to cruise the vast white fleet. In 1908, the USA formed the Justice Department Bureau of Investigation after members of Congress complained of secret agents spying on them. In 1917, the USA army formulated the US signals intelligence known as the MI-8 to decode military communications and give codes for the military to use. In 1919, the M-8 agency became the Black Chamber focused on diplomacy issues and not military communications. Towards the Second World War, the USA saw the increased need for intelligence information. President Truman created the central intelligence group (CIG), making the commencement of the actual intelligence community in the USA until today’s FBI.

In conclusion, Russia and the USA regard the value of intelligence highly. They both seek to establish the secret intentions and plans of foreign countries, but they hand the information differently. Russian intelligence believes in stealing classified files from the foreign government as a form of intelligence through their secret agents and undercover agents. The USA believes in obtaining its intelligence from open sources and legally acquired documents. Both the Russian and USA intelligence community have evolved to their status currently.


McNeil, Phyllis Provost. “Anthology: The Evolution of the US Intelligence Community-An Historical Overview”. John Wiley &Sons. Pp. 24-52., 1963.

Orlov, Alexander. “Anthology: The Theory and Practice of Soviet Intelligence: Studies in Intelligence” Vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons. pp.529-539., 1963.


[1] McNeil, Phyllis Provost. “Anthology: The Evolution of the US Intelligence Community-An Historical Overview”. John Wiley &Sons. Pp. 24-52., 1963.

[2] Orlov, Alexander. “Anthology: The Theory and Practice of Soviet Intelligence: Studies in Intelligence” Vol. 7, John Wiley & Sons. pp. 529-539., 1963.



[3] Ibid., 530.

[4] Ibid ., 534.

[5] McNeil, Phyllis Provost. “Anthology: The Evolution of the US Intelligence Community-An Historical Overview”. John Wiley &Sons. Pp. 24-52., 1963.

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professionalPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

The theme of cultural difference in the Squatter. history assignment help company

Two different authors can come up with two various literary works that have a different flow of the story and different themes. However, there is an element in the story that may be distinct, even though the authors do not speak about the same thing. This aspect is distinct in The Yellow Wall Pater, and Squatter, which are two different literary works by entirely different authors. Looking into some of the themes in these works, the aspect of illness and medical practice is evident, as they appear in the subject of women’s subordination in marriage and self-expression, in The Yellow Wallpaper, and the theme of cultural difference in the Squatter.

In “The Yellow Wallpaper,” Charlotte Perkins Gilman brings out the subordination of married women as one of the primary themes. In this theme, the author uses the tale of psychological horror to critique the position that women held in their marriages, mainly as it was practiced by the people who lived during her time. Women were considered as people whose work was to take care of their families and look after their children, as they prepared dinner in time for their husbands to find it ready when they came back home from work. Women were not allowed to participate in any income-earning activity, as they were seen as the weaker sex. In this book, the narrator has a condition referred to as neurasthenia. This condition is characterized by extreme excitability and nervous exhaustion because she has a nervous depression. The prescription, Weir Mitchell, will allow the narrator to resume her usual position in the household, as the narrator says, “John says if I don’t pick up faster, he shall send me to

Weir Mitchell in the fall” (Gilman 4). Therefore, this story by Gilman brings out the fact that the position of women in their marriages made them work so hard in their homes to the extent that they had a nervous breakdown. Women were seen as the weaker sex who would not handle much of the work that was in store for them, and that is why working so hard made them break down to those degrees. The story relates to women with weak nerves, and this relationship is always highlighted in medical practice. The concept of nervousness among females has still dominated the medical theory for so many years, in regards to the position of women in society.

The second theme that the author brings out is the essence of self-expression. The mental constraints that the author places on the narrator drives her crazy. As much as the narrator is married, she has to hide her fears and anxiety to preserve the façade that defines her marriage. The narrator is not mentally excellent, but she has to hide behind her mental state, and this shows that women did not have an opportunity to express themselves. Therefore, they have to hide in their mysteries, even though they are hurting. The narrator is depressed, and because she is a woman, she cannot express herself in that sense. From the beginning of the book, the most intolerable concept of the narrator’s treatment is the mandatory idleness and silence of the “resting cure.” The narrator is forced to be passive and is not allowed to exercise her mind. Besides, she is not allowed to write anything, and she is also warned many times that she should exercise self-control and let it rein in her imagination (Gilman 5). Maybe for the narrator, she felt that the right way she would use to relieve the tension from her mind was through writing. As the narrator says, “I sometimes think that if I were only well enough to write a little, it would relieve the press of ideas and rest me” (Hawthorne 62). The eventual insanity of the narrator is the repression of her power to imagine, and not how she can express herself. Thus, there is a close relationship between the state of mind of the narrator, her place in the society as a woman, and the extent to which she can express herself. It is evident that illness is distinct in this theme, and it brings out how the narrator shows herself through her condition.

In “Squatter” by Rohinton Mistry, the story revolves around cultural differences as well as the experiences that the migrants underwent. Despite its wit and the and the subject matter that relates to the toilet, the author uses the story in the book as a reflection on the drawbacks that relate to migration, and bring up a pessimistic notion of the repercussion of cultural differences on the psyche and identity of people. The distinct theme in Squatter is the issue of cultural differences and the experiences of the immigrants. Mistry demonstrates this issue by asking if it is possible to embrace a foreign culture fully. One of the characters, Sarosh, is not able to adapt to the western toilets, because he is used to squatting, and this aspect demonstrates the difficulties that some migrants have to face. At the same time, they shed their previous experiences, and embrace the culture of the foreign land (Eustace 30). The troubles of Sarosh extend beyond the toilet and affect the other aspects of his life in the foreign area. Sarosh also loses his job, and this indicates the cultural differences that can cause mental instability in a migrant.

Sarosh depicts daily and desperate exertion of sitting on the toilet “to push and grunt, grunt and push, squirming and writhing unavailingly” (Farooque 159). These actions leave him depressed and miserable. With misery and depression, Sarosh has to sink deep in solitude, and this makes him feel sick because he does not have a social life. He is always nervous about the next move that he has to take, and therefore he still fears what will happen to him next. The author has brought out the aspect of losing one’s identity in a foreign land, which may completely disorient the stability of an individual. The disorientation causes some state of illness, which if not looked into keenly, creates a mental breakdown.

From the two stories, the issue of illness and medical practice are distinct in the themes of women and subordination in their marriages, as well as self-expression from, The Yellow Wallpaper, and cultural differences, from Squatter. These aspects show how two different writers can use different themes and point out the same issue. Gilman and Mistry had various books, with an entirely different flow of their stories and different themes, but in some of their themes, illness and medical practice are well represented. With The Yellow Wallpaper, the narrator underwent nervous breakdown and sunk into a depression because of her position in the society as a woman, and the daily chores that she had to carry out. With the Squatter, Sarosh goes through the same situation because of the identity that she seeks in a foreign land, and the cultural difference that she has to embrace.

Works Cited

Eustace, John. “Deregulating the Evacuated Body: Rohinton Mistry’s “Squatter.” Studies in          Canadian Literature/Études en littérature Canadienne (2003).


Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “The Broadview Anthology of Fiction.” 2004

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professionalPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

Financing from Overseas history assignment help in uk: history assignment help in uk

Theme 2: Financing from Overseas

The majority of the respondents have noted to source their finances from overseas. Overseas financing included merging with subsidiaries in other countries, friends and associates in different countries, and investors. Interviewee C1 noted, “I did try to talk to, and I did talk to quite a lot of western investors in Europe and America.” This is an indication that collaborating with international companies would be a significant source of financial resources in implementing their venture.” Similar findings were evident in the information provided by the respondents. The various sources of financing their operations exploited by the organizations are informed by the need to have a sufficient amount of cash flow or working capital as an essential element of a sustainable business.

Table 2

Summary of Interviewee Opinions and Strategies of Acquiring and Managing Working Capital to Grow Business


Strategies for Acquiring and Managing Working Capital to Grow Business

Using the resources gathered from their previous occupation and engaging foreign partners

Partnership and support from government institutions

Engaging partners in previous occupation and investors and plowing back profits from initial company operations

Using the resources gathered from their previous occupation and engaging foreign partners

Borrowing from banks, partners, and friends to top-up personal finances

Consolidating finances with the wife and sourcing finances from international conglomerates

Attracting investors to be part of the business, supporting entrepreneurial activity

Engaging partners and organizations interested in humanitarian responsibilities and plans

Theme 3: Collaborative Relationship with Suppliers and Customers

An entrepreneur engages a wide array of stakeholders in managing working capital. With this in mind, the interviewees were asked how they establish a working relationship with both their suppliers and customers. A common recurring theme from the respondents is that they normally get involved in revenue sharing with suppliers and customers.

Nevertheless, an analysis of the different findings demonstrated the existence of mixed views.  The majority of the respondents (C1, C2, C4, C5, C6, C7, and C8) indicated that they made prioritization of their suppliers and customers for the working capital management.  This means that the respondents agreed to the view that an entrepreneur must possess the capability of interacting actively with their suppliers and customers for sourcing resources.  Interviewee C1, for instance, contended with the view by noting that “having more mature people in the businesses you appear to be much bigger than anyone that this is a much bigger company because these guys are there, we know their chemistry like many industries you get to know people.”  To support this view, respondent C3 observed that for the customers “from us managing the personal relationship, so you have to have an account before you do it” while for the suppliers, the respondent noted that “the biggest help I got was from the suppliers because I am not buying products I am buying solutions, so suppliers were willing to provide their solutions to customize, provide the service, and then I pay them after I get paid.” Nevertheless, C4 noted on the existence of a win-win situation where the contractors have to pay back for the services offered by the suppliers with C5 noting the need to have a detailed association with the small and big names to ensure that they are successful in their engagements.

To develop and maintain a collaborative relationship with the suppliers and customers, it is evident from the respondents that companies must segment them, implement interaction models, and set rules of engagement. In the IT sector, success is dependent on the level of collaborative partnerships established between customers and suppliers. This is not always the case as often, issues emerge with customers and suppliers, leading to problems in operations to drive significant gain in resource productivity and, eventually, growth. It is this view that influenced Interviewee C6 to observe the dynamic characteristic of their suppliers and customers complicating their capability of maintaining a progressive win-win relationship hindering the attainment of successful working capital management. In particular, the respondent observed, “So what they did was they affiliated themselves with Boston University, and they brought the curriculum from Boston University to West Africa. And hence it was called the American University of Africa, particularly Equatorial Guinea being an oil and gas producing nation; they had more of an alignment with America.”  This means that stakeholders from one region would not be in a position of serving a client or a stakeholder in a different region due to diversity in their understanding and knowledge they possessed.

A recurring theme, in this case, is the criticality and the desired level of availability of stakeholders irrespective of their roles of the capability of guiding an organization in attaining their short and long-term goals. Interviewee C7 who noted a plausible example, “I leverage other people, so I leverage people at meager contribution rates so that I can get to where I want to go.” This was equally supported by interviewee C8 who observed that “we are working with the people who are interested in funding us in terms of letting them decide the marketing channels in terms of how they want to do that and so that is.”The people in this context represent the suppliers and customers who are consistently engaged with sufficient resources being availed for, ensuring that they are successful in their role. The reviewed literature has supported these views by the respondents about the strategies implemented to establish a working relationship with both suppliers and customers for acquisition and working capital management. Tehseen and Ramayah (2015) study, for instance, observed that entrepreneurs should be competent for managing relationships with their customers and suppliers to gain a competitive advantage. Chen et al. (2015) equally maintained that it is essential to allocate resources that guide an entrepreneurial venture to interact with the suppliers and customers for successful integration of the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and business success, which can be improved successfully.

Table 3

Strategies Implemented in establishing a working relationship with suppliers and customers to acquire and manage working capital to grow business in MENA.

Strategies for Implementing Working Relationship with Suppliers and Customers

Favorable remuneration to suppliers provided they abide to set regulations, special relationships between the customers and stakeholders

Ensuring that available revenues are actively shared with the suppliers and customers

Active engagement of both the suppliers and customers to understand their needs during financing level

Having elaborate policies between the suppliers and customers to ensure their engagement ina productive environment

Suppliers unique to the organization with customer engagement dependent on their effectiveness

Equal revenue sharing to customers and suppliers

A win-win engagement between suppliers and customers

Timely engagement and remuneration for strategic venture


Theme 4: Revamping the Legal and Banking Structure

Different aspects characterize the successful implementation of strategies aimed at acquiring and managing working capital in MENA. The aspects emanate from the consistently evolving market conditions, information asymmetry, and types of capital, relationships, and the role played by the overall entrepreneurial ecosystem. In this case, a set of questions was used in investigating the respondents on the key barriers. From the analysis, it is evident that the recurring themes included the need to revamp the legal structure and the banking structure. Interviewee C1 pointed out that “there are no bankruptcy laws, so do you find that, for example, to be a barrier or do you find that to be even from the angel investor perspective were okay I want to give you more.”  The views were echoed by interviewee C2 who noted that “Dubai government either that or get out and so I was like guys come on, and they don’t want the small and medium-sized companies they say they do, but they don’t.” Also, interviewee C3 and C7 observed that the legal issues often contribute to bureaucracy and fear for financial security for an established business using borrowed finances at the point of break-even. Interviewee C8 who noted, “It’s not so much that we can’t find people to fund this, but they are motivated by greed, so they want 70% of the business or 65% of the business” pointed an interesting situation about the financial barriers. It is these barriers that could be influencing business lending platforms such as Kiva and PayPal Inc., as demonstrated by Ahmed et al., (2016), to eliminate the barriers linked with traditional financing for SMEs. This view was equally echoed by interviewee C1 who provided an example of a friend lending cryptocurrencies and noted that despite the finances being readily available, the documentation is enormous hence acting as a significant hindrance to setting up the company with a delay of up to five years.

The respondents who pointed out the existence of legal barriers as the most prevalent issue (C6 and C7) noted on challenges of being licensed to operate in a specific region and high taxation by individual governments. Interview C6 within this context postulated that “So DMCC yeah we had a DMCC license the main objective of the free zone was for fiscal reasons tax-free right I mean why we would start a business in Spain where we have to pay tax. So, what we did was all the invoicing was done through Dubai.” While also noting that the legal issues characterized by the license of operation and taxation had the most significant implication on cash management. Interviewee C7 observed that in Canada for every finance raised as working capital, almost a similar amount is taxed.

Additionally, the respondent also pointed out the existence of numerous governance issues impacting the extent to which the business is set up. The underlying reason is that in the MENA region, the governments tend to appreciate more the roles played by large corporations and investors to their economy as opposed to SMEs, which are equally instrumental to the success of such economies. The lack of sustainable policies and legal structure for supporting new entrepreneurs in terms of their venture, business environment, unfair competition from large corporations, as well as business institutions, which are heavily financed and ensure this rationale. These findings are supported by Moss et al., (2015), observing that enterprises that are a signal for competitiveness, risk-taking, and independence would leverage from a higher likelihood of receiving funding. This is as opposed to the small businesses that signal courage, empathy, warmth, as well as being more conscientious would less likely receive any funding.

MENA region can be grouped as highly volatile. In this case, managing an entrepreneurial business in an environment characterized by high volatility necessitates the need for having sufficient cash flows and funding. Nevertheless, from the analysis, it is a fact that the funding is not always available, particularly to the new entrepreneurs engaged in establishing new business platforms. Apart from the banking and legal barriers, specific issues highlighted by the respondents lead to limited financing to the entrepreneurs include lack of willingness from potential investors, high costs of business development and marketing, inappropriate revenue sharing with stakeholders and abiding by the traditional business models despite a business being anchored on technology. While giving an example, Respondent C4 noted that “If a bank comes and tells you your dad took 2,000 dirham facilities from us you need to pay it now I am like sue me it’s cheaper for me.” To avoid such pitfalls, respondents C6 postulated on the need of abiding by strong business ethics, having a sustainable relationship with the investors to attract them to invest in their organization and transitioning from the traditional models to the contemporary models of operations.








Table 4

Key Barriers to Implementing Strategies for Acquiring and Managing Working Capital in MENA

Key Barriers to Implementing Strategies for Acquiring and Managing Working Capital in the MENA Region

Tax regulations and banking finance complexities

License a major challenge to access and legal constraints

Bureaucracy, security for fear of people think, lack of flexibility on bank financing and cultural issues

Regulations by the Health Authorities regulation, lack of reliability for the financial institutions in access to finances

Financing issues regulations

Banking complexities and bureaucracy in the registration of an entrepreneur

Frustrations in working with different government entities tasked with regulation roles

Lack of readily available financing, unsupportive government regulations

Theme 5: Using Public Relations as a Tool

In light of the identified challenges in the previous question, the respondents were further interviewed on the strategies they tend to put in place for overcoming challenges faced in the acquisition of working capital for their business. The challenges place the entrepreneurs in an inferior position, which could lead to increased interest expenses as well as bankruptcy and credit risk. From the analysis, the emerging themes regarding the best strategy of overcoming the challenges included using public relations as a tool which is identified by the respondents as starting big and acting big as well as having a well-known brand to support their business.

For the respondents who noted on the need to use public relations through starting big and acting big, it is evident that their strategy has guided them in attaining a competitive advantage over their large enterprise’s competitors. In one of the examples, interviewee C2 noted that to mitigate the challenges, “You show up with the best product at the best price in the right quantity at the right time and place, and they’ll buy from you.” As part of acting big through public relations, respondent C3 noted that “relationships are significant like you said the bank manager and understanding the region and understanding how to negotiate with.”  In particular, the respondent observed that through such a practice, such an entrepreneur can receive funding within a short duration of request irrespective of the prevailing financial barriers and legal constraints. To demonstrate the extent to which the respondents were ready to put any effort to act big, interviewee C5 noted that “Because of being small I cannot handle … I can only handle a certain number of projects. I don’t extend myself too much.”The findings were equally supported by C4 and C8, who, despite being controversial, recommended using another person’s identity to receive funding from prominent lending companies. The findings from the respondents are in line with Afrifa and Padachi (2016) study that had noted that the conservative strategy and the aggressive strategy are always in contrary outlooks about the impacts of working capital and the levels on company profitability. According to Aktaset al. (2015), such strategies can equally be grouped as working management strategies that enhance business efficiency and success in the long run.

Theme 6: International Angel Investors

Additionally, the use of angel investors was identified by the entrepreneurs as having a positive implication in mitigating the barriers. The effectiveness of the angel investors is informed by the fact that they are international and, as such, are merely affected by the local legal issues and banking restrictions as they can outsource from their countries. Also, the angel investors have a potential of investing online through equity crowdfunding or organizing themselves into networks for pooling their investment capital.  This is evident from interviewee C1 who observed, “I was fortunate enough to find some angel investors, and since that time we haven’t got any external funding.”  In supporting the capability of the angel investors to pool together their resources through a network, respondent C7 underscored that “I mean there are people within my network that would fund me, but you know it’s unrealistic the amount of equity that they would want you to know its silly money.” The view was also supported by respondent C3, C4, and C5, who observed the need to have multiple relationships with international investors who would aid them in sourcing essential credit for their operations.







Table 5

Strategies of Overcoming Challenges when Acquiring Working Capital for the Business in MENA

Strategies of Overcoming challenges when acquiring working capital for business in MENA

The network of operations, excellent relationship with suppliers and transparent information to customers on available stakeholders and addressing the issue of supply and demand

Following the best practice by the American companies, knowledge and expertise management

Adopting a global best practice in operations for control and minimization of financial resources, sustainable network of relationships

Relationships with all the stakeholders

Using customers as the best marketing tool of their products and services, management of their knowledge

A strategic plan that zeroes in on their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats

Successful relationships between all stakeholders and development of knowledge and expertise

Involving a network of stakeholders from different countries and sustainable relationships

Theme 7: Effective Working Capital Strategies

The last segment of the interview involved an evaluation of the most effective working capital strategies that are fundamental for technology business owners interested in growing their business in MENA. Based on the responses, the main themes identified included using knowledge and expertise in business development, breaking the network barrier, networking the American way, and using customers to sell services. Interviewee C3 and C4 comprehensively highlighted the aspect of using knowledge and expertise in business development. According to the experience of C2, the relevance of the knowledge and expertise is “today what is some of the fundamental strategies that you have to take as a business owner whether it’s again building relationships working with your supplier through the exercise of knowledge and experience.”

Interviewee C4 added that “as far as a strategy of managing the cash flow, that is one of the strategies and I don’t employ all the resources on the project that’s one thing but the projects where I have to manage knowledge and expertise development for successful development.”Additionally, interviewee C6 underscored that “you know what one of the key skills for an entrepreneur is listening to the ability to sit and listen to your client’s problems.”  This means that there must be sufficient knowledge to be able to succeed as an entrepreneur. The findings are supported by Lilien (2016), who demonstrated that consumers have their personal lives. As such understanding, the products and services will be essential for them by exploiting the expertise of B2B.

Regarding breaking the network barrier, interviewee C8 generated one of the most comprehensive responses. The recommendations from the respondent included establishing a strategic plan, relationship building, and demonstrating that an individual is not a greedy person. This was further supported by respondent C4, C5, and C6. Respondent C6, for instance, observed that “the best way for us to start is to pick the territories where we have relationships because you know any business that is starting from scratch, you need that relationship to the kind of kickstart.” Interviewee C4, on the other hand, introduced a concept of the relationships being an intangible asset. In this case, the respondent noted that “As an asset intangible asset, relationships and your connections with the industry, your connections with other businesses are vital.” In an event such a relationship is established, the respondents noted that an organization ends up using their customers reliably in selling their services. This must, however, be integrated with networking the American way. The respondents indicated that networking the American way is instrumental as they are always successful in cost management. This is supported by Reijonen et al. (2015) review on the B2B companies and B2C companies working in emerging countries.

Summary of Results

This chapter sought to analyze qualitative data about the strategies that technology business owners use to acquire and manage working capital to grow their business in MENA. The analysis reveals several critical findings. First, it indicates that different strategies work best in the acquisition and management of working capital to grow business. In this case, the organizations tend to use hybrid entrepreneurship where they use other projects in funding their cash flow issues.  The findings revealed that through interaction with other stakeholders, it has been possible to gather resources that are critical for organizational success. Second, the study finds that in terms of the strategies implemented to establish a working relationship with suppliers and customers, revenue sharing, and creating a network of relationship has been identified as the most effective strategy. Third, for the challenges in capital management, the majority highlighted the legal and banking structures. This means that the banking system and set legal structures are unfavorable to entrepreneurs.

Nevertheless, the challenges can be mitigated by leveraging public relations and using a foreign entity mainly for angel investing. Lastly, on the capital strategies, it has been identified that networks of relationships must be implemented to create a harmonious interaction, leveraging on customer needs and their involvement in the process, and successful knowledge development. The conclusions from these findings are discussed in-depth in the chapter that follows.


Table 6

Summary of Themes


Research questions that were answered

Hybrid Entrepreneurship
Hybrid entrepreneurship is the strategy that works best in the quest to acquire and manage working capital for a growing business.
What strategies worked best to acquire and manage working capital to grow business?

Financing from Overseas
Majority of entrepreneurs source their fund overseas including by merging with subsidiaries in other countries, friends and associates in different countries, and investors
What strategies do technology business owners use to acquire and manage working capital to grow businesses in MENA?

Collaborative Relationship with Suppliers and Customers
The majority of entrepreneurs collaborate with their suppliers and customers in revenue sharing.
What were the strategies implemented to establish a working relationship with both suppliers and customers to acquire and manage working capital to grow business in MENA?

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professionalPLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

The push-pull supply chain view as history essay help

The push-pull supply chain view refers to a process of the chain divided into two categories, which depend on the execution. There are two methods of execution, which include a process initiated to respond to a customer order, this is the pull, and another executed in anticipation of an order, which is the push. The two processes depend on process execution timing relative to demand (Chopra & Meindl, 2007). The pull is reactive in that it is executed to respond to an order, while the push is speculative in that the supplier initiates it in anticipation of an order.

An example of a pull process is the LL Beans customer order cycle, where the company executes the process upon customer arrival but performs all the replenishment cycle processes in anticipation of demand. Dell’s procurement cycle is an example of a push process, where the company responds to demand through production rather than from finished product inventory.

According to Dekker et al. (2013) all the levers of supply chain are hinged on reverse logistics. Transportation, for instance, is concerned about the movement of products between the actors in a supply chain, which involves reverse logistics. The inspection of products and enhanced information exchange promotes a more responsive product management strategy, and can only be made possible by reverse logistics application. This makes reverse logistics the most critical lever.


Chopra and Meindl (2007) elaborate on six drivers of a supply chain, including facilities, inventory, transportation, information, sourcing, and pricing. Information is the most important driver, and it is also the most basic because companies need vast amounts of data and information to analyze their operations and use it to create strategies. The information is also very crucial in understanding the trends and predicting how the future market may turn out. Besides, the advancement in technology has made it easier to collect data, and it is, therefore, less expensive for companies operating in the internet era. Technology has made the data collected easy to use and easy to gather across the globe.

One company that has been very successful in the use of data is Coca Cola, which, according to the director of data strategy, has led to increased customer retention. The company uses data in marketing and product development, which is collected by encouraging customers to share their opinions through email, phone, or social networks. The company also uses the data to create content that is more relevant to the different audiences, believing that advertising content should carry different messages for different customer segments (Kopanakis, 2018). According to the director, some people love sports, while others prefer music. The company wants to use the data to ensure that it creates a presence in different spaces, and the data can be used to create branded content that matches the passion of the people.


Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2007). Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, and Operation (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Kopanakis, J. (2018). 5 Real-World Examples of How Brands are Using Big Data Analytics | Mentionlytics Blog. Retrieved 4 June 2020, from