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The Transport Link Between The African And American Coast A Level History Essay Help

3The Atlantic trade

The Atlantic Ocean was the transport link between the African and American coast. The Africans were thus able to carry out the slave trade with the help of the ships available at the ocean. The Africans would sell their slaves to the European slave traders who would transport them through the Atlantic Ocean to the American coast and then sell them to the North and South American continents. The shipping of Africans through the Atlantic Ocean was the primary way in which the slaves were moved from Africa to the intended destinations. Most slaves were from central and western Africa and were sold by their fellow Africans, mostly the chiefs, for some little money. Some would be lured into accepting to travel to America to find a fortune that would change their life only to end up as slaves in the White’s farms. The suffering that the Africans endured arriving at the American continents alive can only be quantified by the number of those who never made it alive. These Africans would die from hunger, diseases, abuse, suicide or even being thrown off the ships. The slaves were transported in huge numbers, and clearly, survival was for the very fittest. You would survive if you were meant to get to America become a slave there. The Atlantic slave trade took place in two phases; the first and the second. An estimated 9 to 12 million Africans were sold during this trade.

The first Atlantic trade Assignment summary history assignment example: history assignment example

1The first Atlantic trade

The Africans played a central role in the slave trade as they sold their fellow Africans who were prisoners, captives, kidnapped, raided from wars. The Africans would capture those from enemy ethnic groups during ethnic conflicts and sell them to the Europeans after holding them, prisoners. The first Atlantic trade was carried out between the African and the Portuguese and Spanish, who would sell the slaves to southern America. This took place in the 16th century and lasted till 1580 when Portugal united with Spain. The Portuguese traded in slaves themselves by dealing with the Africans themselves, while the Spanish would award specified slave merchants with licenses to market in the slave trade. For a while, the Portuguese were almost a monopoly because Spain’s occupation was not as pronounced. Some Dutch and French traders also participated in the trade. Still, after the union of Spain and Portugal, Portugal was prohibited from engaging directly in the slave trade and could no longer control the Dutch, British, and French.

The second Atlantic trade assignment summary history essay help

The second Atlantic trade

This took place from the 17th to 19th centuries and was dominated by the British, French and Dutch. This was after the Portuguese lost dominion over the slave trade after uniting with Spain. The Africans who were sold to the slave trades during this Atlantic trade phase were sent to the Caribbean, where there were sugar plantations.[1] At this time, the Europeans depended mainly on sugar cultivation economically and the only source of labor was slaves. The British dominated this trade as they transported slaves and managed to sell them to the Caribbean. After the Napoleonic wars, the international slave trade was banned (though it went on in America till the late19th century), marking the end of the second Atlantic trade.

[1]

Klein, Herbert S., and Ben Vinson III. African slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean. Oxford University Press, 2007.

 

The American Indian slavery assignment summary a level history essay help: a level history essay help

3The American Indian slavery

[1]Initially, the American Indians were slaves to the Americans. With time the Africans replaced the American Indians for several reasons. These include diseases, wars and lower prices of the Africans who were sold as slaves. This shifted slavery from American Indian to African. Atlantic trade came up due to the low prices the Africans were sold at, and thus it was very affordable for the slave traders to carry it out.

Moreover, the American crops were not grown in Europe, so the Americans succeeded in selling these crops to the Europeans. The crops were produced in large amounts because the Africans provided the required labor. To ensure a steady supply of these crops, the Europeans would then trade in their manufactured goods and textiles, which were not in Africa and America due to slow industrialization.

[1] Gallay, Alan, ed. Indian slavery in colonial America. U of Nebraska Press, 2009.

 

Part of the triangular trade entailed shipping the slaves apus history essay help

The middle passage

This part of the triangular trade entailed shipping the slaves from the African coast to the American coast. This required a good amount of finances and was thus undertaken by companies and groups of stakeholders rather than individuals. The voyage would take one to six months, and this depended on the weather conditions. With favorable climatic                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    conditions the journey would a shorter time than with adverse weather conditions. During this journey, many Africans lost their lives, an estimate of nearly a fifth of the total slaves per trip. This resulted from hunger, physical abuse, diseases, others were even thrown off the ships, and others even committed suicide. It is also estimated that by the end of the slave trade, about two million Africans had lost their lives during the transatlantic stage of the triangle trade.

Once the slaves were captured by the African royals, chieftains, and abductors, they were taken forcefully to the west coast to await the Europeans to arrive and buy them. They would then be put into the slave ships. The voyage to America just started. The slaves were chained in pairs to save space in the vessel. The vessel would be so complete that the slaves were cramped together, and they could barely move or have enough space to turn. The slaves were fed at least once on the good days (including water), and thus most starved.

In some cases, the slaves would be kept under the decks such that they could not move around the ship. The lucky ones could get a chance to move a little around the boat. A typical ship would have around 30 crew members to guard the slaves so they would not escape and do other ships’ management.