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The Third Murderer in Shakespeare’s Macbeth

The Third Murderer in Macbeth

Although Shakespeare had a great flare for plot material, he often had trouble with loose ends. Many times, seemingly important people will disappear from the script; they are never seen again. And other times, characters will suddenly appear out of nowhere. One such inconsistency is the identity of the third murderer in Macbeth.

At the beginning of 3.3, the third murderer makes his entrance.

FIRST MURDERER: But who did bid thee join with us?


SECOND MURDERER: He needs not our mistrust: since he delivers/ Our offices and what we have to do/ To the direction just. (3.3.1-4)

It is clear that the other two murderers had no prior knowledge that another would be joining them. The shortness of response by the Third Murderer may indicate that he is lying about who sent him. If Macbeth had hired a third man, he probably would have informed the original murderers. Much speculation is put to the thought that Macbeth sent one of his aides as a sort of baby-sitter to make sure that everything went as planned. The most popular choices as chaperones are Seyton and Ross (Iago; Spielbauer). However, if Macbeth had sent another man, wouldn’t he also have instructed him to report back to him? The First Murderer is the only one to return to the castle. The Second and Third Murderer disappear and the audience never sees them again. If the additional man were Seyton or Ross, wouldn’t it have been he who would take the news back to Macbeth? If perchance, Macbeth’s spy should have made it back before the First Murderer arrived, why would Macbeth put on such a show of surprise at the events of the evening? Unless one of them was working on his own wi…

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…nted about it, which would prove that he didn’t want them to die. Most of all, it was possible for him to be there. All other suspects would probably have been other wise tied up with more important things to do. Of course, there is always the theory that the Third Murderer is just another Bum Joe from the street who really needed a job. But that would be disappointing, wouldn’t it?


Gathergood, William. http://www. shakespeare. com/nwcwg/old/quer 082095001523. html. Nov. 11, 1996.

Iago, and Beth Smarr. http://www. shakespeare. com/nwcwg/students/quer 031096134358.html. Nov. 11, 1996.

Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. Prentice Hall Literature: The English Tradition. Ed. Jack Armistead et al. New Jersey: Prentice, 1989. 223-303.

Spielbauer, Bruce. http://www. shakespeare. com/nwcwg/students/quer 031096133433. html. Nov. 11, 1996.

Safety Features in Automobiles

Safety Features in Automobiles

“Motor vehicle crashes are the number one killer of Americans under the age of 34. Every 22 minutes someone is killed in a crash” (Vince and Larry). Since 1990, many new safety features have been put into vehicles to help save lives. These features are Antilock brakes, airbags, OnStar, and four-wheel drive or all wheel drive.

“One of the best safety features available is anti-lock braking system” (Gillis). Antilock brake system (ABS) is a safety feature that keeps the brakes from locking up so the driver can maintain control over steering and directional stability in situations where the driver has to apply heavy brakes, heavy enough that if the vehicle was not equipped with ABS, the brakes would lock up. ABS is usually engaged on slippery road surfaces, when traction is minimal. If a person’s brakes lock up on a slippery surface, then the vehicle could loose steering control and the vehicle could spin. ABS could help a person avoid an accident because it allows a person to maintain steering control of the vehicle (Questions and answers…).

In a vehicle not equipped with an antilock brake system, the driver has to manually pump the brakes to keep from sliding. ABS works by sensing each wheel’s speed. When the sensors detects that the wheels are about to lock up, the ABS computer automatically changes the amount of brake fluid being sent to each wheel. With ABS engaged, the vehicle will “Maintain optimum braking performance—just short of locking up the wheels.” The computer will keep adjusting the brake pressure as the road conditions change (Antilock brake systems …).

The four main parts of an antilock brake system are the speed sensors, the pump, the valves, and the controller. Th…

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National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1996). Moving

* forward: expanding collaborations between traffic safety and public health. MA. Education Development Center, inc..

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1998). Questions and

* answers regarding antilock brake systems (ABS). U.S. Department of Transportation.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (1999). New car safety features. U.S. Department of Transportation.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (2000). Antilock brake

* systems (ABS): reading this could be one of the safest things you ever do. U.S. Department of Transportation.

OnStar. (2002). What is OnStar: services. Retrieved March 14, 2003,


“Vince and Larry.” (1991). Vince and Larry on belts and bags. U.S. Department of Transportation.

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