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The Sources of CO2 Emissions Concept ap us history essay help: ap us history essay help
Sources of CO2 Emissions
Would you Expect to see an Increase or Decrease in CO2 Emission in the Data over the Past 40 Years? Why?
To assess the contributor to temperature balance more the impact of carbon dioxide.
Global temperature is influenced by solar energy, which is also the key energy source that move major process like photosynthesis and hydrological cycle. The solar energy is distributed in portions and only 51% of it reaches the earth surface. The clouds reflect the 49% by 20%, atmospheric gases like Sulphur dioxide by 6%, and 19% is absorbed the two factors too. This process is called albedo effect. This albedo plays role of lowering the temperature. On the other hand, the portion that hit the earth surface is absorbed by the ocean and greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O), which cause an increase in global temperature. According to Budyko (1982), anthropogenic activities of man more so industrialization and agriculture are the key contributor to the greenhouse gases.
The carbon dioxide will be lower in the past forty years
On the Web site link given in the assignment description, I saw an interactive map of the world titled “GMD Measurement Locations”
1. I clicked on a starred location. (One site will not have CO2 concentrations.)
2. Once the starred location opens, on the right side of the screen, I clicked on the picture graph “Examples of Data” for CO2.
3. Once the graph opens, I made a note of the CO2 concentrations from previous years to present day and Filled in the table below.
I then repeated steps 1–3 for all other locations.
Lastly, I analyzed the graphs and recorded the amount of carbon dioxide for the year 1990 and 2005.
Name of City/Country
CO2 Emissions in 1990
CO2 Emissions in 2005
Barrow, Alaska, United State
Trinidad Head Observatory
Mauna Loa Observatory
American Samoa Observatory
The data clearly indicates that, between 1990 and 2005, there has been an increase in the CO2 by more than 20 mol-1 in the five regions. Anthropogenic activities in the regions of studies in regard to the production of greenhouse gases, which are deforestation to create space for industrial development and agriculture and combustion of fossil fuels, have been on the rise. With this being the trend, is clear that in the last forty year, CO2 emission was lower. This is because industrialization was low and the population that needed to be fed from agriculture was low too. Therefore, deforestation and green gas emission was low making my hypothesis is right (Budyko, 1982).
Budyko, M. I. (1982). The Earth’s climate, past and future. New York: Academic Press.
Earth System Research Laboratory: Global Monitoring Division. (n.d.). Retrieved from U.S Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Research web site: http: //www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop//
Specialized Education versus General Liberal Education advanced higher history essay help
Specialized Education versus General Liberal Education
Education is a significant phenomenon that dictates our life goals. It is the process of gaining knowledge over a period of time through direction and learning. Education plays a key role in the expansion of knowledge and skill development, and contributes to a person’s confidence, personality, cognitive development, social growth, and performance of activities, because of that the importance of education cannot be denied at any level as it is the process through which a person learns about him/her and its environments. In addition, thanks to the education a person might have a better understanding of nature with respect to science. Information about any concept and education are two different concepts that may differ in terms of formal acquisition and delivery. The two concepts hold distinction as education plays a key role in the expansion of knowledge and skill development. Through learning people get knowledge and skills, and observation of nature are all parts of education. These are effective tasks and helps in understanding the backgrounds of an individual. Knowledge is not the only tool required but as well combination of knowledge and efficiency is required which is accomplished by education. New phenomena are discovered if a person has a complete understanding and knowledge about what, when and how the process is being accomplished. According to Lorig and Holmes (2003) these all tasks are achieved by education which is the reason that all the policies and programs of government and private organizations focus on the provision of basic facilities of education.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the two types of educational formats, liberal education and specialized education, and my position supporting specialized education as opposed to general liberal education.
General Liberal Education:
General liberal education at the student level is also know as liberal arts concentration (Blank add year) is the most extensive form of delivering knowledge, and refers to education which allows human beings to deal with the intricacy, diversity and change of the world and its emerging consequences. This is related to the knowledge of major fields or sections including science, humanity, society, and culture in which the student might take some courses about different things for example, writing and chemistry. According to Black (year) “Most four-year colleges and universities offer a liberal arts curriculum as either a major portion or all their available coursework” (pg). Those who possess knowledge pertaining to these elements, gain the ability to cope with changing environments and the complex nature of life. The main objectives of liberal education according to Pring (2005) are:
Liberal education is focused towards the provision of comprehensive knowledge in all the major aspects of learning which includes physical environment, social functions, and humanities for understanding of an individual’s own self and behavior for self recognition.
Liberal education develops, in a person, the ability to perform a task efficiently and effectively through the use of skill, integration and interpretation of nature and its relationship to human beings.
Liberal education allows individuals to enhance or imply their knowledge to other fields or phenomena after the accomplishment of perception of physical and social aspects.
These three objectives provide a detailed analysis of the elements required by an individual to completely understand their surroundings. Education is a tool through which our sense of awareness is developed and intellectual and cognitive performance is sharpened. The concept of liberal education has been evolving in our current society, because now university students have the option to even finish their degree in general studies. Mortimer Adler a philosopher and educator believes that a general education was the best training for both life and work, arguing that “it gives students the skills to be better citizen and better people” (pg). In addition, he states that liberal education can give the students the tools such as writing and critical thinking that might works and be valuable in any field of workplace.
Upon completion of their educations, College and university students directly contribute toward the viability of a nation, through formulating the future and characterizing its goals. Publically speaking, Democratic states are widening the spectrum of thought, in order to facilitate future generations to have more control of their personal educational goals. Allowing students to make appropriate educational decisions, characterizes their future toward meeting the current demands and requirements of life. We see greater emphasis on post secondary and graduate education, because a society with a deficit of educated citizens ceases to maximize its potential and global acceptance among other nations. The population of a society must proportionately contribute toward its ongoing growth the development. Employing manpower to facilitate the necessary functions within a society is achieved by promoting educational opportunities that are in line with current labor market statistics. Creating awareness assists students in the process of making educational decisions that meet their interests, and improve their future. Another important aspect related to liberal education, is that it combines many aspects of life in general, such as our experience, cultural beliefs, perceptions, etc. |These aspects of life are relatively ambiguous in nature, open to thought and opinion, subjective, as opposed to concrete facts. A Liberal education serves to open up the mind and look deeper into other dimensions of possibility, and overall perspectives of life. “It cultivates the capacities and appetite for self-expression and reflection, for exchange and debate of ideas, for life-long learning, and for dealing with problems for which there are no easy answers” (APA)
Historically, liberal arts subjects or skills were considered vital for citizens to possess in order to actively participate in civic life, public debate, and military service. The purpose of these studies was to create moral, knowledgeable, and eloquent people. Further, Grammar, rhetoric and logic were regarded as the primary liberal arts. Even by today’s standards, “liberal education is described as “enlightenment” education, for the purpose of communication liberal arts to every person. Therefore, liberal education serves every person for meeting their intellectual needs” (Butin, 2006). This concept at the end for me might not be such a good idea since the student does not have proper skills for the workplace, since they are not specializing in any field of career such as medicine or law for mention some.
Specialized Education-Adult Career-Based
Specialized education is a course of studies that generally focus on a specific area. Although specialized education can work in conjunction with liberal education in certain cases, for example; a Physician begins with liberal education, followed by specialized education. I will examine how specialized education functions independently as a method which focuses on a specific subject, with the main emphasis geared toward training and preparing students for the workplace; also referred to as providing “Job-ready skills”. It is available to those who are certain about their career/profession choice. Traditionally, Vocational schools utilized specialized education to teach industry related skills and trades. Today, specialized education has grown enormously due to great demand derive from two critical issues:
To educate students in careers, specifically designed to accommodate current/forecasted economic, labor and industry statistics.
To address the growing social ramifications caused by an unstable and changing economy. Whether due to job loss through downsizing, or needing to re-enter the workforce after a lengthy absence, many people will need to learn a new profession, or at the very least, upgrade their skills significantly for any chance of acquiring relatively secure employment.
This type of education involves a condensed, structured course of study, which often includes a co-op or other work-based experience as part of the program. The Instructors are primarily industry-specific professionals with a vast amount of relative knowledge and experience. Specialized education programs also give the student an advantage in the job market, since many of the programs are specifically developed for the purpose of addressing current market need. People are finding that they need to remain in the workforce past retirement age, but must due to the condensed format of many Specialized education programs, they can be ideal for a student who wishes to change careers, without having to make a lengthy time commitment. As Blank said “it is generally easier to make the transition from a general to a specialized than vice versa and” As for my experience I prefer the specialized education because at least you are specializing in a particular area rather than taking many different courses.
A huge majority of those who argue for general or liberal education argue that it prepares an individual for further on job training and ensures that the individual is well primed to learn from experience. Further, such proponents argue that whereas it is difficult to acquire general knowledge from a situation in which one has specialized knowledge, it is quite easy for an individual with general knowledge to actually acquire specialized knowledge. As such, the flexibility one gains through gaining general knowledge is invaluable, as it allows for a greater degree of dynamism, in a world where not only is knowledge evolving, but its application is evolving as well. Arnold (2010) highlights the current shift by a number of institutions of higher learning are moving towards liberal education, by offering knowledge which they argue increases intellectual awareness, improves communication skills, breadth of learning as well as critical thinking.
General education programs are however not the answer, as they are in most cases burdened with a number of fatal flaws, which Arnold (2010) claims makes them the wrong repository within which to bank hopes of educating students liberally. His first argument against general education, is the fact that in most cases they are simply a menu of courses usually selected with no consideration for intellectual cohesion, while in cases where that is not the case, students will ideally be required to have some prior knowledge that will ensure the starting point is a common one. This is often not the case, as students will probably arrive at an institution with different forms of academic preparation and experiences. When issues such as transfers in and transfers out, as well as the financial pressures that may accompany facilitating large lectures in general education, it is quite clear that general courses may not really be the best. Furthermore, Arnold (2010) argues that whereas proponents of general course may argue that it fosters critical thinking, reflection and exploration, this is not the case, with perhaps even the opposite premise holding true. In order for true learning to take place, the interests of those being taught and those teaching, must be in tandem, although the usage of disciplinary specialists to tutor students on the various disciplines goes against this belief.
In a way, according to Arnold, the greatest flaw in the attempts to achieve liberal education, is the attempt to separate the major from liberal education, while at the same time broadening the students’ perspectives, awareness as well as critical thinking. He calls for the inclusion of liberal education into various majors, by making it a mandatory unit within the different majors being offered by the university. The author also recommends that every major should include certain aspects of general education, foremost among them being the provision of a course on problem formulation, as well as the various methods and approaches to inquiry as employed within the discipline. Secondly, Arnold (2010) suggests the incorporation of interdisciplinary seminars within training programs for the specialized education, would act as a very important step towards the realization of incorporating and intertwining the major the student is training in, to other courses. This would give the student a unique perspective on the standing of the major they are studying and how it relates to other courses. Finally, the author suggests that in order for the hybrid system of general and specialized education to work, a system that encourages continuous self assessment and self evaluation should form an important pillar of such training. Arnold cites the example of training within health sciences in which one foot is kept outside the classroom, allowing students to learn new theories and revert back to testing the validity of these theories within the clinical setting. Overall therefore Arnold (2010) argues that both specialized and general knowledge are important in the development and education of proper and competent professionals, as combining both would ensure that students develop essential critical thinking skills, unparalleled competence when it comes to context setting, as all these aspects of general education would be embedded within the major.
Axelrod, Anisef and Zeng (2001) agree with the assertion that liberal education might not be the answer most academic institutions believe it to be. They argue that whereas liberal education does have its advantages, it forms an important basis upon which evidence based training can be practiced. The authors argue that through the employment of the scientific method, liberal education provides a basis for the training of specialists and the discovery of new knowledge. The authors therefore, similar to Arnold (2010) acknowledge that while liberal knowledge can be important, the role of specialized education must not be overlooked at all. More so considering that simply training students based on general knowledge may ill equip them when it comes to meeting demands unique to their profession. This lack of specialized training, in a way hampered students when it came to fulfilling their professional obligations as found by cohort studies carried out by Axelrod, Anisef and Zeng (2001). The findings clearly demonstrated that in certain courses liberal training cannot form the only theoretical basis for practice, more so within health related fields. Within a majority of other fields, such as fine arts, training through liberal education was found to significantly improve the student’s profile. This suggests that even though liberal education may not adequately prepare students for the needs of the market, it does still have a role to play in the training of professionals and individuals sensitive to the demands of not just their professional tasks, but also of the needs of the community.
Specialized education does prepare professionals adequately for their job demands, as training is done based on best practices developed through research. Knowledge of such evidence based practices ensures that students are well prepared to forecast, plan for and deal with problems that might arise (Roundtable, 2006). Further, specialized education in most cases, usually equips students with practical skills that ensure they are ready for work, and deployment into the job market. For instance, medical training equips doctors with the necessary skills utilized in assessing and diagnosing patients.
Specialized educational programs are also more cost effective because they essentially require less time to complete, and also require fewer resources to offer, in that, unlike general education, special education does not entail large lectures which are difficult to facilitate. The period between completion of training and resumption or beginning of work is also much shorter with specialized education.
This paper therefore, attempts to justify the assertion that specialized education is better compared to liberal education, as it enables one to gain an understanding about human nature. The life circumstances of the student are likely to be the biggest influence on the choice between general and specialized education. Liberal education enhances one’s skills whereas special education trains an individual to perform routine tasks and fulfill basic needs. Further, the review of certain literature has essentially introduced a different aspect to the debate. Whereas a majority of the arguments may take the form of which is preferable, it is perhaps worthy of noting that despite the obvious superiority of specialized education, there are obvious advantages of liberal training. The first of them is the obvious fact that it improves the student’s critical thinking as well as problem solving skills. It also equips the student with the necessary knowledge to be able to interact adequately with their environment, which immensely aids in the identification of potential or real problems. When this is combined with the benefits of specialized education as aforementioned, the end result is a candidate who is not only capable of identifying potential problems, but one capable of solving these problems in a timely and professional manner. Suggestions that liberal education be incorporated into specialized training are therefore worth exploring, although if one had to chose between the two forms of education, specialized education would definitely be the best pick.
Axelrod, P., Anisef, P., & Zeng, L. (2001). Against all odds? The enduring value of liberal education in universities, professions and the labour market. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 31(2), 47-77.
Butin, D. W. (2006). The limits of service-learning in higher education. The Review of Higher
Education, 29(4), 473-498.
David, L., A. (2006): Moving From General Education to Liberal Education. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 38(3), 48-49.
Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., & Rivkin, S. G. (2002). Inferring program effects for special
populations: Does special education raise achievement for students with disabilities? The Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(4), 584-599.
Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., Mcgee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of
single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71(2), 165-179.
Lorig, K. R., & Holman, H. R. (2003). Self-management education: History, definition,
outcomes, and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine,26(1), 1-7.
Pring, R. (2005). Philosophy of education. (1st ed.). London: British Library Cataloguing-in-
Roundtable (2006). Education Vs. Experience. Fire Engineering
The Speech Development in Babies university history essay help: university history essay help
Speech Development in Babies
Speech Development in Babies
Communication, by definition, is the utilization of messages to generate meanings across and within different cultures, contexts, media and methods. Communication is an activity that is learned first. It is a requirement that one learns to speak his native language, operating a mobile phone and even make the use of gestures that are commonly used in his culture. The speaker must also be capable of receiving and interpreting messages from other people. Communication encompasses the use of talking, writing, non-verbal communication like traffic signals, emotions, and facial expressions, and visual communications like pictures and movies while portraying a message. Communication helps a person to express himself and therefore it is a very crucial facet of a human being’s life (Dryden & Vos, 1999). If the communication fails, a person may end up losing very many opportunities that are heading to his way. Success is also facilitated by communication. If a person has great skills in communication, he can be able to achieve almost anything that he desires or get out of all kinds of problems that may face him, no matter how complicated they are.
Since the communication is learned, it starts even before the child is born, when he is in the womb. After they are born, they exhibit some of the fascinating things, and one of them is trying to learn how to talk. In a short period after their birth most children, if not all undergo a transition and transform their communication from crying to gurgling attempting to provide an explanation of what they are interested in and what they are not. Communication of the baby evolves from the gibberish first words to a pre-scholar, to elementary or middle school until the communication is well defined, and the baby can engage in detailed conversations then. The evolution of the early language constitutes the events of the parent’s or caregiver’s life that are very momentous (Shaffer & Kipp, 2014).
I carried out my observation on the babies who are from the English accent as they learn to speak. Similar to other babies, their learning of communication is at first problematic. I had a conversation with a two-year-old baby, and I noticed that there are several stages of learning how to communicate effectively. For most of the children I engaged into a conversation with, learning how to talk was at the stage of difficulty and struggle, though it seems to be easy. For the children to learn how to talk more quickly and easily, the parents or the adults who keep their company at home should talk to the children for many of the time they are together. The children whose parents don’t talk much have more difficulty to develop their speech (Darity, 2008).
The ability to learn how to talk is in every child since learning how to talk are a habit that is natural, and a gift that is naturally inscribed within the deepest genetic inheritance of mankind. The child utters his first words in approximately one year after he is born or two years after he is conceived. The skills and swiftness with which most of the children gain the mastery of the art of talking has left many adults fascinated. Before the child gains the coordination of the hands to be able to break a toy, he will have the utmost gained the understanding several of the sentences that the adult addresses to him, if not all (Sorrentino & Remmert, 2012). By the time they get the know-how of tying up or knotting their shoelaces, the children will have grasped the art of speaking the language of their nativity. This special capability of mastering a language so quickly can only be explained to be a gift.
When sound comes out of the mouth and gain shape and lead to the formation of words is referred to as speech. The procedure of learning the way to talk has some complexity, and in order to produce speech or talk, several aspects must be there. There must be the presence of the desire for communication, the brain of the speaker must have heard words or learned them earlier in other contexts. There is the importance that the brain develops or creates the idea to communicate. The idea that the brain generates is sent to the mouth. The mouth receives signals from the brain on the words that it should mention and the sound which results to the words involved. There must also be the incorporation of accented patterns and syllables of intonation. The brain is responsible for the sending of essential signals to the muscles responsible for the production of speech. These muscles include the muscles that control the tongue, the lips, and the jaw. There must be enough coordination and strength in the muscles to perform the commands that are sent from the brain. The lungs must have enough air, and the chest muscles are supposed to be robust for the compulsion of the vocal cords and make them vibrate (Levine & Munsch, 2011). To ensure that there is functional speech, the air is supposed to be going out but not going in. Lastly, the vocal cords must be in a mint and fit condition to let out loud and clear speech. When a child produces speech, the words he speaks should be monitored by the child’s sense of hearing. The child will then be able to review the words that are said and listen to more new words for the purpose of imitation. If the child does not hear the words clearly, he will reproduce a mumbled speech (Feldman, 2014).
An older person or a parent must have the inclination to connect or communicate with the child and listen attentively to the words he says. The child may lose the motivation to talk if there is no one who is listening. If the stimulation occurs appropriately, the learning process of talking takes place naturally.
There are the basic stages of how a child learns how to talk. The process of a child in learning how to talk starts at birth and is innate. This starts when a child perceives sounds and voices. All children have their talking abilities beginning at birth (Mijolla & Thomson Gale, 2005). All children learn the language in the same manner regardless of the language that is spoken by a parent. The stages are well defined from 0 to 3 months, 3 to 6 months, 6 to 9 months, 9 to 12 months, 12 to 18 months, 18 to 2 years, 2-3 years, 4-5 years, 5-7 years and 7 years till adolescence(Feldman, 2014). At the stage of 0 to 3 months, the baby just coos, and he starts to make prolonged words that have changes in annotation, for instance, (“Ahh-ah-ahh”). At the stage of 3 to 6 months, the baby bables by the use of a vowel, consonant, and syllables which also have annotation variations, for instance, (“Ba-ba-ba-baa-ba!”). At the stage of 6 to 9 months, the baby can comprehend simple and short words like No! He still babbles but he can control his babbling to two syllables. The syllables may sound Ma-ma although he can’t comprehend the meaning. In the babbling, he adds the more sounds and mostly they are syllables such as da, ma, pa, ka, ba, and wa. The baby is also able to utter other typical syllables like “Ga-ma-ga” (Rathus, 2013)
When a child is in the age between 9 and 12 months, the child finds bubbling funny and also the imitation of simple words. A child is then capable of understanding what some words represent, mostly the words that represent objects. The speech of the child at this stage is not meaningful yet though he tries talking at times and at other times he jabbers loudly. The baby may also make some typical utterances like “Oooooh” or “Ah-Ah” “Buh-Buh”. When the baby is in the age of 12 to 18 months, he is capable of comprehending approximately 50 to 70 words. He can also use 3 to 20 words although he won’t produce them clearly. As the baby tries to express himself, he babbles some words that don’t make sense as he points at what he means (Machado, 2007). The baby can also pronounce short words like “no!” “Mamma” “Appu” to mean apple. Between 18 months and two years of age, the baby is capable of comprehending approximately 300 words and can use up to 50 words that are recognizable. Most of the recognizable words he uses are nouns. Though he can talk using real words more often, he still babbles and uses some jargons. The language that the baby uses is for the purpose of getting his needs fulfilled. The baby says, “I want” when he aims at getting something, he also uses “uh-oh” for exclamation and uses “no!” to protest. The baby will also make the use of a rising intonation in pattern to symbolize a question and is capable of joining two or more words that are related to form one word. He can give an answer to questions like “what is your name”. The baby also joins in rhymes and pre-school songs. The speech he makes is somehow halting and choppy since he pauses so much in between the words (Windell, 2012).
Between the ages of 2 to 3 years, the child can comprehend approximately 900 words and make use of 500 out those he can comprehend although his speech lacks clarity. At the age of 4 to 5 years, the child is able to understand approximately 2500 to 2800 words and make use of 1500 and more words of those he comprehends (Cort, Erikson, Apsell, Lithgow, Boysen, Dahl, Nilsson, Films Media Group, 2007). At this stage, 75 to 85 percent of his conversation is clear and uses language to describe past events and reminisce. The child at this stage uses many irregular verbs and all pronouns. He is also able to repeat sentences that are composed of 8 to 10 syllables and also attends and listens to conversations where there are movies or short stories. After this stage to 7 years or more, the child refines the language and then gains total clarity in his speech till adolescence (Levine & Munsch, 2011).
Cort, J., Erikson, B. G., Apsell, P. S., Lithgow, J., Boysen, L., Dahl, H., Nilsson, L., … Films Media Group. (2007). Life’s greatest miracle. Hamilton, N.J: Films Media Group.
Darity, W. A. (2008). International encyclopedia of the social sciences. Detroit, Mich: Macmillan Reference USA.
Dryden, G., & Vos, J. (1999).The learning revolution: To change the way the world learns. Torrance, Calif: The Learning Web.
Feldman, R. S. (2014). Child development: A topical approach.
Levine, L. E., & Munsch, J. (2011).Child development: An active learning approach. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE.
Machado, J. M. (2007). Early childhood experiences in language arts: Early literacy. Clifton Park, N.Y: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Mijolla, A. ., & Thomson Gale. (2005). International dictionary of psychoanalysis: Dictionnaire international de la psychanalyse. Detroit, Mich: Macmillan Reference USA.
Rathus, S. A. (2013). Childhood: Voyages in development. s.l.: Wadsworth.
Shaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2014). Developmental psychology: Childhood and adolescence.
Sorrentino, S. A., & Remmert, L. N. (2012).Mosby’s textbook for nursing assistants. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier/Mosby.
Windell, J. (2012). The everything child psychology and development book: A comprehensive resource on how children think, learn, and play–from the final months leading up to birth to their adolescent years. Avon, MA: Adams Media.
The Speedo International Limited Concept history assignment help online
Speedo: Marketing Plan
Speedo International Limited:
Production firms deal with the production of goods and services, a process that occurs in different sectors like manufacturing sectors. Developing a perfect production line in any manufacturing firm entails the decision making process which ensures good and services creating takes place according to the planned activities. In production, resources like labor and material inputs assist in production through use of transformation and conversion processes. Resources, such as labor and materials inputs, aid in service and goods creation through the use of transformation or conversion processes to aid in value addition. As such, operations management process starts at high-level business strategies and plans, over both short and long run. Product and service demand dictates the strategies and plans adopted. After the production process gives the output of goods, the distribution of the goods occurs geographically in line with the business market (Daft, & Marcic, 2008). A swimsuit manufacturer, Speedo started its operations from Bondi Beach near Sydney, Australia. Speedo is the World’s leading swimwear brand. The company manufactures and sells products for recreational swimming as a part of its fashion swimwear products as well as it leads the competitive swimwear market. Speedo is famous for its hi-tech innovative designs as it believes in “take technology and make it available in the forms of swimwear clothing”. Speedo International Limited is a subsidiary of the Pentland Group plc; a U.K based privately held company. It is a global brand management company (The Pentland Group, 2011).
History of the brand Speedo:
Speedo was founded in 1914 by Alexander MacRae, a Scot who had migrated to Australia. Originally it was underwear manufacture business, known as MacRae Hosiery manufacturers. The name ‘Speedo’ was born from a slogan “Speed on in your Speedos” in 1928(Qumer & Purkayastha, 2011). With the growth and development of swimwear market in 1920s, MacRae introduced “Racerback”, a swimming costume. It was very supportive and allowed free movement of the body. First swimsuit by Speedo was launched in 1929. The brand established itself well in the market, Swedish swimmer Arne Borg was the first brand ambassador who set the world record in Speedo swimwear. Speedo became a famous brand and the company introduced innovative products during 1930s, these products focused on style and performance. Speedo sponsored swimmers won gold medal in the Los Angeles Olympic Games in 1932 and the company sponsored Australian team in Berlin Games of 1936.
Speedo initiated its exports to USA in 1959 and thus an international division was born to look after sales in Japan, New Zealand and South Africa. The company moved to U.K. in 1959 by acquiring a 30% stake of Nottingham based Robert Shaw and Company Ltd. Speedo sponsored athletes won 27 out of 29 medals in the Mexico Olympics of 1968. Also the Speedo swimmers set 22 world records; Speedo was rising on the horizon of swimwear market. The company took part in Montreal Olympics in 1976 as an official licensee, 52 out of 54 countries were wearing Speedo swimsuits. During 1980s, countries like, the Netherlands, Iceland, Italy, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland had official agreements with Speedo and now the company had established its presence n 112 countries around the Globe.
Speedo started investing in technical research and in1996; it launched AQUABLADE, a swimsuit that lowered the surface resistance by 8%, in the same year Speedo sponsored teams won 77% of all 77% of all swimming medals in the Atlanta Olympics. Speedo launched its revolutionary FASTSKIN in the start of this century; the swimwear was endorsed by world famous swimmers like Grant Hackett, Michael Klim, Inge de Bruijn, and Lenny Krayzelburg. Its swimmers won 13 out of 15 gold medals in The 2000 Sydney Olympics. Speedo launched the evolution of this product in 2004 which reduced the drag by 4% and also the company joined hands with the Brazilian swimmer Amir Slama to promote its fashion swimwear Rosa Cha. In 2008, Speedo launched LZR Racer which is considered as the most advanced swimsuit in terms of technology. The swimwear proved its worth in The Beijing Olympics and 92% of all medals were won by the swimmers wearing LZR Racer. Star of the games Michael Phelps who won 8 gold medals and set a new world record.
Global Market and Speedo Products:
Speedo is a famous swimwear brand and it leads competitive swimwear market. Till early 1990s, global swimwear market had been largely dominated by Speedo products but the competition intensified in mid 1990s when sportswear giants such as Nike and Adidas entered the market. Demand for swimwear developed from seasonal to round the year and it is fundamentally influenced by presence of beaches and popularity of water sports in the countries.
Speedo competes with TYR and Arena in performance swimwear but Speedo dominates the market due to its hi-tech swimwear which enhances performance of bodysuits. Innovation has been a major component in the Speedo’s products. The company invested heavily in technical betterment its performance suits and its innovative suits such as FASTSKIN and LZR Racer have proved to be breakthroughs in swimwear markets. FASTSKIN series of suits by Speedo in 2000s earned the company a reputation of first class performance swimwear manufacturer. The LZR Racer proved to be a big hit and boosted sales of Speedo to many folds. About 108 world records were broken by the athletes wearing the LZR Racer suits. Speedo was the first swimwear manufacturer which introduced recyclable swimsuits. Speedo also established itself as a fashion brand and introduced a range of leisurewear in the start of this century. The company has done heavy advertising in 2000s including Sydney Olympics and in 2003 Speedo’s retro-style logo was a part of popularizing strategy of its brand.
U.K. Market: Size and Structure
Although interest in recreational sports activities have increased over the years, global economic downturn had an adverse effect on every industry including swimwear industry and it is expected that global swimwear growth will be lower between 2008 to 2014, from 5.3% to 1.7% (Just-Style.com, 2009). In the past decade local U.K. swimwear market has been adversely affected by price inflation due to high fuel and transport cost, volatile exchange rates and strong competition offered by low-cost economies of India and china (Rushall, 2000).
London Olympics 2012, the upcoming most important event for swimwear, has created hype in the swimwear industry and all the major players Nike, Speedo, Arena, TYR and Adidas are competing in a highly competitive market. Private-label retailers such as Marks & Spencer in U.K., also play an important role in sales of swimwear clothes. Speedo is the market leader in U.K. and the market is fragmented. Although Nike is currently leads the UK market with an 18% share of the very competitive £4.3 billion sportswear market, it has decided to exit elite swimwear market (The Telegraph, 2011). It has been estimated that swimwear and sportswear market will constitute about US$ 7 billion till upcoming Olympics. With Nike out of the market, Speedo has every opportunity to earn extra from the Olympic Games 2012, as Nike allowed its sponsored swimmers including Cullen Jones, Jason Lezak, Aaron Piersol and Brendan Hansen to opt for the Speedo swimwear (Rovell, 2008). TYR has the second largest market share in U.K. after Speedo, and it has quiet a financial muscle to compete with Speedo. The brand is much popular in U.K. because Speedo is synonymous with any kind of swimwear. Although competitive swimwear market constitutes only a portion of the overall swimwear market, it is the main focus of Speedo’s marketing and promotion strategy in U.K.
Speedo has its target market in U.K. that includes swimmers, coaches and swimming enthusiasts. The brand name of Speedo is so attached with the Olympics that Speedo 2012 Olympic Graphics at Olympic Trial Event attracted nearly 200,000 audiences (Pure Blue Swimming, 2012). Speed’s main focus has been on the competitive swimwear market.
In the swimwear industry, customer is interested in the “swimwear fit”. It is considered the most critical factor and the ‘fit’ is dependent on the fabric; this has driven the swimwear manufacturers to search for the best fabric. Manufacturers are interested in the material other than nylon/spandex or polyester/spandex blends. This increases costs and economic downturn have affected sales of swimwear too.
Junior customers such as teenager professionals and swimming enthusiasts are buying less as compared to previous years. It is also reported that an average customer buys a new swimwear suit after three years (Fashion and Fit in Swimwear, 2010). It proves that consumer is price sensitive and high prices adversely affect the sales.
Product distribution for Speedo Swimwear
Development of a correct distribution strategy is essential for every business. Distribution strategy helps businesses to concentrate and utilize the available resources and opportunities to realize profits and become competitive in the market (Armstrong and Kotler, 2008). In speedo, the management have developed a perfect supply chain distribution strategy aimed at ensuring people all over the world have access to their products. According to Porter, competitive advantage comes in two different ways, low cost and differentiation. Combining these two types with the goals that an organization aims to pursue generates three strategies for a successful business. These are; cost effective leadership, different approach methods, and focus on business returns. When it comes to cost, every organization aims at creating more goods at the lowest cost possible in order to gain more returns from sales (1987). In developing appropriate distribution strategies, proper assessment of the internal and external environments of the business is essential. The internal environment includes type and nature of product, marketing mix and the distribution constraints. On the other hand, the external environment may include the nature, type and distribution of customers and competition in the market. Other external environmental factors could include technology, cultural, politics, legal and the economic environment. Assessment of the environmental factors helps in the development of appropriate strategic distribution plans. A proper distribution strategy is required to execute the distribution plans to realize the marketing objectives. Different products require different distribution strategies due to their own nature and the nature of the market.
According to (Simchi, Kaminsky and Levi, 2003), different products require different distribution strategies due to their own nature and the nature of the market. This is because the different products have different properties and their markets do not exhibit similar characteristics. Speedo Swim wear marketing is diverse in the world. Moreover, the rapidly changing technology and increasing competition require every business to outline a proper distribution strategy to enable the realization of the business objectives. According to Linton and Donnely (2009), analysis of the market coverage is very crucial especially for the swimming garments industry. Therefore, a distribution strategy that ensures effective delivery of products to the end user is important since it ensures that the products are available to customers at all times. A good strategy for use is the intensive marketing and distribution strategy. In this strategy, products distribution occurs over a wide region where the market covers. To facilitate extensive marketing, use of intermediaries is important. These include agents and dealers that are all over the globe. Deployment of various dealers all over the world ensures that the products are available to customers all over the world at every time. This has the effect of placing the business at better competitive grounds in comparison to other businesses (Muller, 2011).
Many brands and companies have competed with Speedo in the past, both in sportswear and swimwear market. TYR Sport Inc, Michael Kors , Andrew Christian, Gottex, Catalina, Seafolly, Michael Kors, Jantzen, and O‘Neill are among those. Speedo remained leader in competition and fashion swimwear that also includes leisure swimwear suits too(Henson, 2012). Nike, Arena International (Arena), TYR, Reebok International Limited, Mizuno, and Adidas are the major competitors of Speedo in competitive swimwear market. Major competitors of Speedo are listed below.
TYR Sports Inc
Nature of Competition:
Products by Nike and Adidas are considered a direct competitors of Speedo’s products because these two offering multiple products in both categories of fashion as well as sports swimwear. Though Speedo has remained market leader in overall swimwear market, its competitors have expanded their product lines and currently offer tough competition in various markets. As of 2008, Speedo had 60% market share of competitive swimwear products; TYR and Nike had 20% and 13% respectively (India Times, 2008). Capitalizing on technological advances, Speedo launched its LZR Racer® and it proved to be a cash cow for the company. Due to this technically advanced swim suit, Speedo remained dominant in the performance swimwear market and Speedo gained momentum which will be much helpful in future growth strategy. This competition is for a market which is expected to grow up to US$17 billion till 2015 (Global Swimwear Market , 2010). Speedo has been successful in forcing its competitors to acknowledge its supremacy in technically advance swimwear of all types.
Nike, Inc. is a world famous supplier of sportswear and the related equipment. The company has its headquarters in Washington County, Oregon United States. The company earned US$2,133 million in 2011 and turnover was US$ 20,862 million (Yahoo Finance, 2012). The company also owns and operates several sportswear retail stores and maintains its presence in more than 180 countries of the world. The company is a world famous sponsor of many high profile athletes. It also sponsored many famous teams. Its tagline “Just Do It” is well known in the world of sports. The company decided to quit elite swimwear products though it will not quit swimwear retail market. Some analysts consider it a defeat of Nike at hands of Speedo but company’s top management considers it a part of Nike’s long-term growth strategy. It is said because Nike acknowledged Speedo’s supremacy in swimming competitions by releasing its sponsored players from its contractual obligations as well allowing them to wear Speedo’s products in these competitions(Press Release: LZR Racer Aquabeat, 2009).
Nike’s marketing strategy is based on the sponsorship agreements with athletes, professional teams and athletic teams of different colleges and universities. Company’s promotional strategy is a mix of advertising (especially in 1980s and 2000s) and sponsorships around the world.
Adidas is another world recognized brand name, the company was founded in 1924. Adidas AG is sportswear, equipmentand footwear manufacturer and its headquarters are situated in Herzogenaurach, Germany. The company earned US$ 671 million in 2011 and turnover was US$ 13,344 million (Adidas Ggroup Consolidated Income Statement(IFRS), 2011). Adidas’s JetConcept swimsuit gained worldwide recognition due to its grooves which were much like those of an airliner. This swimsuit helped to reduce friction drag. During 1990s, the company divided its brand into three major groups for the sake f a focus separately on each brand. These include Adidas Performance, Adidas originals and Style Essentials (Y-3 is subgroup in this group). “Impossible is Nothing” is the mainstream tagline of Adidas (News: Mark Wolfe Contemporary Art, 2011). Adidas power soccer Commodore 64, ZX spectrum, Amstrad CPC: Adidas Championship Football are notable games that feature Adidas and it is also involved in the sponsorship of domestic as well as international sports events around the world. the company has focused on its promotional activities and there was increase in its marketing budget every next year, in past few years and company expects to earn up to 47% margins in coming years (Adidas Group 2012 Outlook, 2012).
Famous for its swimwear and goggles, TYR Sport, Inc. is a comparatively young players in the swimwear market, as the company was founded in the year 1985 in USA. The company is famous for the manufactures and designing of swimwear and related equipments for professional players of athletics. The company has joined hands with Swimwear Anywhere for the production of hi-technology swimwear products such as Aqua Shift, Aquapel, and Fusion 2. These products were endorsed by world famous athletes and winners of swimming competitions around the world. Hi-tech fabric suits are company’s main products in the Olympic games of past three years. The completed started research in 1999 and hoped to produce swimwear that will reduce the drag friction by 6%, and the company was able to explain components of drag force offered by the racing suits. Also it was successful in reducing pressure drag by 18% and wave drag by 13%, reducing the overall drag by 10% in 2004 (Hoovers, 2012). The company has sponsored athletes like Josh Schneider, Amanda Weir, and Allison Brennan in international games. Speedo was sued by TYR in US for conspiring with the US Swimming Federation on charges of tempting their athletes but the accusations did not stop Speedo from investing in hi-tech swimwear and gaining a competitive advantage.
Originally a part of Adidas Group, the company was founded in 1973 and has its headquarters in Tolentino, Italy. Currently it has established its presence in 103 countries; it has two major business units, Arena in Europe and Arena by Descente in Japan that is famous for its sporting apparel (Arena: History , 2012). These two are totally separate divisions and share no technology or designs. Southeastern unit developed a hi-tech swim suit using Powerskin fabric. This fabric absorbs less moisture and thus helps to reduce the drag. Arena is reportedly the first company to focus on textile and fluid dynamics research in order to develop the fastest, lightest and smoothest swimwear. According to company’s website “Arena has equipped the world’s leading swimmers and lovers of water sports with racing, training, and leisure swimwear and accessories built on a foundation of in-depth research, technical know-how, and an unyielding commitment to quality” (Arena: Company Profile, 2012).
Speedo invested heavily in latest technology that helped to manufacture and design its hi-tech products while its competitors mainly focused on expanding their latest merchandises. So the company gained a competitive advantage over its competitors and became a dominant player in the global swimwear including fashionable leisure swimwear.
Nike, Adidas and TYR acknowledged the technical supremacy of Speedo’s products as Nike and Arena released their sponsored athletes from their contractual obligation and allowed them to wear Speedo suits so that they would not be at a disadvantage in the pool. The success of the Speedo-sponsored athletes forced athletes sponsored by other brands to curb their deals. Some swimmers defied their sponsorship deals and opted for Speedo suits. Speedo‘s competitors lost market share as many athletes and teams switched to Speedo Swimwear. Some of them even exited from the competition and accused Speedo of monopolizing the game and for using technology that broke competitive rules.
Current Market Strategy:
Sponsorships: Speedo sponsors many national swimming teams which include teams of Australia, Brazil, Finland, Hong Kong, Japan, Mexico, Romania, United States, United Kingdom and Canada. It also maintains its reputation by sponsoring world-class swimming athletes around the world.
Advertisements: Speedo has traditionally focused on people over product and credibility over advertising, analysts said. Sponsorship was the key forSpeedo to reach the top position in the competitive swimwear market. For Speedo, advertisingwas done in a way by training and sponsoring elite swimmers as the company involves swimmers in its product development process. To boost its fashion brands it invested in advertisements in 2000s.
Product positioning: Speedo brand positioning should be carefully done so as to attract as many customers as possible. Speedo swimming products come in a variety of brands and different customers have their own tastes and preferences. A key method of minimizing ideas generated about a new product by a company is having a market research conducted. In this, the consumer preferences for the product, the price of related products, the brand name of related products and the target market information is gathered. The information is then analyzed and presented to the company. The ideas generated by the company about the new product are then sorted out in line with the results of the research. The ideas found to fully meet the desires of the target market are then adopted by the company and used for the product development (Khanna, Palepu, and Sinha, 2005).
SWOT matrix: This is an analysis model used for analyzing the competitive nature of a company through assessing both internal and external aspects of carrying out a business. In the SWOT matrix, Strengths and Weaknesses are the internal factors while Opportunities and threats are the external factors. Table 3 below represents a SWOT matrix framework for Speedo Swimwear Manufactures (Maxi-Pedia, 2011).
· Speedo is a well known brand and an established company in the United Kingdom.
· Swimwear industry is not saturated and it is in growth stage
· Potential market is large enough to earn profits
· Speedo has experience with providing hi-tech and innovative swimsuits
· Already a market leader in the competitive swimwear market and the fact is acknowledged by its competitors such as Nike and TYR
· Speedo sponsors many national teams around the world and have their support.
· Political and legal environment of the country may change, as it has happened in Australia when early bikinis were banned.
· Almost all the hi-tech suits of Speedo have created controversy as it happened that Clare Dennis was going to be disqualified from her record-breaking event because her Speedo swimsuit saw suspected (Raszeja, 2011).
· Competitors may join hand in order to compete with Speedo.
· Operation costs such as raw material and utilities may increase drastically due to economic pressures; it will be very difficult for the business to offer inexpensive swimwear to the commons.
· In 2009, FINA introduced new rules and placed restrictions on thickness of suits etc, this may cause problems for Speedo.
· Speedo is the subsidiary of a brand management company which may sell it any time and it can lose the financial muscle
· Speedo may face problems in the United Kingdom due to its Australian roots and foreign identity.
· With the competition intensifying in the competitive swimwear industry, the company can focus more on the fashion wear and broaden its scope.
· Swimwear industry is in growth phase and the concept of beachwear as fashion is becoming popular day by day.
· As the competition is increasing, Speedo has an open window for the use of technology in swimsuits. So it can capitalize on its experience.
· After the success of the business in hi-tech swimwear, it may explore the similar opportunities in other fields such as related accessories such as Speedo Digital music player in the pool and movie camera.
· The business may choose to use technology in a more efficient way in order to attract more customers and popularize its new brands. Internet can provide unlimited access to many online social networks.
Table 1: SWOT analysis for Speedo
U.K. Market: PESTLE Analysis
· U.K is “the mother democracy” with its own constitution, parliament and government.
· U.K enjoys political stability since very long.
· This stability has encouraged a lot of foreign direct investment into the country.
· Privatization of public services has led to a decrease in regulation through political measures.
· U.K’s economy is one of the Europe’s strongest economies and it has successfully recovered from the economic downturn of 2009.
· Tourism is one of the most important industries and government has taken many steps to encourage this industry.
· U.K has beautiful beaches and they are source of tourist interests as well as attraction points for swimming enthusiasts.
· Literacy rate is high.
· Higher standard of living and high life expectancy
· Speedos are not encouraged as normal clothing in the country
· U.K. has a well-developed infrastructure
· It is considered one of Europe’s technologically most advanced countries.
· Technology has affected the competitive swimwear industry in many ways, such as Speedo has achieved market leadership due to its hi-tech suits
· Law enforcing system is divided at 3 levels ; federal, state & local
· More Powers at state level, whereas federal government mostly controls, foreign affairs, economy and defense
· Due to its geographical situation in the centre of Europe, its high population density and high level of industrialization, U.K continues to call for special efforts in the field of environment protection.
· Due to the construction of 8,000 biological sewage treatment plants in the municipal sector, U.K has reduced pollutants into its waters(U.K: Country Profile, 2003).
Table 2: PESTLE analysis for Speedo
1. Speedo is well known and established band
2. Industry is not saturated
3. large potential market
4. Experience in hi-tech swimsuit manufacturing
1. Foreign Identity
2. Subsidiary of a brand management country which may sell it any time.
1. Swimwear Industry in growth phase
2. Focus on fashion wear
3. Possible market expansion
4. Better use of technology, internet etc
1. Invest in Fashion wear market (S2, S2, O1, O2)
2. Use technical knowhow for development (O1, S3,S4)
3. Invest in the development of internet channels to reach wide range of target customers. (O4, S3)
1. Learn about the English culture and traditions more and more from possible available online resources (W1, O4)
2. Joint Ventures with the local firms (S3, W2)
1. Change in political and legal environment
2. FINA 2009 new rules
3. Controversial technology of swimsuits
4. Increase in operational costs
1. Keep in touch with the FINA management and use international contacts to company’s benefit (S4, T2)
1. Develop an insight into the legal and political environment of the country and try to forecast 5 years major political and legal changes (W1, T1)
Table 3: SWOT Matrix
Planning also entails knowledge of customer’s lifestyle for the target market. Lifestyle is important when designing the type of products to sell to consumers in different regions. To address such issue of lifestyle, the company could open a website whereby customers post their suggestions and give their likes for the products offered. In addition, communication is very important when planning new marketing strategies. Most people are technologically advanced and would love to purchase swimming costumes products online and get home delivery. Improving the Company’s website would be most appropriate. Responding to customer issues and queries go along the way in achieving customer satisfaction; thus, in attracting and retaining of customers. It is easier to satisfy and delight customers when their true and perceived needs are known than when they are unknown.
Business organizations always perform an analysis that aids in market entry strategies formulation. The market, cost, competitive advantage and government forms the globalization drivers that the country analysis basis the focus. This depicts weaknesses and strengths for a business to participate actively in the international market. Multinational business analysis like Speedo Swimwear Manufacturers, on the other hand, outlines the potentiality of the business to gain from the market participation. The analysis incorporates strategic levers such as marketing, location and product, and organization analysis such as culture, people, management and structure. The target market for Speedo consisted of the following groups.
Teenagers who swim regularly
Swimming enthusiasts who visit beaches in their leisure time
These are profitable potential market segments Speedo’s target market. Company’s performance swimsuits and gadgets like aquabeatetc can help teenage swimmers to perform better in swimming pools or during competitions at school and college level. Speedo’s unique fashion swimwear and gadgets like digital camera and music players can be favorite choice of swimming enthusiasts who visit beaches and do the swimming in their leisure time.
These two are distinct and unique segments of the target market. Investing more in the products for this target market can be a source of high profits for the company.
To take part in
school and college studenets
swimming Games such
12-19 years old
school and college
in their surroundings
as Olympics etc
and local swimming
Visit swimming pools
and spend some
Often Visit Beaches in
Prefer branded items
Have leisure time
quality time on
over generic items
Live all over U.K
Table 4: AIOD Framework
Teenagers Who Swim Regularly:
According to a survey of 4000, 11 to 18 year-olds by the British Market Research Bureauwhich included data of 15 years, one out of every four teenager swim weekly and regularly (Curtis, 2008).Instead of many distractions such as electronic games and indoor activities, teenagers’ love for swimming has not decreased and it is evident from the fact that there are more private swimming pools in urban U.K. than before (Rogers, 2011). It was reported in the above mentioned survey that 23% of 11-15 year olds swim at least once a week in Wales, 10% of teenagers swim regularly in London and same is the case in Yorkshire and Humberside and the north of England. These teens mostly practice for the local swimming competitions and those held in schools and colleges.
Speedo’s performance swimsuits have targeted professional athletes mostly and it has won the market leadership, it can develop such swimwear for these enthusiastic teenagers on a large scale and help them win the competitions. Also it can sponsor and train them and thus select a better breed of the swimmers for international competitions such as Olympic Games. Speedo’s other products such as aquabeatetc are very helpful for these teenagers. Speedo needs to invest in the products and develop a range of those for teenage swimmers of both genders.
Swimming enthusiasts who visit beaches in their leisure time
There are exceptionally beautiful beaches in the United Kingdom which are tourists’ attraction points and are visited by locals and foreigners are alike. Beaches like Bournemouth’s seven miles of beach, St. Brelade, in the Jersey Islands, St. Ives, Tenby, Newquay, Bude, and Weymouth are some of the beautiful beaches where the beach loving English people spent their leisure times (Travellers’ Choice, 2012). The European Union has been looking after 21000 beaches, lakes and rivers in Europe in order to provide healthy swimming and entertainment environment (Jha, 2010). People from across the United Kingdom visit beaches and such area for recreational activities. Most of them belong to reasonable income group and prefer comfortable branded swimwear. As these people are fun-loving they are interested in swimwear such as fashionable bikinis and bodysuits (The Beaches Differnces , 2012). `
As it has already been pointed out that Speedo needs to increase its share of beach leisurewear market, the company needs to target this segment of the target markets more seriously. Speedo is already doing well with the help of its hi-tech products in this market, it can promote its fashion swimwear and related products more seriously in order to capture larger share of market. Speedo’s fashion swimwear and accessories like music player which is equally good in the pool, can bring more revenues for the company.
The positioning statements for both these target markets are as follows:
For the young swimmers, Speedo offers its LZR Racer Junior and Aquabeat that will help you to win your dreams because only winners choose Speedo.
For Beach market
For the water lovers, Speedo offers comfort, fashion and design that will provide you everything you need in the company of a beach.
To facilitate extensive marketing, use of intermediaries is important. These include agents and dealers that are all over the globe. Deployment of various dealers all over the world ensures that the products are available to customers all over the world at every time. This has the effect of placing the business at better competitive grounds in comparison to other businesses. Toyota’s manufacturing center is in Japan, but selling points for the vehicles distribution are all over the globe. The dealers help in the distribution of the vehicles to the customers. This marketing strategy eliminates the use of retailers and wholesalers within the distribution channel. This reduces distribution cost, which results into a reduction of the final product price (Muller, 2011).
For Teenage Swimmers:
Company’s core product for this segment is the swimsuit which helps a young swimmer to compete well in the pool. As the company has experience of nearly 90 years of competitive swimwear manufacturing, it can help the teenagers with a swimsuit that will reduce the drag and allow a free movement of the body. Using its Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology, speed can launch a LZR Racer Junior to assist the young swimmers. FLUENT technology from ANSYS, Inc. can be of much help as it was used in the LZR Racer in 2008 (Bramall, 2009). LZR Pulse that is an ultra-lightweight, low-drag, water repellent, and fast-drying fabric, was used as the base woven material for the suit. It will allow the teenagers to compete well in the swimming competitions. Also Aquabeat by Speedo can help the young swimmers to learn swimming and prepare well for the competitions.
The company can take a start from this technology and then capitalize on its innovative skills in coming years of business, in next 3 years; Speedo can develop a range of products especially suited to this market.
For Beach Lovers:
Although fashion and lifestyle products of Speedo such as Speedo Sculpture, are already in the market, it does not have a specific products which target beach lovers. Bikinis and Men’s water shorts are some products of Speedo which come under the range of products as leisurewear and beachwear. So in the first year, Speedo can boost sales of its leisurewear by offering these products and Speedo Digital to the beech lovers. Also it should invest and innovate, develop products which will make the life at beach, fun and play, such as video cameras etc
As the target market of the company consists of teenagers the company cannot charge premium prices. Rather Speedo should go for market penetration strategy and rely on the volumes of sale in first year of this marketing plan. As soon as the brand establishes itself in the market like its other brands, and market becomes more competitive, it can increase prices and capitalize on its brand name.
Trade and quantity discounts can be offered in first year of the program as a part of promotion strategy. For example the company can provide swimwear to whole teams of college students or teams of some clubs etc. Also Speedo can extend credit facility and even sponsor well known teams.
People, who have leisure time and visit beaches, mostly belong to a class with a reasonable income. And fashion and leisurewear have to be well placed and well-priced too. The company can charge premium prices for its beachwear by offering elegant designs and quality products. Speedo should use individual names for its brands, as the distinct brands have always been profitable for the company. The company can extend credit facility to its valued customers but only after 2 years of its implementation of plans when the product and brand is established in the leisurewear market.
In the past Speedo products were sold in over 4,000 retail stores across the U.K. The products for these two new market segments can be sold in the same way but some changes can be made to make the placement better.
Traditional channels of the retailers which have Speedo licenses for selling its brands can be used as they are already established sellers. One change that can be made is, Speedo can provide license to certain swimming pools and the event management companies which organize swimming competitions and events at local level to sell Speedo brands to teenage swimmers.
Speedo can establish its branded stores in all over the country which have specialization in beachwear and fashion swimwear, apart from competitive swimsuits. These stores will attract the target customers very well.
The company can keep using the same promotion strategy focused on the sponsorship of swimming teams and of individual elite swimmers for these two target markets, but some additional above the line advertisements will be beneficial.
Speedo can keep on sponsoring school and college teams to popularize its brands amongst the teenagers. Moreover it can train and teach elite teenage swimmers the same it does the professional swimmers in Olympics.
The company needs to invest heavily in advertisements in order to promote its fashion wear and leisurewear. Heavy above the live advertisement and sponsoring fashion wear events can be much helpful. In the first year the company needs to invest heavily in promotion budget and advertise on all types of media. In coming years it can use its traditional style of sponsorships etc.
Speedo Swim Wear manufacturers conjured the challenging environment through planning a good marketing strategy that pave the way to more customers demanding their products. A perfect marketing plan is very essential for the success of every organization. All efforts and activities in a business should have unity and focus on giving customers what they demand. If customers prefer to have constancy in service, the business should ensure that, if the customers are price sensitive, the businesses should offer fair prices, if customers focus, or are delighted more on reliability and variety, then the businesses should unify its efforts and resources toward delivering that. Businesses operate to attain growth through profits; thus, the operations should be cost effective (Lewis, & Slack, 2003). In addition, every organization need to know its target market behavior, customers’ buying attitudes, and needs. This assists in determining what exactly the customers expect to get when they purchase goods or services. It is easier to satisfy and delight customers when their true and perceived needs are known than when they are unknown. Responding to customer issues and queries go along the way in achieving customer satisfaction; thus, in attracting and retaining of customers
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