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The insurance underwriting process history assignment help writing services: history assignment help writing services

Q 1

The insurance underwriting process involves evaluating a company’s risk in the relevance of a home, car; a driver is the individual’s health and life majorly. Insurance underwriting them makes it possible for the company in charge of insurance policies to take up an opportunity to provide its services in terms of coverage to its customers, who are either individuals or businesses. Thus an insurance company must have how many bases they are willing to pay off as compensation. Automobile insurance is a contract between an insured person and the insurance company to claim the prize at the vent o a loss in return for paying a premium over a certain period (Fan et al., 2017). In Canada, the key for automobile insurance that underpins them to success includes rules that cannot be subjective or arbitrary; authorities must bear a relationship to the risk and many others.

Rules cannot be subjective to the arbitrary.

This is one of the standards that are contained in the Underwriting Act. This means that rules regarding the insurance process must not be written in vague or complicated language that can be interpreted into many other forms. Therefore a government written should not be perceived differently by various people who the ones are reading it. The rule should generally pass one common information regardless of the status that the person is in.

Rules must bear a relationship to the risk.

The principle indicates that the rules guiding every process should correspond to the relationship of the risk. In that, the authorities should, in one way or another, describe the chance to enable understanding before one makes the decision.

Filling of rules for deductibles, limits of liability, and for declining Physical Damage coverage

In the underwriting Act, the requirement is that the rules are filled in circumstances that the coverage is being limited. Therefore, the rules should be filed if one wants minimum deductibles percentage on specific physical damage cover, which will not offer any higher liability limits.

Rules used to cede to a risk-sharing pool.

It is not essential to file any rules one takes into use to cede the risk-sharing pool. This is because as one will be providing the coverage to the risks related to such, then the decision to surrender and the form used to carry out the same do not correspond to those of the underwriting requirements as to the Act.

Withdrawal from the market

Suppose the insurer will do something likely to result in the reduction in the total amount of the gross premiums paid or premiums written by the insurer. In that case, he is required to file a withdrawal notice to the company from the business that he has insured (Franck et al., 2017). This is where the insurer has intentions and the actions of making a withdrawal. However, the insurer can be made to stay in the market if he meets the consumers if necessary for at least 90 days by the superintendent.

All the insurers in Canada are permitted to put down automobile insurance to make a filing in considerations of the underwriting rules and Acts as above. Furthermore, the management should consistently make a consequent similarity to that of Ontario’s Financial Services Commission.




Many rules govern the basic activities that the insurance companies carry out. The principles that govern a life insurance agent’s actions are put in place to curb many other activities resulting from fraud or trying to deprive the persons who are being insured. There is, therefore, an Act or regulation in Canada that is subjective to ensure that all the activities that are carried out do not go against what is written. If so, then it will be considered as an unfair or deceptive act or rather a practice. The prohibited methods include unfair discrimination of individuals of the same class, provision of any false or misleading statements, any charge of allowance or fee for a premium allowance that is not stipulated, among many others discussed below.

The unfair discrimination of the individuals of the same class and same expectations of life

Individuals of the same class should be treated in the same way while in the insurance process. No individual is better than the other and should pay more premium s or fewer premiums than their counterparts in the same status or class they are in. Therefore, it is unethical if individuals of the same level will be charged differently in terms of premiums in payment or returns, the rates that are set for life insurance contracts (Avraham, 2017). Furthermore, the benefits that are payable to such agreements too should be similar all through. The intention of the same may be to profit the agents working in the insurance company.

Any false or misleading statements considering the terms of payments or benefits or advantage of any contract policy

At times, the insurance agents may intentionally give out misleading information to the insurer on the basis that they gain from the decision that will be made at the end. In other circumstances, it is usually the agents that hide very important benefits or information that is supposed to be given to the insurer to have peace of mind. However, it is prohibited that such actions of omitting or hiding relevant information may include the basics of the same. The above segment is regarded as a deception act by the law.

Any charge of allowance by a person that is considered as a premium payor fee than the already stipulated amount

There is a tendency, especially when it comes to life insurance, that the agents know within any time. The insurer is bound to die—the resort to charging a higher premium with unrelated additional charges than it is supposed to be. By doing so, they gain at the expense of the one ensuring their lives (Horne et al., 2017). The charges may be added to premiums that are paid at intervals, and by so doing, the agents will also be receiving money from malicious acts. The above Act is prohibited, and it is against the laws of insurance in Canada.

Any conduct activities that may result in an unreasonable or unexpected delay in or rather resistance to the fairway of the settlement of claims

Any activities that maliciously suggest otherwise from the normal compensation process include delay of giving out a claim or resisting to do the same. When the persons who had insured their lives die, their money is usually compensated to the next of kin as their primary beneficial factors. However, some instances come in when the agents in charge restrict the compensation to weigh what will happen. If nothing happens, they in negative ways benefit from the money left behind by the deceased if no legal charges are placed against them.

Illustrations that by chance are in a circular, a memorandum, or a statement that is incomplete or mispresenting in terms of benefits, terms for a contract that is issued or awaiting the same

An agent may decide to present a circular to the insurer that is omitted with specific keynotes like the benefits that one will be entitled to or the terms of the contract that one should know when paying his premiums. This can be done by the agent so that they benefit from the same or not be precise with the insurer so that he remains unaware of what is happening at the expense of the agents helping. Such acts are regarded as a crime, and it’s against the Insurance acts of section 3438.




Fan, C. K., & Wang, W. Y. (2017). A comparison of underwriting decision making between telematics-enabled UBI and traditional auto insurance. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 7(1), 17.

Devereaux, R., Franck, D. S., Moritz, K., Read, S., Wheeler, D., Vaith, E., … & Allen, M. J. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,818,158. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Avraham, R. (2017). Discrimination and insurance.

Horne, J., Gilliland, J., Madill, J., & Shelley, J. (2020). A critical examination of legal and ethical considerations for nutrigenetic testing with recommendations for improving Canada regulation: From science to the consumer. Journal of Law and the Biosciences.


Integers in the Real World: Connecting Integers to Finances history assignment writing help


Integers in the Real World: Connecting Integers to Finances







Integers in the Real World: Connecting Integers to Finances

The average salary for a dentist in the United States is $161,018 per year (“Dentist Salaries in the United States,” 2020). One year has 12months meaning that the monthly payment is $161018/12= 13418.16. There are four weeks in one month; thus, the weekly pay is 13418.16/4= 3354.5. Hourly wage is obtained by getting the daily payment, which is $3354.5/7= 479.22 divided by the number of hours in a day, 479.22/24= $19.97. Therefore the doctor is paid $ 19.97 per hour.
Equation l= $19.97h*7*4*12, L= 6709.92h (l income, h=number of hours).
Income is a positive integer because it adds the amount in the account or the money an individual possesses (“Integers in real life,” 2013).
400=2.86hours, so to earn $400 per week, an individual has to work for 2.86 hours

19.97*l*7=400, so (l) the number of hours per day is 400(19.97*7) =2.86hours.

Gas in Atlanta per gallon is $2.29 (“Atlanta Gas Prices,” 2021).

M=2.29n *7 where n is the number of mileage. Estimated mileage is 4.9709 per day; therefore, in a week, I would have covered 4.9709*7= 34.7963. Therefore the weekly budget is 2.29*34.7963= $79.683527 =$80

The gas cost is a negative integer since it subtracts the total income the person has. Any expense paid from income is a negative integer.
40 hours work in a week means the person works 5.71hours per day. Therefore the income is 19.97*5.71*7=798.2009. However, Gas expenses per week are $80. Therefore weekly balance is L= 19.97h*7-J.
Monthly gas cost is $80*4= $320
Rent $2098, other utilities cost $1500. Therefore monthly budget is Monthly salary – (rent and utility expenses) – Gas expenses. Monthly balance=13418-2098-1500-320= $9500.


Integers are numbers without a fraction, which is also referred to as a whole number. Positive and negative integers are two categories of classifying integers which have a different meaning in fiancé and accounting. Positive integers represent an increase in the initial amount, while negative integers mean that the amount reduces the initial amount. Integers are very helpful in real life since they help in budgeting by enabling an individual to understand their financial position and make a better decision on how to utilize their incomes depending on the nature of their income balance integer (“Integers in real life,” 2013). A balance with a negative integer means that the individual needs to reduce expenses since they use all of their income to finance their daily lives while having no savings. A positive integer balance implies that the individual account is better. After paying for all the expenses, the person has a significant amount of their income left in the account. Therefore, identifying numbers as positive or negative integers in the budgeting or finances helps determine whether they are withdrawing, adding, or reducing their accounts, which allows them to assess their financial positions.




In finding (1), I discovered that dentist is paid $19.97 per hour. This is obtained by finding the monthly payment by dividing the average per year by 12 months. The average pay per year of a dentist is $161018; thus, per month is 161018/12. The amount found for monthly payment is then divided by 4 to find the weekly pay, divided by 7 to find the daily price. The daily salary is divided by the number of hours in a day, which is 24, to find the average wage per hour.

Question two provides the equation for the salary obtained if I worked for (h) hours. L in the equation represents income, and thus the income is obtained by first determining the pay of the h hours, which is h multiplied by average pay per hour ($19.97). This is the dentist’s daily pay in a day, and thus the weekly payment is 19.97h *7. The monthly payment is then obtained by 19.97h*7*4 since there are four weeks in a month and later multiply the amount with 12, which is the number of months in a year. In question three, the income is regarded as a positive integer since adding the bank amount makes it a deposit. In question 4, it is determined that 2.86 hours are required to earn $400 per week. In a day, the dentist is paid $19.97. In a week, the amount is $19.97*7. Therefore to find the exact hours needed to earn $400, we divide $400/ (19.97*7).

As obtained from the internet, the gas price per gallon in New York, my local area, is approximately $2.29 Therefore the amount spent on gasoline M is determined by the price ($2.29* the daily number of miles covered (n) multiplied by the number of days in a week (7). My estimated miles covered each day is 4.9709, which is equated in the equation to find the weekly cost. Since the price is coming from withdrawing from the income deposit, it is regarded as a negative integer because it reduces the income’s significant amount.

Consequently, from the calculation and application of integers in real life, I have learned the importance of positive and negative integers in budgeting, which helps determine the nature of my financial health. The integer helps me decide whether I am living within my means or utilizing my income in expenses. This would significantly help me decide on my expected expenses and reduce the costs that are not necessary and perform my daily life without them.




Dentist Salaries in United States. (, 2020). Retrieved from,2_IN1_KO3,10.htm?clickSource=searchBtn.

Integers in real life. iPractice Math. (2013). Retrieved from

Atlanta Gas Prices – NYSERDA. NYSERDA. (, 2021). Retrieved from

Integrating the six Components of Literacy ap american history essay help: ap american history essay help

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Integrating the six Components of Literacy

“La Mariposa” by Francisco Jimenez is a disjointed tale that presents a Spanish-speaking boy who struggles through his first grade. Francisco, the son of an immigrant worker, gets headaches on his first day in school as he listens to all other students speaking English. He recognizes his name only and understands very little of what is said by his teacher. His attention is drawn to a silent, slow-moving caterpillar adjacent to his desk. He understands that caterpillars turn into butterflies, but he does not know how they do it. To find out, he decides to study the words written in a butterfly book numerous times to the extent that he can close his eyes and visionaries black letters. However, he is still not capable of understanding the words’ meaning.

Jimenez’s genre puts forward various literacy components such as comprehension, oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, and vocabulary. For instance, to improve students’ oral language skills instructions, the adoption of system components is available in a usual language intervention lesson plan, including previewing and making forecasts on the text. Activities centered on morphosyntactic, and vocabulary targets will be significant. The oral language component of literacy aims to improve fluency in comprehension and decoding of the written text and develop phonological awareness.  Additionally, the literature components focus on building story grammar, comprehension, vocabulary, and grammatical competence of students at risk for reading and language difficulties through a contextualized intervention technique or approach.

To ensure that all students complete various tasks to demonstrate the literacy components’ comprehension and application, a plan for tasks students will be developed.

Plan for task

Description of activity
Contribution to literacy

Introduce the topic and theme of the book. Preview the vocabulary in it.
Enhance learning of vocabulary

Book walk
Look at pictures in the book, make different predictions to activate prior knowledge
Grammatical forms and words in context

Read selected parts of the book and find vocabulary words in context.

Discuss various meaning in relevant passages
Semantic and Morphosyntactic  cues, lexical-semantic relations, and link to the meaning

Comprehension skills
The students are expected to

a.       Establish the purpose for reading self-selected and assigned texts

b.      Generate questions related to the text before, during, and reading the text to gain information and deepen understanding

c.       Make and rectify or approve predictions using text structures, features of the text, and the genre

d.      Evaluate comprehension and make necessary adjustments such as using background knowledge, re-reading, asking questions, and checking for any visual cues
Sufficient comprehension of the texts

Oral language
The students should do the following;

a.       Actively participate in more authentic, extended, and original discussions

b.      Take part in discussions that foster assessment in some way

c.       Talk authentically about the main topic.

Students contribute more than two sentences in a discussion.

Phonological Awareness
a.       Children in kindergarten and pre-K will play with words, syllables, and rhymes which they hear in a daily speech to enable them to read

b.      Children will sing as a way to get them rhyming

c.       Discriminate between speech sounds and environmental sounds

d.      Identify various sounds and their sources
Ability to segment different words into rime and onset

a.       Sing the alphabets in the text

b.      Play with magnet letters to ensure effective pronunciation of letters
Ability to segment various sentences into personal words

a.       Practice reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills

b.      Practice sight words through playful activities

c.       Actively take part in text reading turns

d.      Take part in  choral and repeated reading
Ability to read fluently either silently or aloud

a.       Children should make conversation their priority

b.      Actively take part in word games

c.       Write for pleasure
Pronouncing words in a sentence correctly

The suggested tasks will be essential in ensuring effective learning for normal children and those with reading difficulties, dyslexia, and other striving readers. Establishing literacy intervention measures for struggling writers and readers is an essential component for ensuring learner literacy improvement efforts. However, deciding on the practical methods and kinds of programs to provide for these strategies will depend on school capacity, student needs, and teacher knowledge.  Adapting activities that include authentic talk will require that students read a prepared text and have opportunities to authentically speak about the topic during oral language classes. This can be challenging to ELs who may lack the confidence or the language skills to do so.

The inclusivity strategy in a learning setting by teachers will enable all readers, including those with difficulties in reading, to actively participate in classroom discussions concerning the story. The adoption of shared reading techniques will be appropriate in boosting struggling readers’ confidence. Offer the correct scaffolding techniques to move learners progressively toward greater comprehension and great independence in the entire learning process.  Integrating educational scaffolding will help educators offer successive levels of provisional support to struggling readers.



The Contemporary global accounting. history assignment help online

Contemporary global accounting


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Intellectual capital

Intellectual capital refers to the resources which are intangible and capabilities the company owns and controls. The intellectual capital includes knowledge, culture, brands, relational networks and processes, and the company’s reputation. Intellectual capital is classified into three broad classes: human capital, structural capital, and relational capital.

The human capital of the company refers to how knowledgeable are the employees of the company. It also refers to the skills that the company’s employees possess, the skills to manage and run the company effectively, the training offered to the company’s employees, and how innovative its employees are. The company with more knowledgeable employees, skilled employees, and training for the jobs they do is also innovative and is referred to as the company with large human capital.

Structural capital is a form of intellectual capital that refers to infrastructures owned by the company that enables it to operate efficiently. It is the supportive infrastructure of the company. The structural capital includes the company’s technological infrastructure, the company’s organizational culture and values, and the research and development that the company does. The structural capital helps to keep the company ahead of the others. The company’s adequate structural capital enables it to increase productivity and be ahead of its competitors. Relational capital refers to the company’s intellectual capital that is owned in the form of the relationship the company has built with its environment. The relationship with customers helps build loyalty with them, the good relationship the company has with the society in which it operates, and consumer brands.

The company’s intellectual capital is not presented in the financial statement; hence, it is not used in its corporate financial performance. Despite the value derived from intellectual capital, it is difficult to report the value it creates in regular financial reporting. The cost of developing the developing intellectual asset, such as training, usually is reported as an expense instead of being recognized as an asset to the company. The development of the “workaround” metric helps in calculating the “intellectual capital index” (ICI), which shows the value of the company in terms of its intellectual capital. The value of the intellectual capital index (ICI) indicates the value the company derives from the intellectual capital, such as patents, copyrights, technologies, and critical talent.

Intellectual capital is significant to any company as the company cannot easily lose this capital. The knowledge and skills of producing certain products are fundamental to maintain the brand of the organization. Coca-cola company has held its market-relevant because of the sole ownership of the knowledge of coke production chemicals.

The accounting system’s future is to incorporate the intellectual capital in its accounting reporting system so that the company’s financial performance reports it to others.

International financial reporting standards (IFRS)and how it differs from the Generally accepted accounting principles

The IFRS and GAAP are a set of rules that help the accountants determine how transactions and other accounting-related events are supposed to be reported in the financial statements.  Both the IFRS and GAAP are accounting standards, but the two frameworks differ in several ways. The following are ways in which the two frameworks differ from each other.IFRS does not allow the use of the last in first out (LIFO), capitalization of qualifying development costs, the revaluation model that is permissible for the property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), use of component depreciation, and allowable reversal of impairment.

The generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP) presentation of the financial statement starts with the most liquid assets and liabilities, then the noncurrent and long-term assets and liabilities, and the shareholders’ equity. The international financial reporting standards (IFRS) framework requires starting with the most illiquid accounts.  The GAAP allows the recognition of an extraordinary loss and gains, while the IFRS does not allow the classification of loss and gain as an extraordinary. The flexibility of the cash flow statement is higher under the IFRS framework.

GAAP does not allow the capitalization of the development costs except internal-use software, website development, developed technology acquired in a business combination. The IFRS requires the capitalization of any development costs. The development costs are treated as the intangible asset under the IFRS.

The last in first out (LIFO) inventory valuation approach is not allowed under the IFRS. The only acceptable approaches for inventory valuation are the first in, first out, and weighted average approaches. This is unlike the GAAP, which accepts the inventory valuation using the last in first out (LIFO) valuation approach. The revaluation approach is used in reporting the property, plant, and equipment (PP&E) assets under the IFRS framework. The revalued asset causes the change in the entire class of the PP&E. The increase in the asset carrying value under the revaluation approach is reported in the comprehensive income. IN the GAAP framework, the PP&E assets are only reported at the asset’s cost, less the accumulated depreciation on the asset.

The IFRS uses the component depreciation approach. The approach requires that each part of the asset that makes up PP&E is depreciated separately. The IFRS requires that each part is treated independently from another, unlike the US. GAAP allows the depreciation of the whole PP&E. This makes the IFRS be the most appropriate framework in determining the value of the components of PP&E. TO determine whether the item of PP&E is impaired, IAS 36 is applied to ensure that assets are not overvalued than the recoverable amounts.  An impairment loss is realized in the profit or loss when the asset carrying value is more than the amount recoverable. The impairment loss can be reversed under the IFRS when the circumstances change. The carrying amount increases, unlike in the Under GAAP framework, which does not allow for reversing. Under US GAAP, except for goodwill, intangibles are tested when indicating impairment, unlike in IFRS which the indicators of impairment are assessed annually. Goodwill impairment testing is determined at reporting unit level under the GAAP, while under the IFRS, the goodwill impairment is tested at the cash-generating unit.

There is no reporting of an extraordinary item under the IFRS framework, while the GAAP framework accepts the reporting of an extraordinary item in the financial statements.  The income or loss which is attributed to the changes in the fair value of AFS security is part of the comprehensive income as a whole under the GAAP framework, while the income or loss attributed to the change in the fair value financial instrument is attributed to the selection of a different currency.

Knowing the differences between the IFRS and GAAP accounting framework helps the company know the appropriate framework to adopt. Most international companies are moving away from the US. GAAP framework. The popularity of the IFRS framework has increased.

In the future, the accounting framework that will be most acceptable will be the IFRS framework since it offers a clear framework for reporting. the complexities associated with US GAAP have been overcome through the IFRS




McCann, D. (2016). Intellectual Capital: The Hidden Talent Metric, Sept. Available at CFO. com.

Albertini, E., & Berger-Remy, F. (2019). Intellectual capital and financial performance: A meta-analysis and research agenda. [email protected] [email protected] gement, 22(2), 216-249.

Harris, P., Jermakowicz, E. K., & Epstein, B. J. (2014). Converting Financial Statements from US GAAP to IFRS. The CPA Journal, 84(1), 20.

Campbell, T. (2016). The bilingual CPA. Journal of Accountancy, 221(3), 54.