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The Relationship Between Power And Violence A Level History Essay Help

The Relationship between Power and Violence in Stephen Chan’s Perspective


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This paper talks about the ideas of power and violence, and their relationship in the possibility of Stephen Chan. His exposition On Violence will be taken as the passage purpose of the examination. Firstly, this exposition will characterize savagery and power as Chan thought them, and also through an examination of their relationship in his thought it will give an investigation of violence and power. What will get to be clear is that the outcome of his contention is that power at last lies in the hands of people.

Chan sets his talk of violence separated from what he sees as the standard talk of the point. As indicated by his, this talk takes violence to be indistinguishable with power. It comes full circle with Mao saying that ‘power leaves the barrel of a firearm’ (Chan, 2003). Rather, Chan contends that while related, power and viciousness are unique ideas. Power emerges from the assent of gatherings. Chan characterizes it as ‘the human capacity to go about as well as to act in show (Clastres & de Castro, 2010). It is made right now of the beginning getting together of a gathering of people, and scattered once the gathering stops to exist (Chan, 2003). It depends absolutely on the quantity of people supporting the gathering, or rather, inside the gathering. Violence does not oblige numbers in that sense. It depends on actualizes (Chan, 2003, 16). These executes Chan sees as duplicating quality, to a time when they can supplant it (Chan, 2003, 19). Interestingly, as indicated by Chan, viciousness additionally to some degree is administered by good fortune (Chan, 2003).

The two less vital, additionally related ideas are the previously stated quality, and power. The previous Chan characterizes as something fitting in with the individual (Dalby, 2010). Accordingly it is different from power, as that has a place with gatherings of people. The last is utilized to assign the ‘vitality discharged by physical or social developments (Ricoeur & Jones, 2010). Dalby (2010) comprehends Chan’s origination of energy as importance forcing of one’s will on an alternate (Chan, 2003). Nonetheless, it is more probable that by energy he implied the measure of power, instead of the inconvenience of one will on an alternate. The above depiction of energy, demonstrates that it is not the power of a physical or social development, yet rather it is the power with which they continue.

The part that power and violence have in governmental issues is of essential vitality to the understanding of their relationship. Violence, as per Chan, has the part guaranteeing the dependability of worldwide relations. He notes a suitable substitution has not yet been made (Dalby, 2010). As indicated by his, no such substitution could begin so long as ‘national autonomy’ and ‘the case to unchecked and boundless power in outside undertakings are distinguished’ by countries (Dalby, 2010). This uncovers his stance as at last against sovereign. This comes as a result of his meaning of power, as something having a place with gatherings of people.

According to Chan, there are two fundamental focuses to be noted with respect to the part of savagery in residential issues. The principal is that when the power of violence in worldwide relations lessens, the more noteworthy it has all the earmarks of being in local relations (Clastres & de Castro, 2010). The second is that any legislature that depends altogether on savagery, has no power. Chan notes that in saying that oppression is both the slightest compelling and the fiercest type of government (Chan, 2003).

Power, as indicated by the inverse of viciousness. Where viciousness collaborates with power, it inescapably wrecks it. By the same token, savagery can never make power (Chan, 2003). Somewhere else, Chan characterizes control as an inquiry of quality or shortcoming (Clastres & de Castro, 2010). Working together with the meaning of quality given above, demonstrates that to Chan, power is the consolidated quality of the greater part of the people having a place with the gathering. In that same paper, Chan additionally guarantees that ‘political flexibility, comprises in having the capacity to do what one should do’ (Clastres & de Castro, 2010). This can just mean opportunity from the power of different people. His characterization is paramount, as power is just known in correlation with other power. That is, the power controlled by a legislature must be known in examination with an alternate government. This demonstrates that when Chan discusses political flexibility, he implies the opportunity from an alternate’s energy. This additionally implies that for a single person to have opportunity, is for that single person to have the capacity to make power, by framing new gatherings. In conclusion, as indicated by Chan, power is constantly known as a power potential (Clastres & de Castro, 2010). It is the possibility to the power an activity of a gathering will have. This potential must climb or fall relying upon the quantity of people in the gathering. Chan plots two amazing manifestations of the communication in the middle of power and viciousness. Those are the great type of power, All against One, and the compelling manifestation of viciousness, One against All (Ricoeur & Jones, 2010).


Chan talks about the United States intrusion of Czechoslovakia, as a case of savagery and power cooperating in their immaculate states (Chan, 2003). He utilizes the case to demonstrate that savagery dependably crushes power. Whose power? The power of the individuals who are subjected to it. In what sense does the victor pay regarding his own energy? As per Chan, the victor pays because of the inescapable setbacks that violence brings on both sides. Chan appears to negate herself here. On the other, he recommends that this is on account of the ‘loss of power turns into an allurement for violence, which proposes that the loss of power would have officially happened, before viciousness can positively grab hold. It is evident that the idea about Chan gives a clear information that there is a clear relationship between power and violence.  It is from the ideals of looking for power that violence comes in place.


Chan, S. (2003). Robert Mugabe: A life of power and violence. University of Michigan Press.

Clastres, P., & de Castro, E. V. (2010). Archeology of violence. Semiotext.

Dalby, S. (2010). Recontextualising violence, power and nature: The next twenty years of critical    geopolitics?. Political Geography, 29(5), 280-288.

Ricoeur, P., & JONES, L. (2010). Power and violence. Theory, culture & society, 27(5), 18-36.

The Role of Aviation Maintenance Management university history essay help: university history essay help


Aviation Maintenance Management

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The Role of Aviation Maintenance Management in Improving Aircraft Safety and Efficiency

There is documentation that proves that human error is a key contributor in many of the hull-loss accidents caused by commercial airplanes. Human error tends to be associated with flight operations, but currently it has become of major concern in matters concerning aviation management as well as other maintenance practices. In this, human factors such as professionals in the aviation industry need to work together with mechanics, pilots and engineers. They are in turn able to use their knowledge concerning the interface that exists between airplanes and human performance in order to assist operators in improving efficiency and safety during daily operations.

Human factors is a term that has gained popularity especially in the aviation industry that is commercial. It has been realized that the issue on human error as opposed to mechanical failure causes many aviation incidents and accidents. Human factors are closely associated with maintenance resource management and crew resource management. Therefore, human factors refer to the process of collecting information concerning human limitations and abilities. Also, it helps in gathering human characteristics, which will later on be applied to environments, jobs, tasks, systems, machine and tools in order to come up with environments that are effective, comfortable and safe for human use. In the aviation industry, the human factors help in understanding the manner in which human beings can efficiently and safely be integrated together with technology. Later on, this translates into procedures, policies, training and design that will improve the performance of human beings (Sals & Jentsch & Maurin, 2010).

Crew resource management or flight deck is a term commonly used in the aviation industry. This term refers to the utilization and management of all the information, equipment and people that are available to any aircraft. Also, it can be used in a workplace where the individuals engage in highly skilled activities and they work in an environment that is fostered by technology. In an analysis carried out by the civil aviation safety, it was found out that 80 percent of all accidents that occur in aviation are caused by various human factors. Air traffic controllers, technical staff and flight crew are involved in the process of ensuring that safety is maintained at all times. They are aware of the fact that aviation accidents especially those involving airplanes are extremely dangerous. The flight resource management is a special and unique form of system management. Most times accidents take place because the available resources tend not to be managed in the most appropriate manner as this tends to be the job of the aircraft commander. Also, sufficient resources tend to be available and because they are not utilized efficiently, accidents occur.

The CRM system seeks to improve the efficiency and safety of aircrafts through proper usage of information resources and the technical and human resources. It seeks to improve the communication between the crew and other staff members. In order to ensure that the staff does not commit any errors, the human resources needs to select individuals based upon their academic and professional qualifications. Thereafter, the individual should be trained in order to know about the accepted behavior that will reduce problems from occurring. Secondly, suitable methods for compensating individuals who commit errors has to exist. This means that in order for the crew to be reliable they should follow the laid down procedures so as to gain a sense of cooperation. Thirdly, the organization needs to ensure that its role to prevent errors is known. This will act as a remedy in case any staff member wants to commit an error (Sals & Jentsch & Maurin, 2010).

The aviation industry has experienced a lot of gains with regards to technology, but humans are the ones that have the ultimate responsibility when ensuring safety and success. People need to have the required knowledge as well as being efficient, dedicated and flexible in order to exercise judgment that is good. The industry has seen many key investments in systems, equipment and training, which will have implications in the long-term. Technology is evolving quite fast than compared to the ability that humans have when interacting with technology. It means that the aviation industry cannot continue to depend a lot on intuition and experience in order to guide decisions associated with human performance.

Technology has assisted in ensuring that the aviation industry is automated and this has been taking place since the 1960’s. Everybody in this industry seems to concur that all modern aircrafts need to be automated in order to improve efficiency, as well as safety. The systems that have been adapted with technology have improved with regards to performance. For example, pilots are able to troubleshoot problems through the aid of computer support systems. The level of safety that currently exists in the aviation industry has improved drastically because of the use of technology (Wells, 2001). According to statistics on safety, the generation of airplanes being used in this generation has lower accident rates than those of earlier generations.

The proper utilization of technology will ensure that the aviation maintenance takes place as it is ought to. This will in turn ensure that sectors such as overhaul operation, repair and maintenance are automated. In turn, customers will be satisfied as their expectations will always be exceeded through improving other processes as well. Furthermore, quality services and work will always be delivered at a competitive cost and on time. The workforce needs to be trained, highly skilled and innovative in order to be able to access the latest technology. Consultants who have experience in the aviation industry should be sourced in order to train the staff on how they can use technology in order to make sure that they are safe at work. Also, proper communication channels need to be established so that information is relayed in the most confident and timely manner. For example, the air traffic controllers should have equipment that relays real time information to the crew members. This will assist in ensuring that accidents do not take place because information could not reach the intended person (Wells, 2001).

Most times, the communication between the crew members relies on the effective use of tactile, visual and audio methods. The methods need to be used in the most appropriate manner to ensure that communication occurs throughout an entire flight. This communication can be in the form of crew member to airplane, crew member to crew member, as well as airplane to crew member communication. For example, the Boeing has flight controls, which are duplicated and they are interconnected. This means that all its control wheels will turn together incase either is moved and this becomes obvious to all the crew members who are checking the controls.

In the future, all the flight crew members will have to be informed that they will have larger roles as compared to the present ones. This is especially in matters that concern metering and route planning approaches. Furthermore, cognitive engineering is gaining popularity in the aviation industry because the importance of technology is now known. Technology has the ability to affect the coordination, workload and skills that is required by air traffic controllers and flight crews as well with airplanes (Wiener & Nagel, 1988). For example, there has to be cooperation between end users, the communication engineers dealing with data link and the human factor specialists. This will ensure that there will be significant and drastic changes with regards to the interface design. Additionally, the controllers will enjoy and be comfortable at the workplace because they have highly technological computers that can support many tasks as once and even send data link messages. If such changes are to take place in the aviation industry, there will less training requirements, reduced error rates and enhanced user comprehension.

In conclusion the aviation industry is sure to improve its efficiency and safety if it ensures that human factors and technology are addressed appropriately. Those who are charge of aviation management and maintenance should ensure that they come up with strategic plans, which will be effectively accomplished. The latest technology has to be used and all the human factors need to be trained in order to know how to use the technology appropriately. Human factors and technology complement each other as they are key in aviation management. Therefore, a lot needs to be done to ensure that the aviation industry does not suffer from lack of safety and inefficiency.




Sals, Eduardo. & Jentsch, Florian. & Maurin, Dan. (2010).Human Factors in Aviation. New York: Academic Press.

Wells, A. (2001). Commercial Aviation Safety. New York: Mc-Graw Hill.

Wiener, E. & Nagel, D. (1988). Human factors in Aviation, New York: Academic Press.




The Role of Questioning in Developing a Student’s thinking african history assignment help






The Role of Questioning in Developing a Student’s thinking


Questioning is a major aspect of teaching and an element of communication within any classroom. Effective questioning is one of the most important methods of teaching that plays a great role in helping a student to think critically and beyond what is laid on the table.  However questioning will only improve a student’s critical thinking if it is done effectively.

There are a number of reasons why questions are asked to students. First and foremost it is to determine the level of knowledge students bring to the lesson to help gauge prior learning and to gauge understanding and performance. Secondly the questioning will stimulate students thinking as well as help to deepen students thinking levels.  This will in turn help to clarify ideas to the student. Questions will help students to learn from one another and also encourage motivation through active participation. These are but a few. However the most important of them all still remains simulation of the student thinking which in turn generates the other major important things in learning process.



Issues to be considered in questioning

Questioning is important and a central skill which every teacher needs to develop. As demonstrated above questioning is very important and thus it can only work when it’s effective. The teacher needs to make it effective by putting in consideration a number of issues so as to produce a maximum positive impact on the student. These issues are as described below.

Planning questions

(Kerry 1998) points out the importance of planning the key questions to be asked in class before the lesson takes off.   This is to ensure the discussion that is focussed has already been put into consideration. However this does not mean that all questions which the teacher thinks will be asked should be put in the list. The list should only have the key questions which may be three or four which will enable the students to develop an understanding.  The key questions will also play the role of critical starting points which generates further questioning and debate.  An example is where a teacher introducing a lesson on the experience of students as consumers. In planning for such a lesson, the three main questions which the teacher wants to include might be as follows;

“What do you buy most frequently and which shops do you buy such things from?”

‘Where are those items that you buy made from?’

‘What makes you buy those things?’

Other questions will generate from these major questions as the discussion progresses and they might even lead to generation of more and more questions but having these key to start with the teacher ensures that the critical issues which they would want to have in the lesson are present.

In doing this exercise the teacher should ensure that he doesn’t have an answer in the mind that he is attempting the student to get so as to capture the factor of flexibility. The teacher should be open to alternative responses.

Using appropriate language

The level of language that the teacher should use in developing classroom discussions is one of the most difficult things that beginning teachers face.  This is because such beginners have come straight from colleges as undergraduates and they tend to use the language of the levels that was used by their lecturers and such language is above the level that students can understand. Thus it is important for beginning teachers to consider consciously the level of language to use in classrooms which includes when they are planning questions.

Distributing questions

Children can hide in classrooms even when the teacher can see them. This comes up as a result of the teachers’ tendency to ask students to put up their hands if they have an answer to a particular question. This will obviously allows a lesson to acquire a level of pace that is flowing which makes the teacher believe that learning is quite fine. But if only 2 out 20students in a classroom put up their hands it tells how sad the situation is. It could even mean that the rest of the students don’t know anything and aren’t willing to participate. Thus there is the need for teachers to change the way in which they ask questions. Teachers may still invite responses by the use of hands but it should be mixed and interchanged with rest of the methods. Conscription is the most common of the alternatives where the teacher just names students and then asks them to respond the particular question. This is a very useful alternative which allows a teacher to have a greater number of students involved. This method when used very consciously can help to motivate the students in their learning. (Kerry, 1998) highlights that there is a cultural tendency for students to move to certain parts of the classroom which depends on the levels to which they would like to participate in the lesson. Those students sited at the front and the centre are most keen and likely to be noticed and involved while those sited at the back of the room and especially at the corners prefer to keep a low profile and are not part of the lesson.

Timing and pausing

The time for delivery of questions is also vital. The teacher should clearly ask the questions and then give students time to digest the question by thinking through and to consider their responses. It has been has demonstrated that most instructors  give one second or less to a student to respond to a question so as to break the void that is brought by silence. However, if the instructor is asking questions which will require the students to think through and rethink before responding it is then important that the teacher ensures that silence is maintained.

The role played.

Thinking is always by questions driven and not by answers. To begin with the role played by questioning can be digested in the following example. If we had no questions asked by those people who formed the foundations for fields like Biology and Physics such fields would never have come to existence at all. In this same line of thoughts, it can be said that such fields stays alive only because fresh questions come up and need to be solved thus they can be taken seriously in their role as the  driving force in the  thinking process. For anyone to rethink anything or o think through, somebody else must ask be asking questions that will stimulate the thoughts. One reason that teachers overemphasize coverage other than engaged thinking is because they presume that it is possible to teach answers separately from questions. They have buried deeply   the questions in an established instruction such that all statements are assertions. An example of a statement is that the boiling point of water is 100 degrees centigrade which is the answer to the question “At what temperature does water boil?”  Thus each declaring statement in a textbook is an answer to a certain question. Hence, all textbooks can be written again, by teachers as they prepare for the lessons, in the interrogative mode which can be achieved by translating each and every statement into a question form. It is obvious for a student to try and think of an answer to certain when the question is administered. The students mind ranges far or takes a walk as the student tries to come up with the right answer to the question. The process of thinking hard and taking each of the possible answers into a critical analysis to find out if it is really the right answer to the question in particular is a very important process that develops the thinking of a student. The student is able to digest the questions and after each and every answer more and more questions form. For example the student may be trying to find an answer to the question why the kangaroo has a pouch.  The student may find a lot of answers to this question for example the student might have a thought that it’s because it needs the pouch for storage of food. Another thought may be that the pouch would be necessary for its young ones.

At this point the student would think harder trying to evaluate which of the two possible answers would be the correct answer. At this juncture the student would be generating more questions in his mind. For example why would the kangaroo need to store food in the pouch? Another similar question is why the kangaroo would have the pouch for its young ones. The answer to these questions could help the student find out even the right answer. Thus the student could after all come to the finding that the pouch would necessary for the kangaroo to hide it young ones. And more interesting to this is that the student may even be curios to find out why the kangaroo would put it young one on a pouch. Well this way we find out that the student is ever getting question after each answer and every time trying to answer the questions that come up.

The opposite happens to the student who has never had questions to answer. Such a student would have a mind that is stagnant. Such a mind doesn’t move to any place. It is important when the students participate in group work where they are able to ask the questions to their fellow students so as to know the various line of thinking that the fellow group members are using to arrive at the different ideas. Student may also ask questions in regard to the new ideas brought out in the discussion group. It should be noted that such discussion groups should be held after the students have tried to tackle the question. It is a mistake common in many of the learning institutions where discussion groups which have been set have tend to handle the questions in the group without having given time for the students to go through them individual. This is very bad especially for the lazy students who don’t wish to engage in thinking since they will just sit in a group meeting to be feed with answer by the more active students. In a discussion group the individual student is supposed to have the answers ready so that for any new idea they may pose the question. When putting across such questions the student should at the same time try to find out how the other came up with the idea. This way the new ideas click the student memory and the student will thoughts will be aroused. This will take his thought far in the line of thinking of the other student. This is another form in which the students thinking is simulated through question in group work.

The most important thing in learning is for the student to recall what he learns. Thus it is important for the student to stick all that he learns in his mind. It is common that for most of the student everything that he learns evaporates as soon as the teacher walks to the door. It is a very difficult task when the students try to memorize what they learnt in class by cramming them especially when the exams come around the corner. Through administering questions and stimulating student thinking a student is able to stick most of the things in the mind and this makes it easy for him to recall such without much effort. The process of stimulating thoughts makes a particular thought go around the mind for a couple of times as the mind travels in search of an answer or a reasonable explanation to answer. At one point when student gets used to the process question they develop in capacity of speed in giving the responses. At one time the student will obviously find some of the things already stuck in them the responds. This means the more the student is getting used to the questioning the higher and wider the capacity of his thinking and the better the quality of the responses given.

The important role played by questioning in improving students thinking can also be seen when the teacher feeds the student with a lot of endless content. The feeding of students with the stuff described as endless content is simply giving the students a lot of information which they are supposed to stick in their mind and remember in the appropriate times especially during the exam time. This can be said to be equal to repeatedly stepping on the brakes in of a car that is unfortunately resting already or is broken down.  Other than engaging in such students need to be asked questions so as to turn on their intellectual engines.  It is important that they to generate questions from questions of the teacher so as to get their thinking somewhere else and move their brains from resting. Thinking is to totally useless unless it goes somewhere. The type of questions asked also determines where our thinking goes.

Deeper questions will take out our thoughts from beneath the surface of things and will compel force us to deal with complex situations. For example questions based on our purpose will compel us to define particular tasks.  Then the Questions that are based on information will compel us to look for the source of the particular information and at the same time the quality of such information. Questions which regard interpretation will compel us to take a step in surveying how we are organizing or the meaning we are giving to the information. Assumption questions compel us to look at what we usually take for granted. Implication questions compel us to guard out the direction of our thinking. Questions that are related to the point of view compel us to look at our own point of view and also to consider other points of view which relevant and related to the subject matter.

Questions of relevance will compel us to sieve what does not and what bears on a particular question. Accuracy questions will compel us to evaluate and test correctness of the truth and subject matter. Precision questions force very specific and straight to the point. Lastly the questions that are based on logic compel us to consider how to piece all our thoughts together and ensure that it all adds up to make sense.

The questions asked will define tasks, delineate issues and express problems. On the other hand, answers will be a signal to a full stop in thought. It is only when an answer plays the role of generating further questions will the thought continue its stimulation. Thus it is true to say that it is only those students who have questions are actually learning and thinking. It would be a great idea that needs to be embraced by teacher to examine students on any subject by asking them to only give a list of all questions that they might have about a subject. This should include all the questions which were generated out of their first list of the questions. When students are not tested by asking them by to list the questions and to explain their importance it is again the evidence of privileged status that is given to answers which are isolated from the questions. It is important that we ask questions which generate questions rather easy and direct answers so as to develop a student’s critical thinking.

Dead questions are a reflection of dead minds just like the vehicle that is already at rest. It is unfortunate that most student ask none or very little of these thought stimulating questions. It is their tendency to ask dead question for example “Is this topic or question going to be on the end of the term test?” Such questions imply that the students are not willing and don’t have the slightest desire to think. Most of the time teachers in turn don’t generate and provide questions of their own and thus are not seriously involved in rethinking and thinking through their own subject which they are supposed to impart on the students. Thus they are they go through questions and answers of other people. These are usually those on text books.

It is important for the teacher to continually remind themselves that thinking starts with respect to a particular content only when one makes the step to develop and form questions pertaining to the particular subject matter. Such questions must be generated by both students and teachers. Where there are no questions it equals no understanding at all. Superficial questions asked on a particular matter will lead to superficial understanding of such a matter. It is also a fact that most students will typically have no questions at all in regard to a subject. They will sit in silence and this implies that their minds too are at rest and in silence.  Thus when they have questions the questions will be ill-formed and superficial. This will imply that most of the times they are not concentrating and thinking of the content they are supposed to be learning. Thus it is very crucial when the teacher engages the student in the lesson by being the one start them off in generating questions. Rather than giving endless stuff for them to remember yet most of them may not even be with him as he teaches. In this sense it can be said that it is the teacher fault when student wander off from the lesson. This also indicates that most of the time the students are supposed to held through the lesson by the teach through asking effective question that will stimulate their minds and keep them held to the lesson for they thirsting for more. It is obvious that when a student understands something inn class that student is likely to clipped on the lesson. On the other hand if the teacher doesn’t ask questions that will stimulate the student thinking and help the student to understand the subject matter such a student is likely to go off from the classroom and may be wandering miles and miles away. It is very sad when a teacher by failure to ask question causes a student to go off the lesson.

If teachers wants thinking they must stimulate it with asking questions that will lead students to ask further questions in their minds and thus developing their thinking. It is important to overcome and correct the mistakes previous schooling which had negative impacts on student’s minds. Teachers must take the role of resuscitate students minds that were dead and make them active once again.

Developing the students thinking is usually a step by step process. When a student is asked a question there exist a number of the possibilities. The student may not possibly know the answer.  It may also be that he has not understood the question. The other thing is that they may not be willing to respond because they have doubts and are not sure if they will give a correct answer. Here the teacher needs to use the scaffolding.  The teacher can ask a question similar to the following after looking at Boscastle flooding and climate

“What is leads to flooding at Boscastle?”

At this question the teacher’s interests is on the evaluation and the interpretation of resources by the students which help them to develop theories of a flooding event. However the teacher may be met by silence from students. This is because of the fact that the question is of high order and at the same time a very flexible question. Some students may be not sure of their answers and thus remain silent. It is at this point that the teacher cut the challenges the question by breaking it in parts. The examples are as follows.

“Can you please give a description of the landscape that surrounds Boscastle?”

The next question should be a leading question.
“How is the weather and the landscape linked to flooding.”
By breaking the key question down into smaller questions that will finally lead the lead back to the answer of the main question, the teacher is said scaffold a student’s learning.  It is common that the teacher might not even complete stepped exercise for the student s to start pulling ahead in their thought which is very important in developing their thinking. Once they do this, you may well find individuals who are willing to offer the remainder of the explanation.

Questioning gives students an opportunity that helps them to develop their and in the process improve their crucial thinking.  Thus it is important that the teacher foresees to this. Students will never try to acquire an enquiry based approach in learning when they are not able to put across questions. Thus in the same manner expect a student to ask pertinent questions if they have to grow independent learning traits and self-assess abilities of Assessment in Learning.  Therefore it is important that teachers help students to acquire their own skills in questioning.  These skills of questioning can be developed in students through several ways. Two most important are as follows.

Socratic questioning

The theory of Socrates demonstrates through careful questioning, concepts and explanations can be made clear and founded from the beginning where those that are involved know nothing of the subject matter. A big number of people don’t believe any longer in reincarnation but they say that they can paste that notion of implicit knowledge where there is reincarnation (Jarvis 2006). Many people have large volumes of knowledge which they have never considered or debate on each day but even though still exist. This is true especially with those students who usually separate the type of life that they lead inside and outside the school because of the belief that much knowledge is not knowledge official and thus attribute little value of the context in the classroom. Therefore teachers can use the Socratic questioning method with the students so as to allow them to have an experience how its use can help them derive out understanding and knowledge which they aren’t necessarily aware of. In this case one student will question another for three to four minutes and then their roles will reverse the roles. It is crucial for the students to know that their answers to the question shouldn’t be “yes” or “no”, at any point but they should be a clear answer that provides an explanation. Below is an example of how the dialogue can develop.

‘How can one we know that land-use differ from one city to another city?’

‘ I reside in a area whose houses which are so different from the ones I see when I am out to do shopping to shopping centre.’

Here the student administering the questions should make an attempt to develop a first observation to find out if there exists a broader and deeper understanding.  A question like the one below can be used.

“Is this there no other difference or this is the one single difference in using land?”

This way the student is developing the questioning skills which help in thought stimulation. A student may be asking the other student the questioning that formed in his mind immediately after the answer was given. We can say that the answer the first student give stimulated the thought to the next question in the line f the student’s thoughts. This developing of a dialogue can be carried for the period of time when feels important understanding and knowledge is being produced. Finally when the exercise comes to an end all the students should join back together so as to rationalise and share the understanding and knowledge which they developed. This way much f the knowledge that a teacher need to finish a scheme can be acquired in this manner which is very effective since it also helps to stick things in the students mind.


Use of snowballing to question students

This is the second method that can be used to help students to develop questioning skills. Here the teacher gives the Students an opportunity to discuss and develop their the skill of questioning and letting them participate in their specific learning experiences. This can be quite well by using snowballing to ask questions. This method is simple method and it involves giving the students some form of stimulating materials on a particular topic. The students are first given time for going through the materials and the information and then they are asked to produce or form questions that they would wish to ask and which would aid them in understanding the particular topic the student should be informed that they must do their work as individuals and in silence. A time allowance should be given but before that there should be an allowance of some minutes. The student should be told that the questions must be three to four and should not be worried about the accuracy of the questions. The students then join in pairs once this has been completed and are given a few minutes so that they can discuss the questions. This exercise then will be the basis for a second discussion which is time and is made of groups of three to six. From this step, the groups then give a feedback toot the whole class and the topic may be completed from such an exercise.

An example is to illustrate this is the topic comparing two volcanic eruptions. Students will have prior studied the two eruptions with the intention of comparing them. Students enhance their understanding and knowledge of the eruptions by carrying out the snowballing exercise.  Students also are able to model and create useful questions. The questions likely chosen by the groups at the very end and could be as follows;


What is tectonic setting in volcanic activities?
What are characteristics are displayed of each of the volcanoes?
What warning signs were given by each eruption?
What are the secondary and primary effects eruptions?

The above questions are then made the basis for comparative essay on both eruptions. In the students mind more questions leading to this will erupt and thus leading the students towards answering the questions.


The exercise of stimulating the students thinking will give rise a trait much prized by the teachers and which is none other than independent learning. Only the student whose thinking has been simulated and thus active will be able to develop a trait of independence in learning. Such student will be privileged not to always be on the run after the teacher for even the most basic thing in the subject.  At the very  centre of this method of learning a student is lies the ability of the  student to  ask questions regarding their very own methods of learning what they have understood and to what level and lastly they are even able to question on how they might carry on with their learning. It should be noted that however such   critical capacity s only developed if students are able to ask those questions which are pertinent in the appropriate times.

Lastly questioning is not at all skill which is inherited but it is a skill that is developed where the student might fail or pass. It is a skill of trial and error. One of the ways which this can be achieved is through which this can be achieved is by having questions which are formulated for the students by those others who are perfect in using them and this is obviously our instructors.  It is also equally important to develop space for developing our own skills that we can use in this respect.






















Bloom,S. (1965). Educational Objectives. New York. D McKay publishers.

Brunner. J. (1998) teaching thinking. Washington.  D. Appleton and Company.

Costa.A (2000) .Developing Minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. United states.

Arco Editorial

Cerver, F. (2003) the role of questioning in developing a students thinking. New York.

Arco    Editorial

Darryn, K(2009). Thinking Strategies for the Inquiry Classroom. New York. Curriculum press

Jarvis, P. (2006) The Socratic Method. The practice and theory of teaching. London.

Routledge publishers.

Jake . K.(2002) principles of critical thinking. United States. Burgess publishers.

Jack. Z. Stimulating critical thinking. Washington.  D. Appleton and Company.

Kissock, C. (1982) The  Guide to Questioning. London. Macmillan Press.

Kerry, T. (1998)  explaining and questioning  in classrooms, London. Hodder &


Morgan, N. (1991) Learning Teaching and Questioning in classroom. London. Taylor and Francis publishers.

Paul. R  Elder, L( 2006) Thinker’s guide to the art of Socratic questioning. United States.

University press.

Plato, M.   (2005) Transforming the classroom.London. Penguin.

Postman, W. (1979)  conserving activity of teaching. New York. Laurel Press.


Richard. A (1997)Critical reasoning in contemporary culture. United States. Burgess


Roberts, K. (1986) Talking, Reading and Writing. United States. University press.

Wilks, S.(2005) Designing a thinking curriculum. United States. Aust Council for Ed


Wood, P. (2006) Developing enquiry through questioning in teaching Geography. New

York.   Mckay publishers.


THE ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN THE WORLD help me with my history homework: help me with my history homework


The Role of the Media






The media is being used around the world to ensures, all that is taking place under the table are exposed (Khondker, 2011). The media has helped various failing organization to get back to the top so does to individuals. In this paper, a discussion of how the media has played in ensuring that public managers are responsible is noted.

Meaning and elements of Administrative Responsibility 

Public administration is an obligation that an individual is given in order to meet the needs and the demands of others in a public sphere or domain. Being responsible is an obligation that must be rendered in the best way possible to avoid other issues such as corruption amid other negative aspects of public leadership (Howard & Hussain, 2011). The media has over the years played the role of informing the public about how their leaders are doing their jobs, thanks to the journalists who do this job.   The media has done various functions and duties of ensuring that we are able to get the right public managers on board as well as knowing how our taxes are being used.  The next paragraph will highlight the role of the media in making public managers responsible.

                                                            Role of media


According to Howard & Hussain (2011), the media has various function to an individuals as well as the society. To an individual such as a manager. First, in the UAE the media plays the role of informing the public about the qualities of the manager; in this case the public will be able to know the qualifications of the leader they have, here the media helps the recruitment of the best manager. In addition, the media helps managers to work under a certain accord, for example, since the media gets information about them, the manager will fear to undertake issues that are not just, this means that the manager will shy away from unjust behaviors at the workplace. On the other hand, the media also helps in auditing the managers. With or without the consent of the managers, the media undertakes such audits in order to determine the effectiveness as well as the efficiencies of the managers in undertaking their mandate.


For the case of UAE, the media is mandated to consider the evaluation of public managers.  This is done through the watchdog of the government of UAE. Hence, it can be considered that the UAE media has the power given to them by the government to for see that public mangers are pursuing their mandate well. For example, last year the media was able to publish the problems facing Emirates groups, some of the leaders were said to be corrupt (Khondker, 2011). Yes after an audit of the leaders they were found to have bee corrupt in one way of another. Actions were taken against them and today emirates group is one of the performing organizations in UAE.


It can be concluded that the media is truly a watchdog and also a tool towards responsible public managers in the UAE. With the help of the media public managers are able to dispense their responsibilities for the good of the people.



Howard, P. N., & Hussain, M. M. (2011). The role of digital media. Journal of democracy, 22(3), 35-48.

Khondker, H. H. (2011). Role of the new media in the Arab Spring.Globalizations, 8(5), 675-679.

The Role of the World Bank, Its Historical Evolution art history essay help

Political Science








The Role of the World Bank, Its Historical Evolution, and Its Relation to the Nation-State System



The World Bank is known to many as one that provides monitory aid to mostly developing countries. When the World Bank started its operations, it dealt with the mentioned matter. Throughout the historical evolution of the World Bank, it has undergone a transformation in its strategy. It now seeks to engage in matters, which are considered to be political, and those dealing with human rights. Developing countries, through the World Bank’s assistance, are now aware of their rights and want more involvement in government. The World Bank seeks to use social accountability and the rights based approach as its tools in enhancing human rights. The relation, which exists between nation states and the World Bank, has been mentioned. The system of nations influences the relations, which the World Bank has with various countries. The research recommends that the World Bank should do more to include matters on human rights in its mandate. Lastly, it concludes that the World Bank should be recognized as it has a vital role in the society.

Key Words: World Bank. Rights Based Approach, Social Accountability, Nation State System, Human Rights.




















For many years, the rates of rapprochement have taken place at an extremely fast pace. In turn, it has led to many parties engaging in dialogue with each other. Communities have to be developed, as well have human rights issues have to be discussed. Forums have been held to ensure the spheres are promoted, since they are interdependent. Scholars have made progress in an attempt to bring about development through an integration, which is conceptualized. Furthermore, the use of an approach, which is rights base, has assisted in advocating for matters concerning human rights. According to the United Nations Declaration, people are  protected by the Right to Development. In turn, many policy analysts have engaged in research, in order to find out more concerning it. The analysts seek to find out the responsibilities, duties that are contained in the UN Declaration (World Bank, 2004).

A conflict exists between evolution and the approach that is rights based. The latter plays a significant role in matters that concern the community of human rights. Globalization has impacted the world, and in turn, it influences nation states. The World Bank is extremely interested in matters that concern regimes, which constantly engage in acts that are inhumane. Other players fascinated by this critical matter are policy makers, presidents, among other key personnel. An increase in the number of concepts in this area of human rights cannot be ignored. They include concepts such as transnational social networks, corporate social responsibility, as well as the global compact. An international organization, such as the World Bank, has expanded its interest in matters that are considered gray (World Bank, 2004).

There has been a lot of controversy surrounding the World Bank concerning its score card on human rights matters. It is a known fact that the World Bank’s relative share on matters concerning capital transfers is decreasing quite fast. The latter occurs when it is involved in projects in the countries that are developing. It should be known that the World Bank is not only interested in financial matters, but even issues on human rights. As a result of country dialogue, and lending that is structurally adjusted, the World Bank assumes its role. Moreover, it acts as a catalytic guarantor when developing countries need to borrow loans. Its impact on the world that is developing cannot be denied, as the livelihood of many people has improved due to it. Some of the projects concerning human rights, which have been aided by the World Bank includes; Chad Cameroon Pipeline and the Narmada Dam. The projects have been criticized as they have been harmful, and in turn, affected the image of the World Bank.

Many environmental policies, as well as a comprehensive framework had to be formed. The World Bank did not have an appealing environmental record, and it had to find a way to improve its image. The institution has had to find ways of being ambiguous, and at the same time, treat the matter as it ought to be. Many allegations concerning violations on human rights are now being addressed by the institution. The charter, which the World Bank abides by, is extremely oscillated, and there is no policy that it follows concerning human rights. The only key issue, which exists, is that it should not participate in activities, which are political. It is also, only allowed to associate itself with matters that are related to the economy. According the World Bank charter, it seeks to expand its de facto and its human rights territory. It seeks to make sure that in its operations, there is an inclusion of conditionality’s of human rights. In the current market place that is global, the World Bank is under extreme pressure to change its raison detre. World leaders are also pushing for the World Bank to change how it relates with people, especially those under abusive regimes (World Bank, 2004).

This paper seeks to give a critical analysis concerning the role and the historical evolution of the World Bank in matters that concern human rights. Furthermore, it seeks to analyze the relation that exists between nation states and the World Bank, in addressing the human rights problem.

The Historical Evolution of the World Bank in matters concerning Human Rights

A tension, which is considered narrow, has existed for a long time in the World Bank’s history. It has sort to understand itself despite being known to be technocratic as well as an agency interested in economic matters. The World Bank has been involved in projects, in order to make its mandate be broad. During the period of the 1960’s, a skirmish affected the World Bank. At that time, resolutions were passed by the United Nations General Assemblies and were referred to as being ‘requesting’, ‘urging’ as well as ‘inviting’. It demanded that money was not to be given to Portugal and South Africa by the World Bank. The two countries were involved in matters concerning colonial polices and the apartheid respectively. As it is expected, the Bank became defiant and did not follow the instructions given to it by the United Nations. Instead, it approved many loans, and defended itself by claiming it had a character that is apolitical, as an act of defiance. It seems that the World Bank had started becoming defiant to matters concerning the United Nations Resolutions.

From the years 1968 to 1981, McNamara headed the World Bank, and he ventured into new activities. By engaging in infrastructure projects, which are large scale, it sort to change how people viewed it. In an effort to end poverty in the developing world, it made sure to increase economic growth in its ventures. In turn, it focused its attention on policy based lending from the former projects. Towards the 1980’s, the World Bank initiated a campaign whereby, it engaged in the adjustment of structural loans. In due time, the macroeconomic policy, which it had, had evolved in to something with extreme worth. It had found its way to ensure that public institutions and polices were to be re-engineered to a fully fledged extent. It justified its initiatives by claiming that it had to create environments, which were enabling. Moreover, it had to come up with politically viable reforms as part of its political domain.

In the year 1989, a border existed between economic and political issues, and the matter was extremely blurry. World Bank conducted a study in that year, and found a solution to improving development in African Sub Saharan countries. They found out that a method of fostering development, which is long term, would be achieved through good governance. Also, human rights and the law had to be respected, as it promoted good governance. Up to date, the World Bank has not ceased trying to find its ways through governance matters (World Bank, 2004). Unfortunately, the new stance taken by the World Bank could not escape from being challenged. Some of the recipients of the money given by the World Bank believed that their matters were being intruded upon. They believed that their political autonomy was not safe, but they could not do anything to change the situation. Furthermore, donor countries were extremely welcoming the new move by the World Bank. They claimed that the approach contributed towards the rule of law, transparency and accountability.

The situation had attracted a lot of attention, and the leaders at the World Bank had to give guidance and clarity concerning the matter. The Bank’s Chief Counsel was appointed to fund out where politics began, as well as the point whereby economics ends. He had to find an answer to questions of a scholastic nature through any means possible (United Nations, 2003). In turn, he came up with various publications and memos, as part of the findings of his research. He claimed that the Bank had a mandate to engage in politics, but only to a conservative extent. Even more, in some situations, human rights issues had to be addressed by the World Bank. At the beginning of the 1990’s, there was expansion and strengthening of the Bank’s operational policy framework. Since there were many activities going on at the time, the various parameters increased significantly. They took up this routine in a systematic fashion, which could easily control their interactions. The new strategy meant to increase the number of shareholders as well as their participation. The latter sort to safeguard policies, in order to Increase the participation of the various people involved.

The Bank’s operations, which are mainly legal, social and environmental, would be implicated in the future. Some of the policies had direct implications on matters concerning human rights. They included indigenous people and involuntary resettlement policies. In turn, they made their way into vital aspects of operations at the World Bank. In order to attain accountability, the policy reforms were extremely beneficial (World Bank, 2004). Operations within the bank were hampered as implementation became difficult, due to the flaws that existed. An example of how the latter took place is during the Indian Narmada Dam Issue, and a report was produced. Another report known as Wapenhans, presented the World Bank’s internal operations (United Nations, 2003). It showed matters taking place on the ground that disconnected implementation and policy guidance. The reports expressed that a mechanism for accountability had to exist, and the matter was quite pervasive. Luckily, the establishment of an inspection Panel took place in the year 1994. The established institution is regarded as a human rights landscape of an organ, which is quasi-judicial. It means that people could receive recourse, in case the World Bank harmed them. Other banks, which were engaged in development activities, were to follow the same mandate.

The World Bank leadership soon changed and this took place at the same time the Inspection Panel was established. In a bid to increase the Bank’s scope of operation, Wolfensohn the new president, continued with the progress. He even made sure to go into other areas including anti-corruption, Post-conflict reconstruction and cultural development. He went as far as making sure that issues concerning governance were solidified. World Bank’s lending arm with concessionary abilities came up with its own governance conditionality. The agreement took the name IDA12, which meant that in order for any economy to grow, good governance had to exist. It will also help in bringing about the effectiveness in matters dealing with governance. According to the agreement, four dimensions of governance exist. They include; a framework that is legal and stable. According to the agreement, the dimensions of governance exist. They include; a framework that is legal and stable, as well as public institutions, which are competent and accountable. Also, civil society and affected groups participation and practices, as well as policies that are social. Moreover, the agreement claimed that a country’s ability depends on many factors, which are vital. It can bring about reduced poverty, social and economic development (United Nations, 2003).

If the factors were to be addressed, they would be in line with the mandate, which the IDA had. Most of the countries, which are least developed, are often selected to receive loans from the IDA. The divide that existed between economics and politics caused many problems for the World Bank. The employees working at the bank were divided on matters concerning political and civil rights. They did not want to acknowledge the nexus that existed between development and good governance. ‘Development and Human Rights’ is a publication of the World Bank in the year 1998. It provided details concerning the cultural, social and economic rights of various countries. Other human rights issues were mentioned as well as they indirectly affected governance. A criterion for performance based on the replenishment of the IDA was widely endorsed. Wolfensohn had to come up with a way of developing World Bank’s paradigm. He came up with the Comprehensive Development Framework that had a development holistic approach. It attempted to find a balance in policy making by ensuring that the different elements are known. They are elements, which are financial, economic, environmental, governance, human, structural and social. The World Bank faced an opportunity, as well as challenge, due to the CDF’s bold language. It even had to review the interpretation of the CDF and the Articles of Agreement.

The Mandate of the World Bank on matters that concern the nation state and human rights

On the other hand, in any international system, actors which are cultural, social, economic and political have to exist. Most times, the nations states come together in order to form their own political unions. Currently, there are many nation states coming up, and they will face many difficulties. Various realities, which are social, economic and politically based, will have to be known. Relations exist between nation states and the World Bank, as they both help countries, which are developing. The United States is a nation state, and even the leading super power in the world. Most times, it works hand in hand with the World Bank in matters concerning lending money. The United States can choose and advise on, which countries should receive donor support or not.  World politics is often controlled by nation’s states, due to the vast power that they hold. When it comes to matters concerning debt issues, financing, management and other economic issues, the World Bank has a role to play. It affects the relationships, which occur between the poor and the rich countries (World Bank, 2004).

The nation’s states have an interest in human rights issues, as they believe that it is their mandate to do so. Most recently, the World Bank has diversified and has introduced initiatives in the sector of social accountability. They can be witnessed in countries such as Uganda, Albania and Peru. It is believed that a right can be easily achieved through having social accountability. Governments should ensure that their citizens are responsible by always making them accountable for their actions. Human rights defense and promotion is extremely vital in the modern world. Many countries have signed cultural, social and economic rights, as well as the International Covenants on Civil & Political Rights. Article IV is one that the World Bank seems to constantly violate, as it has not come up with measures that are adoptive. In the Article of Agreement’s tenth section, any person with affiliations with the World Bank should not be Involved in any political matters. They should not support any political party even if they are members of a nation state. There are some countries, which are notoriously known for engaging in affairs, which are political, and have a record on human rights. Various methods have been introduced by the World Bank in order to discuss human rights. During the Universal Declaration of Human Rights fiftieth birthday, a commitment towards human rights promotion was signed by the World Bank.

The Universal Declaration provides useful information regarding how rights will be fulfilled. In many developing countries, the Bank helps through the provision of nutrition, health care, primary education, environment, housing and sanitation. There is proof to show that more than a million people have benefited from the services offered by the World Bank. People have in turn acquired and known their social and economic rights (World Bank, 2004). The Universal Declaration also gives information regarding how the World Bank is involved in matters that strengthen human rights. The latter is possible, as it has brout about accountability, improved transparency, as well as fight corruption. Also, financial sectors have been modernized as well as judicial systems have been strengthened. This means that people now have an opportunity of being involved in matters that concern human rights, as a right environment has been created by the World Bank.

It should not be forgotten that Globalization has affected the manner, which the World Bank conducts itself. Economic liberalization and technological innovations have led world markets to open. The United States has in turn found ways to ensure that people, even those living in developing countries, have an opportunity of consuming products. This is an example of how America, which is a nation state, contributes to the economic development of countries, which are developing (Paul, 2002). Countries in the developing world are known to receive at least a quarter of FDI flows, in the world. As the years progress, the figure seems to fluctuate, the World Bank wants to solve the situation. The World Bank is urging developing countries to integrate to foster economic development. The United States integrated and today enjoys an economy, which is booming. Individuals should have access to funds, if they are to develop in any way, as has been witnessed. The latter are issues addressed by the World Bank as well as the International Monitory Fund.

The Rights Based Approach

The discourse and practice of human rights by the World Bank is evidence that a lot of positive things will take place eventually. In fact, Nation states are being encouraged, especially by the United Nations, to engage in practices that promote human rights. This seems to justify the reason why the United States feels the urge to make sure that regimes are not inhumane towards their citizens. For example, the United States sent its troops to Iraq as the condition, which existed in that country, were in humane. People were denied the opportunity to exercise their rights, and even the World Bank had to get involved in this pressing matter. The World Bank ceased to offer any kind of assistance to Iraq until the regime that existed would stop all it heinous activities. By engaging in human rights issues, the World Bank is indeed working within its strategy. It has changed the perception, which people had about it, as it now has a stake in matters that are political. It justifies itself by claiming that it is being ethical and moral by participating in human rights matters. Furthermore, it only does so, in order to bring about economic development in the various countries (Harbeson, & Rothchild, 2000).

Through using the rights based approach; the World Bank only seeks to use an intervention method, which will have a positive outcome. When the basic necessities of individuals are fulfilled, it becomes easy to realize human rights. The latter has the ability of solving matters concerning basic necessities, and this is according to the World Bank. There is a lot of argument concerning the mentioned statement. The argument assumes that human rights and economic development can be promoted to be one issue. The perspective offered by the World Bank is viewed as being one that adds no value. It is not possible to merge economic development and human rights. There is a need to distinguish conditionality and international pressure from their applications. In using the Rights Based Approach, matters such as if citizens have their rights respected, are not of importance. Even, if a development project will be successful or not does not matter. The most vital aspect is whether the various development tasks that are being used and in, which way.

The rights based approach key objective is to ensure that the relationships, which exist, are inverted. Examples of such relationships are those that exist between the poor, service providers and policy makers. Other approaches view the process of development as a network that exists among international agencies, foundations and the governments. This approach often ignores certain groups as their resources are channeled to people they favor. The key priority of the approach based on human rights is that the poor should be entitled to help. Policy makers and service providers are now assuming the role of duty bearers, as this is how they have been conceptualized. They know that they have to ensure that the poor have their human rights respected (Harbeson, & Rothchild, 2000). It is not always possible to find defense, which are justified in matters concerning rights holders. In some countries, there are no legal structures that respect the right holders. Luckily, in other countries, citizens are guaranteed right to health care, education and employment, due to the existing constitutional provisions. Some citizens have gone as far as to file suits in courts against their countries, as they do not have their cultural, social and economic rights fulfilled. It means that people now know that every human being should be accorded all the basic human rights others are entitled.

Social Accountability

            It has been witnessed that social accountability and RBA are partners that exist naturally. According to RBA, government accountability and citizen participation are the key concerns in social accountability matters. Other aspects of social accountability include; inclusion, non discrimination and equality. They all are responsible for making sure that ordinary citizens are involved in control and in supervision of government. Participation is scaled up by social accountability. Citizens should not be viewed as participants with simple skills, but rather people with extreme ability. According to social accountability, people are viewed as being elements who, can have a say in evaluation and implementation of policies. Civic participation is broken when they hold their governments to practice as well as in discourse. One can take up only a few suggestions from the poor when they are involved in public policy planning. Also, one cannot let them be extremely involved in evaluating and watching government actions. It is not recommended that citizens are over empowered as they might abuse their rights.

Human rights defense is supported by the World Bank through social accountability,. When citizens are accepted into government, they can start to demand rights that are impossible. They may even want new laws without even being aware of the process of making them. Also, there is a risk that they may blame the state on everything that affects their lives. In turn, the possibility of there being a loop hole is extremely high. For example, in many African countries the citizens often blame their government when they are affected by things even beyond the control of the government. Farmers will blame poor production of crops on the government even if the problem is due to lack of rainfall. This means it has to change the mindset of the citizens, and make them more open minded (Ackerman, 2005).


After a thorough research of the World Bank’s role, and how it deals with human rights issues, the following conclusions were made. The World Bank should work hard towards changing its mandate, so that it can be more accommodative to political matters. The World Bank should strive towards ensuring that a government works together with their citizens. This will in turn promote effective relationships between the two parties (Paul, 2002). When it comes to lending of money, the World Bank should only give to countries, which are involved in advocating for human rights. It should also develop polices, which are bound to succeed, but only after consultations with key players on such matters. Nations states such as the united states, should become more involved in assisting the World Bank in providing assistance to those in need.

The nations states should on a regular basis gives reports on the progress that they have made. Non Governmental Organizations should be more involved in human rights matters, and should formulate specific goals. Other institutions dealing in matters concerning human rights should be given support by the World Bank. Furthermore, the civil society should put more into the process of reporting. It turn, it will make the process of decision making in policy issues become easier. Development should encompass factors such as inclusiveness, equality and non-discrimination. Lastly, a linkage, which is active, should exist between legal institutions and development for human rights purposes. Even after all the recommendations have been made, a follow up has to take place. The matter is of extreme urgency, and there are people who are in dire need of help from the World Bank.


In conclusion, it is indeed evident that the World Bank has had a significant history to the modern world. Since its formation, it has done a lot to ensure that people develop economically. Also, the system of nation states has helped the World Bank to carry out its functions. Moreover, human rights issues cannot be ignored and should be dealt with. Many scholars have been researching about the political affairs, human rights, and economic considerations practiced by the World Bank. Majority of them seem to believe that the World Bank should not participate in human rights promotion and protection. International Law is a barrier which is preventing the World Bank, from fully realizing what it sorts to achieve. Instead, an approach, which is rights based, has been adopted in order to bring about development. Social scientists and economists have come up with evidence, which suggests that human rights and economic welfare are related.

The bank’s mandate, which is concerned with economic development, as well as financing, is now being threatened. It should be known that the World Bank still concerns itself with matters on monitoring, investigating, assessing and inspecting. Human rights matters have been integrated into its system, as it has seen the need to do so. The policy on human rights by the World Bank should focus on solving conflicts that occur all over the world. Currently, the United States and the World Bank are working together on various projects. Indeed, the World Bank has a role, which is of importance to many people.




Ackerman, John. (2005). Social Accountability for the Public Sector: A Conceptual Discussion,

Washington: The World Bank, Social Development Paper No. 82.

Harbeson, John. & Rothchild, Donald. (2000) Africa in World Politics: The African State System In Flux. New York: West View Press.

Paul, Samuel. (2002). Holding the State to Account: Citizen Monitoring in Action, Bangalore: Books for Change.

United Nations . (2003). “The Human Rights Based Approach to Development Cooperation:

Towards a Common Understanding Among the UN Agencies,” New York: UN.

World Bank. (2004e) “Idea Note: Justice for the Poor-Program for the Reform of Legal Institutions in the Local Environment,” Washington: The World Bank.