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The Relationship Between Dana And Kevin Reflect The Larger Theme Of Butler’s Work Online History Assignment Help


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      “If it is to be, then it is up to me” It is clear that he says these words with a lot of certainties, and it seems to him as though it has become his philosophy towards life. Willies Adams (not his real name) a neuron surgeon in Huntington Hospital is a citizen of the United States of America and is a Navajo native speaker, he told me his improbable life story in an interview we had with him on a chilly evening on the 11th of May 2020, under the beautiful roof of the most excellent and most renown restaurant in California, The Mountain House. The appearance from where we were sitting is gorgeous, and we could have a look at the city from where we are. Willie is a man who is about 68 years of age. He is espoused to one wife, and together they have three children who he talks of them with so much repletion, and one cannot fail to notice the much love he has for his family as he always mentions his wife and children. He is a medical surgeon, holds a bachelor’s degree in medicine and surgery from the large and distinguished university of All saints University Canada. He went further and did a master’s in neuron surgeon after pursuing his degree in medicine and surgery. As per now, he is a well-renowned neuron surgeon in California. Although right now his life is running quite well as he does not have financial difficulties and this is evident as at per now he says he lives in Beverly Glens, which is one of the wealthiest neighborhoods that are found in California. His life, however, has not always been a bed of roses. He was borne in a family of six siblings and raised by a single parent who is his late mother in the slums of  Huron, which is one of the poorest places In California where people who live below the poverty line are trying to meet their needs. The reason as to why I chose Willies for this interview is because His life has had a lot of changes, from experiencing the worst cases of poverty to now where he is in a place where he can provide for his family, therefore with the different encounters he has gained more knowledge and wisdom from the life he has lived. We can be able to learn so much from him. With this background, it is evident that he has undergone a lot during his developmental stages in his life. The main objective of the questions I had prepared for Willies was to find out how all the stages of development he has passed through in his life have molded him into becoming who he is and how these life stages applied and assimilate to the theories that I have learned in this Couse. The four main social work theories that came out during our interview were psychosocial development, systems theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, and the Social learning theory. These theories are well explained by (Turner,2017) in his book social work treatment. The one thing that comes clearly from his life is the determination that he has and the ever-willing heart that never tires.

The preeminent thing that I asked Willies was about his childhood stage and the experiences he had in this phase of his life. The most striking thing about his life is that Willies were not borne from a noble family. He was born in the slums of Huron. He is the first carried among six siblings. He says he was raised by a single mother who was a casual laborer. His father died in a shooting that accord in Huron when the last sibling was borne. He says that there were claims that his father was shot as it was believed that he was in a group that used to perform burglary in the area.

Willies say that up to know he is not sure of the truth of the rumors as these killings happened when he was about six years of age. Though he cannot remember the kind of job his father was doing for a living, he continues to stress that in due respect of his late father, he does not know if the claims that his father was a robber are valid. This is also evident in (Mulallay,1997) in his book Structural social work whereby he explains that the last stage of the psychosocial development stage is where there is the wisdom that develops in a person. It is clear that Willies have developed intelligence, and he does not want to say anything that he is unsure of. Being the firstborn, he had to start working at the age of thirteen to help his mother in raising his siblings. This clearly shows where social learning theory comes in. According to (Coardy, 2016) this theory indicates that human beings can learn from their environment by observing. It is through seeing that the mother was struggling that Willies decided to help his mother. He had to learn by watching how his mother did her work so that he can help out. His mother had a small hotel, where he used to help her as a waiter to put food on the table. He continues to say that they used to live in a single-roomed house, which taught him the virtue of tolerance and accepting oneself as he had to learn to tolerate his young siblings in every possible way. According to Greene (2017), in his book, an environment in which a person is in can significantly shape his life. There if we look at an ecological perspective, Willy’s condition taught him to have a love for his family. He is a clear illustration of the saying that to adjust, you must accept. Although he was a bright boy, he had never envisaged that he would take his education to a high level. He says that sadly at that point in his life, he was afraid of dreaming. He was scared to do so as he feared that maybe his dreams might never come true. He says at this stage of his life, he learned to accept the fact that God has a purpose for our lives. Through this stage of his life, he says that he developed a solid bond with his mother. His mother became his best friend. He says that the challenges of this life bonded him to his mother. They could share anything and everything. When I asked him how he felt during this stage, he says that he has always thanked God that it happened. It taught him how it feels to lack and how it feels to sleep on a hungry stomach, which motivated him to be bold and aspire to have a better eventuality so that he could help his siblings. He says his childhood taught him that family is family even if it has no riches and the father is absent you can never find any other family that the one you have right now. He continues to say that he has learned to accept the things that he cannot change and make efforts to change the things that he can change. He says that in times of test, the family remains to be the best. That part of the interview showed clearly how the theory of social learning comes in in willies life. According to (Coardy,2016) if a child watches his parent while abusing another person soon, the child will abuse his friends, Therefore by watching the love that his mother had for them, he learned to love too.

I asked Willies to describe his adolescent stage of life and his journey as a teenager. He had a lot to say. When answering this question, one theory came out; one approach came out the method of psychosocial development. This is because, in his adolescence stage, he showed hope, will to defeat if the challenge that came his way, he also discovered his purpose in life (Coady2016) According to Coady in his book he clearly explains that human beings do develop their goal as they move on with life. All these are in theory mentioned above. He said that being in a suburban area had a lot of influence on him. Most teenagers in his neighborhood had turned to evil ways such as abuse of drugs so that they may forget the kind of pathetic life they have this brings in social learning theory explained by (Mulally,1997). He recalls at a certain point when time and economy were so had on him that he was introduced to the abuse of Marijuana by a friend who was told that the drug could help him avoid the stress and give him false happiness. He continued to say that this brought him constant conflicts with his mother, who always reminded him that he was the firstborn, and whatever he does, he still needs to remember his siblings and follow his footsteps. Somehow he did heed to what his mother kept on reminding him about his role. It is striking that Willies had this sense of obedience in him. He said that he did not know what inspired him to listen to his mother so much that he said that maybe this was because of the pity he had on his mother. He says that at his teenage stage, he realized that he had a role to play as a leader. This taught him to be a leader. Unlike other teenagers, he kept reminding himself that his siblings looked upon him as a father figure, and if by chance he messed up by joining some drug abuse forms of groups he could have influenced his younger siblings to do the same. When I asked him about the charity organization that helped him achieve his aspirations, He said that he was lucky that during this stage is when a charity organization decided to support him throughout his education life. Thanks to the charity organization, he was able to finish high school. He kept on reading, and this helped him to avoid a lot of issues in the slums. He says that at this point is when he developed the dream of becoming a doctor. His spur came from the fact that his father was dispatched and died as he could not acquire medication as quickly as possible. He worked obstinate in his high school work and was able to attain grades that could take him to university. He says that in his teenagehood, he learned that there is no hard work that can go unrewarded. Through his hard work in school, he was able to attain grades that he is proud of now.

I could not fail to discern the joy and happiness that Willies has when he talks about his family: his three children and his loving wife. When I asked him about early and middle adulthood, Willies had a lot to speak. Out of this question, the theory of psychological development (Turner, 2017) came out, especially where he clearly shows that his love for his family cannot be measured. I realized even the time we had was not sufficient from how he met his wife and to how they started a family. The whole story is a long one, but one thing that stands out is the resilience and the patience he had with his wife. He met his wife while he was in practice after his degree. His wife is a nurse but was from a much wealthier family than Willies. The problem came when the parents to the wife did not accept him as being able to provide for his wife, bearing in mind he was not from a very well-off family. At this point is where also the psychosocial development theory (Greene, 2017), comes in because willies had hope that things will be better despite the challenges that came up in his marriage. He says it was a struggle. At this point, he learned to fight for the people he loved. They had to fight for one another, and he says that, above all, love always wins. He got married to his wife at a church wedding and went into married life with a lot of enthusiasm, hoping to have children. Still, it was not an easy road as it was not until the third year in their marriage that his wife conceived his firstborn. This is where cognitive behavior theory well explained by (Turner, 2017) comes in. In his book tuner connects how people’s experiences affect their behaviors and emotions. He said that the first three years were not a roses bed for him; this affected him emotionally. His late mother pressured him to give him grandchildren.

There was pressure from the society also to get children remembers that during that time almost all his age mates had children but he dint. He says at this point, and his marriage was on the verge of collapsing. He continues to say that was it not for the virtue of tolerance and patience that he learned while he was still a kid he could not have stood the situation. He says till this time at the age he has seen a lot, and one of the biggest lessons he has learned is that even as we hope for the best, we should always be prepared for the worst as at times, it might happen. And if one is ready, then you will be lucky enough to have a shock absorber. He talked of his three children with a lot of love. He says that parenting is not a comfortable journey, and it needs patience and a lot of forging heart, especially when the child is of the teenage age. Willies says every time he corrected his children, he was confident because he knew that he had always been legitimate and upright in his ways when he was young; therefore, none of his kids has a niche to complain that their father preached water. At the same time, at his age, he used to drink wine. He continues to say that due to his background, he encourages his children to work hard and to use their youthfulness to their advantage, and that’s why they have succeeded. This brings out the systems theory that (turner, 2017) tries to explain, Turner, says that the behavior of a person may be as a result of interrelated systems.This is evident because Willis’s children have succeeded due to his constant motivation to them. During his young and middle adulthood has influenced his life as he has had to step in for his children and become a daddy he never had. The most astonishing thing about this stage of his life is that he learned that a lot depends on him. And not unless he does them no one else will. At this stage is when he realized his purpose in life. He says that he aims to live and give encouragement to those who think that their condition will never change as he is a living testimony that all things do change when the effort is applied. This is why he has his foundation that is aimed at helping the children of Vancouver. In his foundation, he plays for the school fees of the children who are from impoverished backgrounds. Just as he was enabled, he says he wishes to give back to society. He proudly says that this is one of his greatest achievements in the community so far, and it is inspired by the life he went through as a kid.

As we were concluding up with the interview, I had a smile on my face. This was because the life of Willies distinctly showed that all things are possible. Nothing is impossible, and throughout his life steps from the rough early childhood, middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood, one thing that stands out in his life is that he had good virtues. It is the good virtues that he had that helped him to succeed. His patience, love, humility, and mostly hard work have brought him where he is. Was it not for the good morals that he had he could not have been thriving as he is right now, Given that he was brought up in the slums where there is a lot of peer pressure? He reveals that in us lies the power to choose what we want to be; therefore, it is up to us to determine what we want in this life. He designates clearly that obedience does pay. Despite the fidelity he has had throughout his life, he clearly shows that with high power comes great responsibility. Him being the firstborn, He had a duty to be a father figure for his siblings. His life story clearly shows that all things can be handled and that everyone has an unfettered will to make a choice; this is also according to (Turner, 2017). You can always choose what you want with life, but you are not in a position to select the outgrowths that you will suffer. Therefore one should always choose wisely. As he is looking forward to his retirement, he is gratified of his life. He also illustrates to us the role that different organizations and surroundings play in our life. As were it not for the organization that volunteered to help him in his studies, he could not have finished with his school work. His life is a lesson to all teenagers that our surroundings should not influence them. I was so glad that I did this interview because I learned a lot I was able to see how the social work theories applied in willies life. The three main theories used in willies life were psychosocial development, systems theory, and social learning. I am glad I had this interview.


Coady, N., & Lehmann, P. (Eds.). (2016). Theoretical perspectives for direct social work practice: A generalist-eclectic approach. Springer Publishing Company.

Turner, F. J. (Ed.). (2017). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches. Oxford University Press.

Mullaly, R. P., & Mullaly, B. (1997). Structural social work: Ideology, theory, and practice.

Greene, R. R. (2017). Ecological Perspective, an Eclectic Theoretical Framework for Social Work Practice. Human behavior theory and social work practice (pp. 259-300). Routledge.


Introduction to Psychological Research and Ethics history assignment help in uk

Introduction to Psychological Research and Ethics

In the recent past, there has been a strong impact of criticism of medical journalism. There have been top eight topics that are used in the explanation of popular press coverage evaluation. In general popular presses are written with a subjective goal to reach out to the public. In addition to that, they are following segmented urgency, the subjective goal the size of geographical coverage and the specific population target. Newspaper and magazines and the internet are among the popular press that addresses public matters. To be precise web is the most efficient fast and covers a wide geographical range, as explained in the context.

For instance, Prejudice and Discrimination are among the most popular topics that exist in within the web categorically in the psychology world. In this particular branch of a subject in psychology, sexism, racism and homophobia are among the discussion subheadings. In addition to that, there is some psychological claim that engulfs any topic in psychology and in this case, there are also independent claims (Rai et al. 2018). Adding to Michael Robert Caditz, they are feeling or emotional descriptions of variability, although they differ from one individual to the next. But there is an exemption when there is an observable physical condition that is believed to present only if the emotions in question exist.

Basing the argument on the article discrimination and prejudice, the unfair treatment of the individual is also segmented following the kind of miss treat that one is going through.  A prejudiced person is incapable of deciding because the formulation of the idea comes along with the capability to control personal attitude, which is never present. In addition to that, discrimination and prejudice are directed to one major group of people. Although it should be noted that it is not really factual that a decimated person must be at the same time be prejudiced.

Categorically, prejudice is a composition of attitudes like behavioural and cognitive as well as productive. In this, discrimination is only subjective and involves behaviour. Some of the commonly known prejudice and discrimination claims are racism which brings in the favouritism of specific skin coloured individuals—sexism which in most cases affects the feminine gender directly where women are discriminated on base of sex. Homophobia is also a claim that encompasses the range of negative attitudes directly to homosexuality. Moreover, nationalism, the classism, and religious prejudice are other additional claims of unfairness.

Nationalism is actually the ideology that helps citizens of a country gets attached to one primary unit of the social life of human beings. It takes precedence above any other specified political or social principles. Classism, on the other hand, is the discrimination against an individual or rather a group of people on social class bases. In fact, classism has been in existent for the notable historical period and never taken as an issue of concern till in the recent past when people’s freedom to speak outcome in.

The aversion to homosexuality and gayism alongside the culture and behaviour of culture is one or another form of psychological claim, which is sequentially referred to as the homophobic psychological claim. Ageism is also within the same convergence; it is the act of discriminating and treating people differently as a result of the age gap that exists between the oppressed and the ones who are employing the law (Rai et al. 2018). More so, Robert Neil Butler, he describes ageism as being systematic or rather casual.

Historically there has always been the feeling that some religions are better than the other. Criticism of the supernatural being that different groups of people believe in (Ellemers et al. 2017). As a result, there is the growth and development of religious prejudice. It explains the existence of a negative attitude or rather behavioural difference between people who possess distinguished beliefs. The distinction applies in the form of the cultural heritage of the state  and the styles of leadership.

Understanding the concept of psychological research marks the beginning of understanding all the prevailing claims that come along all accessible press coverage more so from the internet. It makes an individual develop in the betterment of information consumption. There strategies that are good in the development of perfect information consumer in the psychology field. First, there is the consideration of the information source; it helps in evaluating the credibility of the information gotten.  Being sceptical is very crucial at the same time as it leads to the development of sensational and shocking claims. It always advisable that one ought to consider evaluating the research methods used. The importance of conducting the test is to make sure that the data provided are supportive and reliable at the same time. Also, it is always advisable to remember those anecdotes are never equal to data and consideration of the person who funded the resource. It is vital as if there is minimal input on the research; then the research is never done to exhaustion.

In conclusion, the article is a good description of a properly formulated article on bases of psychological research that can offer educative expression. It considers giving information and at the same time provides the educative part of it all.

Assignment 2

In the psychology field, it is essential for any individual test for a measure of the effect of society. The impaction that comes along with the same. It is at this particular juncture that psychological validity comes in. In general, four primary validities are used in examining the extemporal dependency and accuracy of the information contained in an article.

The four validities are the construct validity that measures what the actual intent for the performance or evaluation is. Second is the content validity; it verifies the completeness of the content. The third is the face validity which does the general contents test that appears suitable and subjective to the goals (Ellemers et al. 2017). Lastly, there is the criterion validity which is established what has already been confirmed to be valid from other sources or already have passed the quality control test.

The four validity basses form the baseline of analysis of the articles The Psychology of Molarity and its empirical analysis studies together with “He is a Stud; she is a slut! A Meta-Analysis of the Continued Existence of Sexual Double standards. The two articles are from our previous article interrogation. The articles evaluation under the existing four validities can be as explained.

The Psychological of molarity article illustrated a clear depiction of constriction validity. From the explanation given about morality, the report indicated that there some direct observation that molarity tends to portly and are distinguished from one individual to the next. Similarly, the writing is authentic, considering the meaning of construct validity. It is explained to be directly measured and in addition to that, the validity explains the measurement matching methods that are essential in ensuring that the intended reason for writing an article is powerfully explained.

There is a perfect ideological relation of the topic, and indicators required. They are used  in the identification of the validity .Where people have been explained to have a different aspect of life depending on the culture. The culture, in this case, is used as a weighing data source to validate the argument concerning mortality. More so from the article, nature is examined to be originating from data origin as explained by the validity there must be a source.

It is to the support also that even though the article was brief, it perfectly managed to drive all the points home. Achievement of construct validity call for unavoidable indicator analysis and careful measurement and recording data that is dependable impacting knowledge.

The article also did consider the content validity in a manner that although it was concise, all the necessary information was communicated and at the same time understandable. Among the principles that govern the code of performance used in content validity is the full scope coverage, which is perfectly attained in the context of previously discussed psychology and molarity study. Like in the formulation of algebraic expression, every individual who is comfortable in handling a problem has the sole freedom of executing any possible but supportive ways of cracking the mathematical problem (Ellemers et al. 2017).

But despite the different methods used, the main objective is to deliver a well-explained answer. The same case in content identity, methods to be used are many but are all directed to achieving one major goal (Yardley et al. .2017). The same is directly related and explained in the article where the author has indicated that there is different segmentation of scrutinizing molarity study. He used a theoretical approach as one of the methods applied and thus fulfilling the fact that content validity is vital.

The face validity is also visible in the article. Its prevalence is seen when the validity type is clear when the credibility of information given is used and closely linked to with the suitability of the content. Face validity in most cases is confused with the content validity, and the only differentiating factor that exists between them is that Face validity is more of informal in nature and also more subjective than the content validity. In the article content, the validity explanation has been given in a vivid description which makes it more informal and at the same time subjective. From an illustration to explain the use of face validity, when a survey on peoples’ moral habit is made, there is a question of than validated the kind of molarity and the affection in connection to community examined. On the surface, the questions must deliver a good presentation but work under one primary condition. The condition is that the whole process must be confined only regarding what the intention of evaluation is based on. In support, the article on psychological molarity explains molarity as a code of conduct. From this base, it becomes a very essay in the formulation of the thesis question and stipulation of the thesis answer or the statement.

After the analysis has been conducted and approved by some specific data approvals bodies, there rises the concern of using one superiors’ evaluation body that will make sure that actually what has been approved deserves release and ready for usage by the community. In general, the validity in this stage involves the correlation calculation and comparison of both measurement and the results found. Indication of high correlation in after evaluation indicates that there is a good directive in taking the measurement. Consequently, this is the reason why, after the article is written, there is a conclusion and review part. At this stage that the author is expected to give his or her stand on the debatable topical question. The molarity article formulates its criterion validity by defining the position of molarity in relation to culture but much more on to individual behaviour.

The other article is the analysis of the Continued Existence of the Sexual Double Standard. The article was base of a principle of conception moral (Yardley et al. .2017). The principal sets the bases of the construct validity as it is an evaluation tool. It is the baseline of what is expected to be in the context, at the time it is depicted when introducing the topical question.

The article also validates the facts that concern content validity is a factor not to be omitted in the evaluation of the credibility of the information. Generally, the type of validity explains in partial details that are later explained in and given life with the expounding of the prevailing questions that prevail in chronologically down the validities. The lack of condemnation, as explained in the second paragraph of the context. It is an expression of statistical validity.

The fact that the text is a supportive claims sturdy. There is a need to validate that the facts that are expressed are actually up to the task. Author claim that female are much oppressed is experimental as there must be supporting data facts to support the same.

External sourcing form a more concrete supportive on explaining to whom and to what extent is the results correct in generalized. In the article, the trends are used in the express and build database in the development of face validity or statistical validity. In other words, the external is requires supportive documentation and bringing in the aspect of criterion validation.

Assignment 3

From the study, there is very direct, factual evidence that one of the articles is very general and does not have much supportive evidence like the other one. The compatibility of an article makes it easy for it to become generally perfect for appointing of turning into reflection box for others to source information from.

The two articles in the discussion are both compatible, but the first article, goodness supersedes the second one. In the Psychology of Molarity article, the unfolding of explanations is extemporal. It is deeply subjective and handles the general community portraying the aspect of becoming a social mirror. In contrast to the Continued Existence of Sexual Double Standards shows a one-sided shoulder balance that explains the humiliation of ladies.

Generally, the discussed validity forms for validities are not evenly and perfectly explained as compared to Psychological Molarity article.

The study replicable in that is only required message delivery with a perfectly despite the distinguished strategies that can be used. In addition to that, the fact that the research is confined in common validity principles is a guarantee to delivery of the message (Yardley et al. .2017). It this case, the two articles despite the difference in the way of expression are directed to one major goal of educating on molarity.

Also, the study is in generalized mode. It is true on facts that the behavioural changes that affect individuals are not subjective to a specific to all social control panelling factor like age. More so there is an aspect of theoretical testing because all the validities that are bases of the study. Additionally, the marketing of an article is dependent on the number of people who are willing to buy. Consequently, the study is with no doubt good and applicable to the world as molarity is a common call to all. It is the reason why the study was in generalized mode; this can be confirmed from the choice of popular press chosen in the assignment. The topic in question is applicable in concealing that happens in the real world.


Clark, C. B., Bauman, C. W., Kamble, S. V., Knowles, E. D. (2017). Intentional sin and accidental virtue? Cultural differences in moral systems influence perceived intentionality. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(1), 74-82.

Ellemers, N., Van der Toorn, J., Paunov, Y. (2017). The psychology of morality: A quantitative review of empirical studies published from 2000 through 2013 (Unpublished research report). Utrecht, The Netherlands: Utrecht University.

Rai, R., Chauhan, C., & Cheng, M. I. (2018). Materialistic values, brand knowledge and the mass media.  Hours spent on the internet predicts materialistic values and brand knowledge. Current Psychology, 1-9.

Yardley, L. (2017). Demonstrating the validity of qualitative research. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(3), 295-296.


The concept of Victimology history homework help: history homework help

Introduction to Victimology


Today, people are victims of various problems and sufferings in this modern world society.  People are subject to becoming victims of multiple disasters, diseases, and other extensive aspects of crime.  Generally, the individuals who suffer losses, social problems, diseases, natural disasters, political injustices, discrimination, and warfare, hardships due to any reason, injuries, and crime are commonly described as victims. This context aims at discussing Victimology as a science that is extensively employed by criminal justice professions in various law enforcement agencies.

Keywords: Concept, Crime, Victimology, Victim, History, and criminal justice system.


Professionals in the criminal justice system play a critical role in solving crimes as well as ensuring justice is administered.  However, they are also integral servants in matters of crime, whereby they help victims vis-à-vis various justice needs.  Apart from putting criminals away, criminal justice occupants are also tasked in assisting the victims in navigating or coping through the employment of various strategies based on Victimology.  Victimology refers to a science of studying victimization (Daigle & Muftic, 2019). It entails the liaison between victims and offenders, cum the role played by victims in a criminal justice set-up   intending to seek to understand how crime affects victims, Victimologists study the long term and short term impact of victimization. Therefore, the science of Victimology is a concept employed by victimologists in addressing questions concerning victims. For instance, instead of hypothesizing or wondering why victims are more likely to be young people than older ones, victimologists carry out a study in an attempt to answer why younger people are more susceptible.

The concept of Victimology

Anyone who is harmed by a perpetrator is described as a victim in Victimology.  Offenders or perpetrators are defined as people who commit a crime. As much as the professionals in the criminal justice system will try to comprehend perpetrators’ mind in solving misdemeanors and rehabilitating villains, law institutes, also employ the use of Victimology in understanding why a victim was a point of target. The concept of “victim” has an early root in the ancient world.  The term was linked to a notion of sacrifice. Initially, the term victim was used to describe an animal or individual put to sacrifice in a religious set up as a way of appeasing some superstitious deity or power.  Over many years, the term has evolved by picking multiple meanings, and currently, it refers to people who suffer disasters, losses, and many other forms of injustices. As an academic word, Victimology is composed of two terms: First, it is the Latin term “Victima” that is translated to “Victim”.  The second element is “logos” which is a Greek term referring to a system of science, study, knowledge, abstract, and teaching. The various concepts of Victimology include; general Victimology, penal Victimology, critical Victimology, and theoretical Victimology (Karmen, 2013).

Victimology history

Victimology first came into existence in the 1940s to 1950s when several interactions of victim-offender were examined by notable criminologists such as Ellenberg Henri, Mendelsohn Benjamin, and Hentig von Hans. The pioneers of Victimology raised the potentiality that some victims who have suffered losses and wounds might attribute a certain extent of accountability with the law perpetrators for their cataclysm (Burges & Roberts, 2010). For example, recklessness of certain motorists facilitated issues of theft, and intoxication behavior in bars attracted robbers’ attention.  With time, Victimology has evolved into a dynamic science whereby prevalence rates of time and annual incidences are identifiable and measured vis-à-vis various aspects of victimization such as carjacking, date rape, and stalking. Other forms of victimology research are centered on victimization and violent risks varying from one group to another, particularly by ethnicity, social class, area of residence, gender, and age.

Difference between criminology, Victimology, and Psychology

Both criminology and Victimology are an integral aspect of the criminal justice system. The difference between the two terms is based on both scope and aim. Criminology focuses on trying to understand the motives of criminals and underlying reasons for misdemeanors whereas criminology bases on helping those offended (victims) recover after brutality or crime.  In Victimology, recovery is the central aspect that is fostered, while criminology is all about seeking prevention.   Unlike victimologists, criminologists are focused on finding an understanding of social ramifications posed by crime.  The professions in criminology examine every potentiality aspect of behavior that is deviant.  Some of the elements studied by criminologists include types and causes of misdemeanors, location, frequency, and criteria of developing a humane and effective means to prevent crime.  Sociology, on the other hand, refers to study development, functioning, and structure of people society.  Its study is mainly centered on social issues.  Additionally, psychology refers to a study of human behavior and mind. Unlike psychology, Victimology primarily focuses on villains and perpetrators (Bevacqua, 2000).

The 1st safe house for women who are battered

The 1st safe house for women who are battered was launched in England, a place called Chiswick by Patria Erin Margaret, who was a novelist and dissident.  After introducing the house for women who are battered, Patria became famous worldwide.    The house for battered women started by Patria was mainly targeting victims of abuse as one way of breaking the abuse cycle.

The 1st centers for rape crisis

Centers for the rape crisis are a community-based organization established to help victims of sexual and rape abuse as well as violence.   In the 1970s, a group of women who had a link with the 2nd wave of the feminist movement formed the 1stcenters for the rape crisis.  The Washington DC was the first center established, and its operations began in 1972 by pioneer women (Bevacqua, 2000).

The children’s rights groups and their roles in addressing the issues faced by child victims in a system of criminal justice

            The key role played by rights groups of children in highlighting the issues faced by child victims in criminal justice is through awareness creation.  The rights groups have lobbied for more attention to younger victims making criminal justice more considerate to the rights of child victims.  Another role attributable to rights groups for younger victims is by enhancing a legislative reform that will facilitate accountability of all the violence perpetrators of younger victims. Through the legal process, the actions of these perpetrators are scrutinized and concerned individuals held accountable. The rights groups for younger victims have also bolstered a massive role in addressing the issues faced by younger victims by introducing programs to help child victims.

The essence of mandatory reporting across all states

The aspect of mandatory reporting for all states helps in determining whether a person is experiencing any form of maltreatment or abuse. Mandatory reporting is also crucial among teenagers and children since, in most cases, these groups of individuals rarely report cases of mistreatment in fear of what villains or perpetrators will do.  In most phenomena, women, and children who undergo various forms of abuse remain silent concerning the mistreatment, and more often they reveal such cases at a time of confession.  Teenagers experiencing violence or abuse may opt to present their concerns to church leaders in pursuit of assistance.  To support victims of violence or any other form of abuse, religious organizations are encouraged to report such cases on a mandatory basis.   However, everyone needs to have a consideration of a confidentiality degree before a lawsuit is reported (Bevacqua, 2000).

The role of the media in impacting change in states rarely needs the aspect of mandatory reporting.

Today, technology advancement, which is at an exponential curve, has resulted in the fastest means of communication globally.  Through media,   various cases of crime victims are easily drawn to the public’s attention, and in the long run, this may lead to policy reforms as a way of helping victims.   For example, Clergy abuse is one new form of abuse that the general public might not have heard, whereas the superiors are familiar with it.  Such kinds of abuse “Clergy abuse” are rarely reported. After the media’s intervention, some religious leaders are subjected to court prosecution as per the law.   Hence, extensive awareness is created by the media, and many ignored issues such as clergy abuse are brought to light.  In some situations, evidence, as well as education, is also provided by the media. The fastest means of educating the public is through media because many individuals across the world depend on information from the media (Ronel & Bensimon, 2008).


Considering the above-covered material, the science of Victimology helps professionals in law enforcement sectors to remedy particular violence cases because it enhances the relationship between the victim’s behavior and the villain or offender.    Through victimology theories, the law enforcers are in a better position of determining the reason behind the perpetrators’ motives or target.  Agencies of law enforcement need to study Victimology since it will enhance better comprehension of handling misdemeanor cases that are occurring in everyday life.


List of Bibliography

Daigle, L. E., & Muftic, L. R. (2019). Victimology: A comprehensive approach. SAGE Publications.

Bevacqua, M. (2000). Rape on the public agenda: Feminism and the politics of sexual assault.

Boston: Northern University Press.

Burgess. A.W., Regehr, C., & Roberts, A.R. (2010). Victimology: Theories and applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Karmen, A. (2013). Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Ronel, N., Jaishnkar, K., & Bensimon. M. (2008). Trends and issues in Victimology. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholar Pub.


How to keep up with current trends in the business industry do my history assignment


Progression of technology and its advancements has led to falling apart of businesses. The reason for this is that Business owners remain to employ traditional methods of running their entities or organizations. Despite the difficulties associated with keeping up with trends within trends within the financial industry, one can only remain to defeat his or her competitors by doing so. Keeping up with trends is essential even when business gets established. Such is because it shows customers that one is flexible with changing trends. Therefore, this implies that sticking to the old methods signifies one’s rigidity to accommodate current situations or circumstances. Thus, with this background information regarding the subject matter, this paper has been set to discuss in details the different approaches that business owners can employ in order to keep up with the current trends in the ever-changing business environment.

How to keep up with current trends in the business industry

The use of newspapers, internet, televisions and other news channels is seen to be one of the ways of remaining informed about the daily events and changes in different industries. Therefore, by keeping connected through several mediums, one gets a better perspective on the things customers are currently interested in. (El Kadiri et al., 14) reveals that getting daily updates from news channels makes an individual see trends when they first occur. Therefore, this implies that being alert to current trends keeps one updated and informed with the changes in their respective business environment. Follow social Media Publications and Key influencers. By making online follow up to trendsetters, one sees when a trend emerges, equally to competitors. In this case, a businessman remains informed on top fads that are current.

The process of making business-oriented networks is also deemed to be another indispensable approach of remaining informed of the emerging trends in the business world. Evidence from multiple literature pieces indicates that patterns are unique to everyone because they are new, and therefore, they are expected to catch on immediately.  In this context, it is stated that maintaining networks within the business industry helps entrepreneurs to know all about the current issues.

Yamakawa, Yasu (2016) reveals that Embracing changes within a given industry is essential since it enables entrepreneurs to remain informed of the emerging business trends. In this context, it is suggested that before one begins implementing trend-guided modifications, he or should be ready to accept change. Additionally, it is evident that Businesses grow and be successful when owners develop the willingness to open up for new ideas. Therefore, this implies that it is crucial to keep in mind only what is appropriate for their own business, remaining connected to news and broadcasts and business sites.

Talk to customers further, and getting information concerning one’s business is another critical approach for acquiring daily entrepreneurial trends in an industry. While specific changes benefit business entities from the perspective of business, the more significant concern is to know customers’ response to the shift. In this context, El Kadiri, Soumaya (2016) presents that determination is made on whether trends in markets work by gathering feedback from clients. When customers are not fans to change, it is essential if one adapts a different craze.

The utilization of alternative solutions helps in maintaining daily operations, particularly during the times of business uncertainties. For instance, during this age of coronavirus, most of the businesses are experiencing falling profitability curves. Such because the pandemic disrupts business communications, staffing, supply chains, and arrangements of travel by business owners (Yamakawa et al., 19). Therefore, it is essential to cancel all business plans and trips while creating and making use of alternative solutions to cope with new business trends.


In conclusion, keeping informed on the new business trends in business is vital to its success. Apply multiple alternatives to maintain operations daily, Use tools of analytics that provide hints on the trending and always remain open to new ideas while you apply them when necessary. Having these, one remains current in the business or financial industry.


El Kadiri, Soumaya, et al. “Current trends on ICT technologies for enterprise information systems.” Computers in Industry 79 (2016): 14-33.

Yamakawa, Yasu, et al. “Expanding the focus of entrepreneurship education: a pedagogy for teaching the entrepreneurial method.” Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship 27.2 (2016): 19-46.