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UNDERSTANDING LEADERSHIP QUALITIES ap american history essay help: ap american history essay help


Leadership Qualities


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I have a keen understanding of myself, that I can make various mistakes at times; thus, I can list my leadership weakness. I know that I am not entirely perfect for other events; I am not very patient when I have been provoked and am easily angered. That is one of my weaknesses that I have been having deep within me from time to time. From time to time, I inquire from the people around me about my reactions and how they feel that should change. Therefore I know my strengths and weaknesses but not sure as people take them differently.

Internal moral perspectives are punctual in that my action does not in any way have hit my behavior. Therefore my actions do not have a bearing on what my core values are. I have friends that we make ones with, laugh at, and have a good time. When we are joking, it is not necessarily what I have as my values (Jude et al. 2020). We often abuse each other jokingly. Thus it is not that I have the character. Therefore, as a leader, I do not allow my friends to compromise my core values at any point. Thus, I have limits to what the friendships can lead to and where not to enable it to penetrate.

Underbalanced processing, I often listen to too many of the people around me before I make any decision that concerns me. I have learned to listen to what advice people have to give me because I am not superior to anyone. I believe more in many ideas than just my own; therefore, I take close initiatives when listening to other people around me. I attend a lot than just talking.



Relationship transparency, I have a weakness in not feeling very free to sharing my secrets with others or whatever is disturbing me (Petre, 2020). I mainly do not involve many people close to me in the essence of telling them what I have. Many people do not know me as a person through what I go through because I do not share my problem with anyone. At the same time, I also do not present any false form of myself. I am usually real throughout my life with others; only my emotions are hidden to set others into a panic.



Karagianni, D., & Jude Montgomery, A. (2018). Developing leadership skills among adolescents and young adults: a review of leadership programs. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(1), 86-98.

Petre, G. E. (2020). Developing Students’ Leadership Skills Through Cooperative Learning: An Action Research Case Study. In International Forum Journal (Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 143-162).


Quality Improvement in Healthcare Setting history essay help



QI Initiative Evaluation


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QI Initiative Evaluation

Quality Improvement in Healthcare Setting

The objective of all healthcare professionals is to deliver high-quality care. Delivering quality healthcare is a complicated process, yet it forms the basis of healthcare (Dixon-Woods & Martin, 2016). High-quality care involves giving the right patient the necessary care at the appropriate time and in the right way leading to the best possible patient outcome. High-quality care is crucial to the safety of patients and leads to the making of no errors. Zero harm is an achievable objective through the promotion of safe and high-quality patient care. In this regard, the healthcare organization needs to concentrate on positive ways of improving the future.

Evaluation of a QI Initiative

QI is a model used by healthcare organizations to promote the delivery of healthcare to patients consistently. The process is measurable, and it can be analyzed, improved, and controlled to achieve zero harm to patients (Wong & Sullivan, 2016). Every healthcare organization’s primary objective is patient safety and excellence. At Faith Medical Center, it was established that medication errors are a cause of adverse healthcare incidents that directly impact the patient’s health. Medication errors are due to poor communication and medical abbreviations. Therefore, healthcare organizations need to direct efforts on healthcare organizations’ leadership to enforce quality improvement initiatives to enhance proper communication to avoid medication errors. Medication errors occur through the system of medication use, including the prescription of wrong drugs, chewing non-chewable, and using the wrong spoon.

The launch of an all-inclusive safety program is in line with the medical center’s objective of delivering high-quality care and ensuring patient safety. The focal point of evaluating the QI initiative is preventing medication errors due to inappropriate use of medications (Bari et al., 2016). Medication errors result from an inadequate flow of information, communication problems, technical features, inadequate policies, and inadequate staffing. The main objective is to assess issues that might have led to the errors. Based on the result, there might be a need to establish an alternative approach with a strong patient-related issue to improve the medical center’s safety outcome.

Evaluation and Assessment of the QI Initiative

Patient safety is achieved through high-quality care and the avoidance of medication errors. Faith Medical Center is dedicated to delivering high-quality care and promoting patient safety through all the departments’ joint operations. Implementation of Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program and proper communication in healthcare organizations led to reduction of medication errors. There is a new target by the Joint Commission for several patient safety objectives to create a safe practice environment for patients and providers. The target for the reduction of medication errors is achievable.

The seriousness of medication error incidents is evident in the number of admissions, long hospital stays, and higher costs (Bari et al., 2016). Medication errors that cause more harm are adverse drug events. If a medication error occurs and it did not hurt anyone, it is a possible adverse drug event. The rate of prevention and reduction of errors is an indicator of the extent of patient safety and quality of care. To minimize medication errors, Faith Medical Center implemented standard care and established different knowledge bases. Implementation of the bundle leads to a safer outcome than when individual lines of the bundle are enforced and implementing medical reconciliation.

Benchmarks of Evaluating Success

Patients in the ICU are at an increased risk of medication errors and adverse events. The evaluation of the initiative’s success in minimizing medication errors brings the need to implement electronic health records.  The efficiency of most medical technological advancements and prompt submission of data on the prevalence of medication errors to the relevant authorities such as the Center for Disease Control has led to the initiative’s success. Besides, creating a performance dashboard aids in measuring the metrics of the outcome, for example, the number and types of errors and length of stay in hospital due to medication errors. The dashboard gives real-time analysis of the errors in the ICU and helps in the process improvement, which aids in preventing them.

Other approaches included are cost reduction, efficiency, length of stay, and individuals and the practitioner’s engagement. Also, the aspects of cost reduction and efficiency need to be included in the outcome. This is because a single incident of medication error can lead to the death of 100,000 people every year and costs up to $20 billion every year (Hipskind et al., 2020).

When employees and stakeholders are aware of medication errors’ financial effects on the organization, it can effectively implement its reduction and prevention efforts (Bari et al., 2016). As health organizations increasingly strive to achieve patient safety and high-quality services, it is important to evaluate the staff’s level of engagement. Health practitioners’ emotional commitment in a healthcare organization helps minimize and prevent medication errors and eventually causing zero harm. Staff engagement is achieved through staff empowerment, which leads to more engagement in achieving patient safety and high-quality services.

Interprofessional Perspectives Related to the Functionality and Outcomes of the Initiatives

When team players of a healthcare organization work as a team, the quality of patient care improves, also, effective communication leads to patient safety and delivery of high-quality services. A healthcare organization can improve communication between health practitioners by using a Team Strategy Tool to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS).

Perspectives of Interprofessional Team Members Involved in the Initiative

The interprofessional perspectives related to the initiative’s outcome create a multidisciplinary team and conduct educational sessions for all health practitioners in the medical center before implementing unit-based care (Gleeson et al., 2016). The multidisciplinary team includes a doctor, an intensivist, nurse epidemiologist, ICU nurses, and a manager. It was important to educate team leaders of different processes, including completing forms for urgent medical incidents. The team often meets to discuss the enforcement of robust medical standards and act according to set safety standards.

There might be the need for implementation of quick measures until after the achievement of a desirable outcome. Interprofessional collaboration is complex and keeps evolving, thereby bringing the need for effective communication. Interprofessional collaboration and respect for other health practitioners’ perspectives enhance a team’s effectiveness and help improve patient outcomes, for example, reducing the prevalence of medication errors.

Additional Indicators and Protocol Changes to Improve Quality Outcomes

All health practitioners play significant roles in the management of very sick patients. For this reason, the use of evidence-based guidelines provides information on the complexity of clinical trials. Usually, these include the efficiency of administration of intravenous drugs and treatment duration that last for some time. Modifications of operational design help reduce deviations from drug infusion protocols approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The design modifications aim to minimize errors of incorrect dose, wrong patient, and incorrect drug administration.

Specific Process or Protocol Changes as Well as Added Technologies that Would Improve Quality Outcomes.

The objective of Faith Medical center is to minimize the prevalence of medication errors. As much as progress has been made, more needs to be done to protect patients from such errors. Enforcing a culture of safety in healthcare organizations allow health practitioners to take action. Health organizations’ leadership is responsible for promoting a positive culture by showing their commitment to safety and providing the necessary resources to achieve the desired results (Montano et al., 2016). Besides, healthcare organizations need to develop systems to deal with the possible sources of medical effects. Also, the systems are crucial in promoting communication and improving prompt access to information to minimize medication errors.



Bari, A., Khan, R., & Rathore, A. (2016). Medical errors; causes, consequences, emotional response and resulting behavioral change. Pakistan Journal Of Medical Sciences, 32(3).

Dixon-Woods, M., & Martin, G. (2016). Does quality improvement improve quality?. Future Hospital Journal, 3(3), 191-194.

Gleeson, H., Calderon, A., Swami, V., Deighton, J., Wolpert, M., & Edbrooke-Childs, J. (2016). Systematic review of approaches to using patient experience data for quality improvement in healthcare settings. BMJ Open, 6(8), e011907.

Montano, D., Reeske, A., Franke, F., & Hüffmeier, J. (2016). Leadership, followers’ mental health and job performance in organizations: A comprehensive meta-analysis from an occupational health perspective. Journal Of Organizational Behavior, 38(3), 327-350.

Hipskind, J., Houseman, B., & Rodziewicz, T. (2020). Medical Error Prevention. StatPearls Publishing.

Wong, B., & Sullivan, G. (2016). How to Write Up Your Quality Improvement Initiatives for Publication. Journal Of Graduate Medical Education, 8(2), 128-133.



UNDERSTANDING QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION us history essay help: us history essay help




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There are various approaches to understanding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) impact in the United States. Quantitative evaluation is among the techniques that can produce accurate information about free care’s effect on the population. According to Guyadeen and Seasons (2018), quantitative evaluation helps make decisions about a program or choose among alternatives. This approach uses quantitative data that can be assigned numerical values and can be measured and provide a definite outcome. In the ACA case, the type of data involved for the evaluation includes the number of patients seeking free coverage, health outcome, and the number of health institutions implementing the services. Besides, it involves secondary data, such as rates of positive health outcomes and feedback from stakeholders.

It is essential to note that quantitative evaluation focuses on the outcome. Since the ACA is designed to elevate healthcare costs and provide quality and safe care, it has a predefined outcome. This approach aims at testing the program in relation to the outcome. Besides, it can be used to test participation and how people reacted to the program. Since this method is objective, it uses data collection, controlled observation and systematic research design to enhance outcomes (Smith & Hasan, 2020). Quantitative evaluation for this case can involve surveys, randomized control studies and questionnaires to gather extensive data, improving the analysis and understanding. It is also essential to note that the data collected defines the depth and breadth of program implementation. It can therefore be used to create a varying perspective of the impact of the program for a large region like the United States. Quantitative data pre and post the intervention plays a vital role in creating a relationship between impact and outcome.


Guyadeen, D., & Seasons, M. (2018). Evaluation theory and practice: Comparing program evaluation and evaluation in planning. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 38(1), 98-110.

Smith, J. D., & Hasan, M. (2020). Quantitative approaches for the evaluation of implementation research studies. Psychiatry Research, 283, 112521.



UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMS AND CULTURE african history assignment help

Question 1

Foreign, in this case, implies outside the formalities of our specific cultures or places of origin. These cultures typically seem odd to us since we have not been integrated with them during our childhood upbringing; thus, what seems normal to other cultures may sound brutal to us. This is seen in the body rituals performed by the Nacirema communities, who believe the body is naturally weak and prone to disease; thus, to avert all these, they have to undertake rituals and ceremonies to invoke powerful spiritual forces. Our cultural norms affect how we perceive other cultures. What we see as the standard norm leads us to judge different cultures either positively or negatively. Whatever is normal and practiced in our culture, if not practiced by the other culture, it’s deemed inferior compared to our culture (Idang, et al .201).

Question 2

The most common cultural assumption we make is that we are all the same, yet we are not. We also tend to believe that our culture is more superior and relatable to other cultures. Some cultural practices that seem hard to understand are; pointing with the thumb in Malaysia since pointing with the index finger is considered offensive; secondly, slurping food in japan is a way of indicating that food is good while in western cultures its rude; and lying prostrate while greeting elders or adults as a sign of respect by the young people among the Yoruba of Nigeria and spitting on the bride at weddings as a sign of good luck charm in Greece (Cichanowicz, 2021).

Question 3

Customs that may appear immoral or offensive may be due to adaptations towards certain social and environmental conditions. Cultural practices in the Nacirema and the western cultures seem to be parallel. In both cultures, appearance and healthy bodies are highly sort after. Shrines can be used interchangeably for the bathroom, and the use of ‘ritual and ceremony’ could mean the actual act of exercise and cleansing. The mouth rite is seen to indicate the act of brushing teeth ( The use of hog hairs and powder as toothpaste and toothbrush). Men scrapping their faces using blades may seem odd, but the same is done in Western culture. Women rites are done during the lunar month so does the monthly women cycle, which occurs monthly and lasts for several days. By understanding this then ethnocentrism will be reduced (Gomeseria, 2019)

Question 4

We notice we are making assumptions when we think we know people’s motives, skills, or abilities, basing this on gender and race, relying on second-hand information and our understanding of data. However, assumptions are avoided through assessing one’s beliefs, and they originate from such as experience or gut feeling. Secondly, ask questions and, where there is doubt, have a genuine desire to learn. Finally, you can seek multiple perspectives, which will facilitate the ability to understand a particular situation.



Cichanowicz, L. (2021). 11 Surprising Customs from Around the World. Retrieved January 22, 2021, from

Gomeseria, Ronald. (2019). “The Effect of Nacirema Body Ritual and Practices (Body Ritual among the Nacirema-Horace Miner).” 10.17605/OSF.IO/P5U3J.

Idang, Gabriel E. (2015). African culture and values. Chronicon, 16(2), 97-111. Retrieved January 22, 2021, from