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The Pivotal Role That Information Technology Play In Business Management.  Ap Us History Essay Help

Information Technology

The inception of Information technology has completely changed all business aspects, from marketing to payment processes as well as data storage. Similar trends have also been replicated on customer management throughout the business landscape. Businesses in the food industry have exploited this unbelievable opportunity in efforts to stay competitive in the market. However, the ease at which KFC restaurant has incorporated information technology into its business operation is significant.  Never before could any business attended to its clients’ needs, which so much ease has KFC have done in the last decade. As a result, the company has been on a tremendous growth trajectory and currently owns more than 22,000 food outlets across the globe. The robust growth that KFC is presently experiencing is primarily due to its management’s recognition of the pivotal role that information technology play in business management.

KFC Company has invested in different aspects of information technology and still keeps on investing in more IT trends. It requires a strategic approach to effectively compete and realize the benefits of the emerging trends of information technology. With a benefit-led approach, KFC has effectively used information technology that has enabled business innovation and a means to enhance its value for its stakeholders, employees, customers, and the community. As a result, the company has managed to maintain its competitive advantage as well as increase its global market shares. Some of the critical information technology systems that KFC has incorporated into its business include Point of Sale system (POS), Touch-Interface Ordering System (TIOS), Decision Support System (DSS), Management information system (MIS), and Marketing Information System.

Point of Sale system (POS)

With the recent advancement in information technology, the mode of business transaction has significantly evolved. The emergence of new and more reliable transaction systems has forced businesses around the globe to shift away from the traditional clunky cash registers. Today, KFC restaurants use the Point of Sale (POS) system to carry out all its business transactions. The adoption of this leaner system of business transactions has benefited the company in many unimaginable ways. For instance, whenever customers use the Point of Sale (POS) for paying for goods and services, the system captures their crucial information such as phone number, email address, name, date of birth, and the product purchased. The company has often used the data captured to craft personalized promotions or advertisements and send it to targeted customers with astonishing precision and effectiveness.  In return, the company has improved its customer loyalty, brand awareness and influenced customer purchase intensions ( ).

Additionally, the application of the Point of Sale system in KFC outlets has opened up new payment avenues for customers. The Point of Sale system has diverse payment options such as mobile wallets, EMV chip cards, debit cards, credit cards, cash, Samsung Pay, and mobile wallets. The receipts for the transaction are either printed or emailed to the customer. The expansion of the payment options in KFC has improved customer satisfaction as well as generates more revenue for the company. Furthermore, the adoption of the Point of Sale system at KFC outlets has improved inventory management in the company. Unlike the old cash register, the modern Point of Sale system has advanced inventory management capabilities that have permitted the management team to keep track of the company’s inventories. The company now effectively knows what quantity of inventories to order and at what specific time.


Touch-Interface Ordering System (TIOS)

For approximately three decades now, we have incorporated touch screens into our daily lives, whether on smartphones or ATMs. However, the hotel industry has been slow in adopting this technology into their operations. However, KFC has been quick in implementing the Touch-Interface Ordering System (TIOS) in some of its food outlets across Canada and the United States. ( ) note that Touch-Interface Ordering System (TIOS) has similar properties like the regular ATMs we use in banks and permit customers to make their orders by selecting products that are presented in a pictorial form on the touch screen. Customers can also pay for the products using their debit or credit cards on the card slot placed on the machine.

According to Maria et al. (2018), customers are often attracted to restaurants that provide excellent customer services and dining experiences (pg 5). The adoption of TIOS at KFC allows clients to glance through the digital menu and put an order at their leisure.  Furthermore, as soon a customer puts his or her order, it automatically reflects in the Kitchen, and immediately the order is made available. As a result, KFC has managed to significantly reduce the time customers wait before receiving their orders and occurrence of human error that often occur due to misplaced customer orders, thus enhancing customer satisfaction and dining experience (Sagar et al., 2014, pg 14).

Decision Support Systems (DSS)

Today, making business decisions are become more complicated due to the changing complexity of the business landscape around the globe. As a result, business is now relying on a decision support system to aid in the decision making process. Alluding to the structural complexity of KFC, the company has developed Decision Support Systems (DSS) to help in the decision making in all its organization levels. According to Maria et al. (2018), Decision Support Systems (DSS) is an automated program that is used to support a course of action, determination or judgment of business managers (pg1).  She notes that these systems were not developed to replace managers but to aid them in making correct business decisions (pg 2). That is, Decision Support Systems can analyze data quantitatively, thus supporting managerial judgments that would otherwise be based on personal intuition and experience.

The company has often relied on Decision Support Systems to obtain information on inventory data, projected revenue, sales figures, and customer need and preferences. Using the analyzed data obtained from the DSS, KFC has managed to make an effective decision concerning business management and customer satisfaction. Besides, through Decision Support Systems, KFC has managed to quickly and cost-effectively make business decisions that have positively impacted the company’s growth.

Management Information System

The theory of management information system can be traced back when businesses relied on ledgers to carry out their accounting processes. However, with the recent improvement in computer-based information technology, new arrays of management information systems have been developed to assist businesses manages their operations. According to ( ) Management information system (MIS) is situated off a mechanized information system that can assemble data from several online systems, scrutinize the data, and present the information found in an easily comprehensible and readable format to assist business managers in making effective business decisions. ( ) note that all the KFC franchises globally utilize the management information systems in inventory management, accounting, and planning and developing business strategies that can make the company stay competitive in the market.  Moreover, through the management information system, the company has managed to acquire crucial information on the current business landscape in the food industry. This has enabled the KFC management team to understand the company’s market position and make the necessary adjustment that can positively impact the business today and in the future.

Marketing Information System

The food industry is very competitive, and any marketing mistake made by a company may lead to its failure and exit from the market. To stay competitive, KFC as adopted the Marketing information system to aid with its marketing strategies. Marketing information systems are situated of a mechanized information system that can continuously collect, store, interpret, and analyze market information from internal and external sources (Piercy, 2018, pg 5). By using a marketing information system, the company has managed to develop effective marketing strategies with the ability to capture the attention of the intended audience and demography. For example, by using a marketing information system, KFC has adopted better advertisement strategies like social media marketing.

Today, the social media platform is being used for virtually everything–communication, learning, shopping, and entertainment. As of 2014, the total number of Facebook users globally was more than one billion, recording more than 300, 000 likes per minute Ganis & Marimekala, 2014, pg 1). As such, all KFC outlets globally have integrated their marketing strategies across their social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram to reach out to a broader and bigger audience. As a result, the company has significantly enhanced its brand awareness and market sales across the globe.


Information technology is a dynamic field that keeps on changing every day. The ability of KFC to keep up with the changing trends in IT indicates the company’s wiliness to stay competitive in the food industry. Through information technology, the company has managed to create marketing strategies that easily relate to the target audience, increases its payments option, effectively manage its inventories, and improve the customer dining experience. Furthermore, the company has used information systems to aid its decision-making and improve its competitive nature in the food industry. Despite all the business opportunities that have opened up through IT, the full potential of IT is yet to be achieved.


Information Technology & Development of Monopolies ap history essay help: ap history essay help

Information Technology & Development of Monopolies


            The existence of monopolies has been experienced over the past decades and is still in continuation.  Information technology has been identified as one of the factors for the contribution of monopolies (Agrawal et al., 2020). Numerous companies such as Microsoft, Netflix, Amazon besides the telecom companies have implemented the use of information technologies in their operation.  These companies, over the past period, have exploited the use of cloud technologies, customer algorithm, and online marketing for the optimization of their organization structure. However, the use of government regulations has been seen as one of the solutions to the monopoly.

Area of interest/ activity/ issue

            The world has been progressively changing. Multiple invention and innovation have developed and have laid various impacts to various businesses. Change is inevitable, and this has led to numerous companies to capitalize on maximum utilization of technology. Several solutions have, therefore, been adopted to curb the unethical corporate practices (Bessen, 2017). The impacts of technology thereby become an exciting area of study for the research.

Research Findings

Achievement of patronage algorithms

            Netflix is one of the online DVD renting platforms in the world. The company opened up completion for the development of the algorithm. The primary aim of this completion was to aid in the calculation of the client concern. Understanding the preference and rate of consumption was essential for the prediction of customer consumption patterns. The development of the algorithm would thereby help the company understand the flow of the film. Netflix has monopolized the streaming industry after its extraordinary growth. The use of aggregated algorithms have been experienced today among various companies.

Amalgamation of departments

            The emergence of monopoly has been due to the utilization of different aspects. The use of information technology in the maximization of the organization structure has led organizations being monopolies in their various fields. Standard oil is one of the monopolies in the United States that maintained its position for a very long time. One of the reason was due to the employment of information technology by John D. Rockefeller. He would hire companies to help him in the exploitation of resources in the northern states (Richardson & Gary 2015). Conduction of business with intelligence is one of the fundamental aspects of the development of monopoly in a nation.

Online Marketing

            With the emergence of the online marketing, most customers have been much dependent on the door to door delivery. Amazon has dramatically used this strategy to monopolize the industry. The company is utilizing the information technology in the customization of their orders and adverts to meet their customers’ preferences (Bianchi & Moser 2017). The company used drones in the delivery of their goods to their clients. The company, therefore, uses the locational data analytics, which enables it to reach its clients. The company has been seen growing and is now marketing its products online across the globe.

Cloud computing

            Cloud computing has enabled various monopolies to store their vast data. The invention of the cloud computing technology has led many start-ups to rise to monopolies. A good example is the Netflix industry. The company was started less than twenty-five years ago and is now one of the monopolies in streaming. The company uses cloud computing to store its data for easy access and retrieval. The company used information technology as a tool for the advancement of the business (Yang et al. 2017). As a result, Netflix has been present in over one hundred nations.

Proposed solution

            Several strategies have been adopted to control the emerging monopolies. It is most common when the situation does more harm than good. One of the solutions is through the application of the law. A country may face the production of the low standard of goods and price discrimination as a result of monopoly. The government can break up monopolies. For instance, when the United States government broke the standard oil to solve the oil crisis in the U.S., The government, however, can nationalize a company to curb its nature of monopoly. A monopoly can also be controlled by price fixation and the application of the intelligent antitrust laws.


            Information technology has led to a significant transformation of businesses (Yang et al. 2017). It is beneficial to both monopolies and the single companies. Monopolies such as Amazon, Microsoft, and Netflix, among others, have significantly developed as a result of information technology. A company may be selling the same commodity in the market as other companies. However, its technological advancement will determine its role and position in the market. The move towards the control of monopolies will, however, reduce the survival probabilities of monopolies (Agrawal et al., 2020).



Agrawal, S.,  Pandey, M., Mishra, al (2020). Dynamic Rule-Based Approach for Shelf Placement Optimization Using Apriori Algorithm. In Frontiers in Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (pp. 228-237). Springer, Singapore.

Bessen, J. (2017). Information technology and industry concentration. Boston University School of Law Law & Economics Paper Series, (17-41).

Bianchi & Moser (2017). “Compulsory licensing and innovation – Historical evidence from German patents after WWI.” Journal of Development Economics. 126: 231–242.

Richardson & Gary (2015). “A Tale of Two Theories: Monopolies and Craft Guilds in Medieval England and Modern Imagination.” Journal of the History of Economic Thought.

Yang, Y., Cheng, C., Mu, H et al. (2017). Blockchain application in food supply information security. In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM) (pp. 1357-1361). IEEE.


modifications made that can be used to accommodate inmates and preserve their basic human rights history homework help

Inmates Rights

Over many years, there have been modifications made that can be used to accommodate inmates and preserve their basic human rights. There have been prisoners from low social statuses. The low social statuses of prisoners mean they are excluded from the normalcy of society. That is, they experience lots of discrimination and stigma behind bars and are, in most cases regarded as unworthy in the community. This paper will illustrate the ethical and unethical issues for inmates across the US. When it comes to the execution of the inmates across the US, some specific rules and regulations must be followed. Some principles highlight what is ethical and what is unethical when it comes to the execution of the prisoners. In the US, it is ethical to treat all the prisoners with respect as a result of their inherent dignity and value they have just like the other human beings regardless of the crime they committed. This principle gives all the inmates an equal chance and opportunity to live freely. It is not ethical to treat the inmates in a manner that they feel like no one because of the mistakes they have done. This does not only lower their dignity but also makes them feel like they are not the same as the other human beings.

Secondly, it is unethical to discriminate any prisoner or an inmate in the US based on the colour, religion, sex, race, social origin and any other status that they possess. It is wrong to discriminate the prisoners simply because of their background, their colour or any other characteristics that make them different from the other inmates.  This principle, therefore, means that all the inmates are equally the same regardless of where they come from or the religion that they are from. They should all be treated the same with the others and not discriminate them. In regards to this, it is ethical not to discriminate the prisoners because they are all human beings and hence have a right to be fairly treated just like any other human being.

It is ethical that the prisoners should have access to the health services and facilities whenever they feel that they are not feeling okay. These principles state that there shall be no discrimination on any ground of their legal situations whatsoever. Just because they are prisoners does not mean that they can be denied from accessing such services. This is unethical since they are human beings too and hence have a right to get treatments in case of any ailments (Sasso et al. 396). Every human being has a responsibility of taking care of their health and body in general; this means that no other person should instruct them on how to take care of themselves. This is so with the inmates as well. They have a right to express how they feel and get assistance as soon as they can to take good care of themselves. They should, in turn, not be denied access to such facilities.

US inmates have a right to be respected when it comes to their religions and culture. It is, however, unethical to disrespect their religious beliefs and cultural precepts of the particular group that they belong to.  There are at a time when certain religions require their followers to follow the rules and conditions given to them. This means that every member of that particular religion is obliged to do as they are told. The prisoners belonging to this particular religion are not exempted from this and have to do as they are told. Those in charge of the prisons should obey this and allow the inmates to do following that.

In the US, the responsibility of prisons for the custody of prisoners and the protection of society against crime shall be discharged in keeping with a State’s other social objectives and its essential duties and responsibilities for promoting the well-being and development of all members of society’. This is ethical and important because it takes care of both the prisoners and society at large.  Every prisoner well being and development is well taken care of, and this helps boost their dignity as they feel special and the same with the other human beings who are not in prison.

When it comes to the execution of inmates across the US, every inmate has a right to not being a subject to any sexual crimes, sexual harassment being included. It is hence unethical to subject any prisoner to any form of sexual harassment because of their state and conditions as prisoners. The Prison Rape Elimination Act(PREA) states that any individual taking advantage of the situation that the inmates are in should be taken seriously and be disciplined following what the law says. This is right and ethical since the inmate’s lives are well protected, and their rights well are taken care of. Also, the inmates get a chance to live freely without fear of being harassed sexually.

United States inmates have a right to complain to the relevant authorities about the prison conditions that they are being subjected to.  Just because they did wrong does not give the people in charge of the prisons a right to make them live under poor conditions. That is unethical; every prisoner, just like any other human being, has a right to living in good condition.  It is ethical to ensure that they feel like they also have a life to live by ensuring that wherever they stay in prison is of a good condition and not a bad place. The inmates can access the courts to air their complaints whenever they are not being treated well. Furthermore, they should be listened to whenever they raise an issue and not ignored for the reason being that they are just prisoners and not like any other person. They all have a right to being listened to as human beings too.

In some other cases, women are usually put in prison, and since they have no one to take care of their children, they end up going to prison with them. This mostly happens when they have kids or children that cannot be left at home all by themselves. Some of the other women deliver their children in prison and from various researches conducted; these children usually go through a lot of mistreatment as if they are responsible for the crimes committed by their mothers. This is unethical because in most cases, they go through a lot of harshness and subject to living in an uncomfortable environment and adverse conditions. This is entirely unethical because they are innocent children and do not deserve such treatment. At other times, these children are abused verbally by the prison authorities and abused sexually, which is not right at all. They should be treated with respect as other children and taken care of because they are not responsible for any crimes committed by their mothers (Lyckholm et al. 9).

Another unethical practise is the idea of sentencing a person to death. The death sentence is not ethical. No one has the right to take away another person’s life; however big the crime is.  People need to be given a second chance in life instead of taking away their lives. This is because these people, just like any other person, have families to take care of and should not be denied such freedom. They are fathers and mother that have children looking up to them as parents, although they are criminals. Everyone has the right to life, whether they are criminals or not. A death sentence should correct no one. If that is the case, then, in the long run, there will be no more people in society (Cooper,3). The death penalty, therefore, is unethical and should be stopped.  What should be done in turn should be severe discipline and take harsh actions for those people responsible for crimes such as robbery with violence cases, murdering, among other offences. This is ethical because it does not involve getting rid of another person’s life. This should be embraced and not a death sentence.

There has been a factor that usually has adverse effects on prisoners or the inmates in different prisons, that is, the denial of conjugal rights. This has been the reason why there are cases of homosexuality and rape in prisons. In the US, the prisons system authorities usually plan and arrange for the spouse visits for their prisoners. These arrangements are typically put in place such that every prisoner have a room for conjugal rights in instances where their spouses come to visit them (Gul, 16). This is ethical as it leads to improved moral standards for the prisoners. This also helps in the reduction of homosexuality and rape cases in prison. When spouses and family members visit them in prisons, they give them the moral support that they need, which in turn makes the offenders yearn to join their families. In conjunction with that, the US Prison authorities organize for recreational activities for the prisoners together with their families (Williams, 85). This is useful since they get to interact with their loved ones in prison. The activities include dancing and watching, among others. Denial of such rights and freedom is not ethical, and that is why there are cases of rape and homosexuality in different prisons.

Education is another ethical thing that can be noted in some prisons from different parts of the world. Education is essential because it plays a significant role in improving the lives of the prisoners. Some of them get imprisoned without any education. In most cases, many of the states that lack of schooling led them to commit certain crimes (Moran et al. 75)The US prison system has introduced education system to give the prisoners a chance to pursue their education for the second time despite the crimes they have committed.  Prisoners are given an opportunity to study while being in prison. They are also encouraged to specialize in the areas that they are comfortable with so that t once they get out of the prison they will be successful in whatever they are going to do in their lives. The education system is usually free of charge, which motivates a lot of them to enrol. This is extremely an ethical practice in prison. It helps in the determination of the future of the ex-prisoners. The program is usually tailored in such a way that after getting the professional skills, they are linked up to also get jobs. As a  result of this. The offenders get a chance to have a brighter future and quit crime altogether.

There is an element of escape from the prison, which is not ethical. This is something common in prisons across the world. It even happens in situations where there is tight and maximum security.  The analysis shows that the prison warders together with the prisoners plan on the ways of escaping from the prison. They then pretend and act as if they do not know the whereabouts of the missing prisoners. At times bribe is paid to the authorities in prions to let the prisoners escape. This is wrong and entirely unethical because the level of crimes cannot be eradicated or reduced from society. The responsible authorities should be real and not accept any bribe as a result. It is unethical and should not be encouraged to reduce the cases of crimes in society.

In conclusion, every prison has ethical and unethical issues and needs to be addressed adequately. The prisons should adapt to the ethical practices to improve the lives of the prisoners and eliminate the unethical practices to reduce cases of rape and other vices that encourage bad habits.  The prisoners are human beings just like any other person and therefore deserve to be treated well regardless of the crime committed.

Work Cited

Cooper, Danielle T. “Death Row.” The Encyclopedia of Corrections (2017): 1-5.

Gul, Rais. “Prisoners’ Right to Fair Justice, Health Care and Conjugal Meetings: An Analysis of Theory and Practice (A case study of the selected jails of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan).” Pakistan Journal of Criminology 10.4 (2018).

Lyckholm, Laurie Jean, and Caroline Lucas Glancey. “Ethical issues in caring for prison inmates.” Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing 18.1 (2016): 7-12.

Moran, Dominique, Yvonne Jewkes, and Colin Lorne. “Designing for imprisonment: Architectural ethics and prison design.” Architecture Philosophy 4.1 (2019): 67-81.

Sasso, Loredana, et al. “Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.” Nursing Ethics 25.3 (2018): 393-409.

Williams, B. A., et al. “Conjugal Visits.” American Prisons and Jails: An Encyclopedia of Controversies and Trends [2 volumes] (2018): 85.

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patient dissatisfaction in healthcare and guarantee more equality in health care access. history assignment help and resources: history assignment help and resources

Interdisciplinary Plan Proposal


Over time, health disparities have posed an essential hurdle to achieving quality health care for patients. The paper outlines a proposed plan for the department of health services in the Illinois community. Hence, if executed, the plan focus on decreasing the discrepancies, such as patient dissatisfaction in healthcare and guarantee more equality in health care access.


The patient-centered approach is a model that seeks to reduce patient dissatisfaction in health care. The proposal plan approach is to ensure that services patients receive particular to the patients in the community and not others. Upon the implementation of the plan and subsequent attainment of the objective, patient outcomes will advance significantly. The patient role will be accentuated based on lifestyle disease hence resulting in reduced deaths among the distinct population group. Moreover, the eminence on the quality of health care is well-adjusted about the city. Therefore, there will be no population cohort taunting behind and burdens indefinite people who will be abolished.

Questions and Predictions

What is the process of implementing of patient-centered care model?

Health disparity is a broad issue and encompasses not only providing poor quality health services but also considering other factors such as race and ethnicity of people in delivering healthcare. As such, to abolish such disparities, we must regard techniques to shun factors that reduce patient satisfaction, such as extended time waits and racial, ethnic differences within a community. Through adopting the patient-centered approach, health professionals and caregivers aim at satisfying patients through improving healthcare than anything else. By implementing the plan proposal, health caregivers will take the mantle of taking care of every patient irrespective of age, location, and environment, and so forth.

How long will it take to execute the plan?

Change that involves an intricate segment such a healthcare system is typically gradual. Thus, the project will be slow but steady with distinct objectives, goals, and targets which have to be accomplished and revised every six months. Every healthcare organization within the metropolitan unit of health has to present a track record for their respective accomplishments. This implies that there has to be improved patient satisfaction, reduced waiting times, plummeted mortality rates, and minimized disease loads. It is worth noting that there is no distinct time of executing the plan, but indicators attained every six months.

What is the cost of implementing the plan?

The foremost strategy to curtail patient dissatisfaction is to improve health professionals’ assertiveness towards specific population teams. Altering of mentality and attitude does not cost anything in the dimension of money. However, time is needed for learning and regulating new perspectives of many things. Primarily, the plan entails offering enough medical equipment and staff to cover all the patients in all areas correspondingly. Moreover, change is steady. Hence, resources and employees will be deployed based on the allotted budget from the federal government. This implies that if the budget allocated will be $ 100000 in a financial annual, and the resources will be adopted by putting into account the measure of the available resources.

Change Theories and Leadership Strategies

In the metropolitan unit of healthcare services struggle to address patient dissatisfaction and minimize health disparities, significant changes and transformations are necessary, particularly on the leadership. There is no denying that leadership change is critical in realizing change. In this case, Lewin’s change theory is relevant to the problem. The approach appreciates the fact that in a change course, there are proposers and resisters of change. However, in a situation where proposers lead against the amendment, leaders should step in to influence the perspective and attitude of their subordinates to support the change.

Delegation and empowerment strategy is the most appropriate leadership strategy to address the issue. This kind of leadership engages all people in the project course. In a situation when the administrator delegates the role of allowing the achievement of quality healthcare services, it encourages and motivates many to engage in attaining quality care in healthcare services. In this case, most healthcare professionals acknowledge that they are accountable and responsible for any healthcare outcome. The involvement of many people to establish change ensures easy achievement of evolution. Since more people are engaged in the change process, an interdisciplinary approach is attained effectively. As of this context, people with diverse expertise and skills are given the responsibility to preside over individual sections of the plan. As a consequence, this model ensures more ideas are incorporated into the program. Also, the execution of the project will be simplified, as many people will be working based on common grounds.

Team Collaboration Strategy

To achieve an effective plan, health professionals have to be allocated various responsibilities and roles which have to be well-defined. The leader of each department should be the general supervisor to ensure an effective implementation process works as anticipated. In every healthcare organization, the nursing personnel in charge will preside over specific healthcare givers to allow the patient-centric model is attained. Quality personnel will also be there to oversee the quality appropriateness through evaluations and assessments. Weekly meetings will be held entailing key stakeholders headed by the health administrator to ensure the teamwork together proficiently. In such a meeting, the stakeholders may bring out issues and problems encountered from the plan and share ways to improve the process and reduce patient dissatisfaction. Upon the elapse of the six-month review process, the quality personnel and nursing personnel will be necessitated to make reports after thorough scrutiny and deliver such reports to the administrator. Throughout the course, all stakeholders will be engaged in executing the plan. Therefore, this would augment the effectiveness of the strategy.

Required Organization Resources

The successful plan rate will rely on how both budgetary and financial problems will be addressed. Necessarily, it may include equipment supplies, staffing, among other economic necessities. Patient dissatisfaction may be because of reduced resources and inadequate health professionals, which must be addressed. In some different sections of the metropolitan unit, the majority of numerous population who are financially unstable. This implies that the majority of such people are uninsured hence limited access to desirable healthcare services. The staff is inadequate, therefore leading to overpopulation and burdening of the team. Considering the plan, the organizations will need about five more staff. As such, it will cost $ 200000 annually. Additionally, additional equipment will be obtained to cater for the fundamental and daily assessments for the patients.

Though multiple facilities possess the resources as mentioned above, the most outstanding needs that cater to the burgeoning population are increasing the other equipment, which may cost approximately $ 100000 in obtaining. Other facilities encompass utilities and medicines which effectively assist the patient care and are projected to be about $ 10000. As a result, it approves the estimated budget for the actual execution of the plan to about $310000. While this may be huge money, patient dissatisfaction and health disparities should be eliminated to reduce the peril of health costs and the economic implication that comes with it.




Interior design is an art in which the spaces enclosed within a wall get furnished to create an appealing environment. It is concerned with significant realizations on how plans can be put in actualization to give decorative fixations. It intersects various cultures, political domains, the social, philosophical and technological discourse which merge materials, lighting, colors and furnishing to make the interior of any room or building exquisite. Baxter shows that this field was ignored and overlooked due to its lack of opportunity for growth and less income to bring firth. As we can see today, many interior designers have incorporated traditional and technological materials to give the career a new face for growth and expansion in the market.

The profession of design looks at spacing, client’s specifications, site visits and inspections, communication, consultation, planning, development and implementations. The practice of interior design can be dated back to Ancient Egyptians who decorated their mud houses with animal skins and spiritual sculptures and textiles made locally. It was evident in the royal tombs, where they buried their loved ones with gold ornaments and figurines to decorate the rich wealthy class. The Greek were not left behind where we see they came up with houses which had roofs while in their homes they had wooden furniture. Their utensils were silver and bronze cote to decorate the interior. The Romans loved class and comfort, which is seen from the cushions on their seats, furniture was made of marble, stone and wood to give a sense of beauty. Also had paintings on the wall and floors were made of mosaic[1].

Figure 1: Roman Design

Figure 2: Greek Design

Figure 3: Egyptian Design

Figure 4: Modern Interior Design

Interior design has been mostly male-dominated until women came up into the field where a majority of them are flourishing very well. Most were ridiculed and shamed in their work as being better in a male chauvinist world, in which women were thought to only do house chores and jobs like teaching quite undermining. Candace Wheeler was a prominent woman who shed light on design and developing interior courses for women to grow. She says design should give one a sense of belonging and lifestyle to bring out the best in them. The homes people live in are like nests and should bring out our tastes and opinions[2].

The 19th, 20th and 21st century saw growth of modernism and postmodernism where the designers, especially women, got to remove their masks and showcase their work openly. A field given credit to men was now filled with women who have impacted it significantly to an eclecticism era. People are incorporating vintage materials with modern features to provide splendid looks to our homes, spaces, restaurants you name them. The likes of Dorothy Draper (1889-1969) who invented Modern Baroque and Andree Putmann (1925-2013), who founded Ecart International, are icons who paved the way that women can be great as well as men in the industry of interior designing. Interiors are widely composed of different objects to bring the final touch to look elegant. The history of interior design gets surrounded by issues of power, modernity, sense of belonging and the process of professionalization. It brings scholars from various fields to bring art to reality.

Nada Andric is a principal Associate in the Skidmore, Owings and Merills LLP (SOM), which showcases her excellent brilliant ideas to the design field. Like most women in her field born in a small town, she had to fight her way through to get recognized as an icon in interior design. In a male chauvinist society getting to such fields seemed impossible, but she defied the odds. Today we reckon of her great works, which have left a print in the lives of many and mainly interior design at large. One of her notable projects is Center for Curatorial Studies, Bard College founded in 1990. It is an art exhibition center tailored to practices of art and exhibition of writers, artists and scholars. It has been of significant impact since more than 275 students have been awarded M.A Degrees internationally. In 2006 was expanded, which now features the Hessel Museum of Art, which is home to people who have an ounce of bringing art to fulfillment.[3]

Nada, like so many other women, shows that the history of interior design was gender-biased, devaluing the importance of women in this field. Women got excluded from the narratives and how they get described shows them as insignificant. Nada, who were it not for her works, which put her on the spotlights in 2011 The Induction in the Interior Design Hall of Fame, most of us wouldn’t have known of her actions. She possesses excellent intellect in the field of architecture and interior design and her accomplishments in the projects she has done have given her national and internal recognition awards. Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, has a mark of her great works there. More than 800 pieces of art were put in place to bring out the culture and art in the spaces people came into contact with. She visualized ideas run them through the help of a graphic designer and in the end, the results were splendid. We need each other to bring out the best of our abilities to the table. She says human life experiences are primarily played out in the interior spaces. We may, for instance, love the sky outside, but most of our time is spent at home. Dating back to ancient times where knights lived in castles and monks in a monastery, it is vividly depicted in the buildings we have today, which showcase the history of their origin since our spaces give us purpose and satisfy our needs and styles for this era.

Women who had been hitherto kept in housekeeping had to measure up because of the changing regimes in the social, political and economic spheres. They had to look for alternatives to bring an income and bring prestige to the man of the house, which saw most women enroll in learning. Embroidery, painting and drawing, which fetched ideas from nature, took a great form of transformation as they became decorative designs. Fashion grew as women sewed clothes of class, which got broadened from the knowledge acquired. Women today constitute the majority of the interior designers worldwide who are a source of inspiration for generations, fearless role models and give the power of good design to art [4].


” P. Sparke, Elsie de Wolfe, op. cit., M. Owens (ed.); P. Sparke, ‘Elsie de Wolfe and Her Female Clients, 1905–1915: Gender, Class and the Professional Interior Decorator’, in Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860–1960, B. Martin & P. Sparke (eds.), Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 47–68.

‘The Professionalization of Decoration, Design and the Modern Interior, 1870 to the Present’, Dorich House Conference, Kingston University, May 2006  accessed 12 March 2008

The Myth of English Country House Style, 1930–1990’, in Interior Design and Identity, S. McKellar & P. Sparke (eds.), Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2004, ppReflibrary.

Wheeler, ‘Interior Decoration as a Profession for Women’, The Outlook, 6 April 1895, pp. 559–60 and 20 April 1895, p. 649; C. Wheeler, Principles of Home Decoration with Practical Examples, Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, 1903.
Baxter, ‘Thirty Years of Growth in the Literature of Interior Design’, Journal of Design History, vol. 4, no. 4, 1991, pp. 241-50.
[1] P. Baxter, ‘Thirty Years of Growth in the Literature of Interior Design’, Journal of Design History, vol. 4, no. 4, 1991, pp. 241–50.

Greek design

[2] C. Wheeler, ‘Interior Decoration as a Profession for Women’, The Outlook, 6 April 1895, pp. 559–60 and 20 April 1895, p. 649; C. Wheeler, Principles of Home Decoration with Practical Examples, Doubleday, Page & Company, New York, 1903.


[3] P. Sparke, Elsie de Wolfe, op. cit., M. Owens (ed.); P. Sparke, ‘Elsie de Wolfe and Her Female Clients, 1905–1915: Gender, Class and the Professional Interior Decorator’, in Women’s Places: Architecture and Design 1860–1960, B. Martin & P. Sparke (eds.), Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 47–68.


[4] The Myth of English Country House Style, 1930–1990’, in Interior Design and Identity, S. McKellar & P. Sparke (eds.), Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2004, ppReflibrary