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The Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) help with history assignment: help with history assignment








Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Mental disorders are illnesses that affect the brain capacity of people. It is challenging to know the causes allied to the diseases. However, it is possible to come up with nine levels of analysis that may explain the reason. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a state of being bogged down with particular issues that become part and parcel of one’s life. It may happen because of the first level, which is neural, where the patient may be experiencing a traumatic brain injury from an accident (Abramowitz & Reuman, 2020). It may also happen due to genetic issues where an individual is predisposed to certain genetic makeups and differences that cause him to be obsessed with issues. It may be part of an evolutionary defect or behavior that causes certain people to have OCD to survive in the environment. It may also be caused by the fourth level, which is learning, where the individual gains information on the ground, which causes him to be obsessed about problems and challenges as he or she was in class.

OCD may also be caused by cognitive reasons, resulting from knowledge gained and beliefs that obsession is excellent and profitable. The cause may again be born from social influences where a person is impacted by the people’s opinions, ideas, and actions around them. It may also be a product of the culture that one lives, prevails, and thrives, which dictates that obsession with goals and targets will get you further in life (Abramowitz & Reuman, 2020). OCD may also be caused by developmental issues where age dictates specific physical and mental changes, which cause alteration of the human mindset. Lastly, it may be caused by physiological changes where the human mind and body may experience some chemical imbalances that cause it to be obsessed with specific problems.




Abramowitz, J. S., & Reuman, L. (2020). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences, 3304-3306.




Financial management


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Financial management


Financial management is organizing, directing, and planning the company’s financial activities and financial decisions like procurement, investment decisions, financial decisions, and dividend decisions. Each company should enhance financial management since it helps estimate capital requirements during a certain business period. It helps determine the capital composition that could be taken, determines what investments should be taken from the available capital, and enhances the company’s finance controls.  Most companies were affected by Covid-19 both directly and indirectly like the was reduction in sales volume due to the regulation which was implanted to control the disease that is social distancing also business which dependent solemnly on the importation of the goods were highly affected due to Covid-19 restrictions were put in place which affected import and the export of the goods. The financial managers of companies laid down strategies that will be used to mitigate the effects of Covid-19, like the management of the cash within the firm minimized by reduction of wages and salaries and reducing the current liabilities in whichever way possible.

Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, many regulations were put in place to control the disease, like the implantation social distance between the people since the pandemic spreads through close contact with the infected person. There was also restriction and curfew within the country itself; hence, people cannot move from one region to another. People were supposed to stay indoors for a certain period, like during the night (Reshi, 2020). The pandemic also affected the transport system at large, like the restriction of movement into and out of the severely infected country and the lack of import and export of goods and resources. Due to this restriction imposed to control the pandemic, the economy was affected in trade, tourism, and transportation which are the foundation of many economies like the UAE.

In every economy, trade plays a vital role in its development since it increases the market competition and lowers the prices of goods and services. There is the availability of goods of different qualities for the people at an affordable price through competition, hence enhancing the country’s cash flow. There is the creation of job opportunities within the given country through trade, but due to Covid-19, the trading system was disrupted, affecting the economy (Krueger, 2020). Trade also enhances the economy by using abundant raw materials in international trade; some countries naturally have abundant raw materials like the oil in Qatar, which is being exported and sold to different parts of the world where it scarce, thus enhancing positive economic growth. If the pandemic persists, it will affect the import and export raw materials due to the restrictions due to Covid-19, thus affecting the economy.

International trade plays a vital role in economic development through comparative advantage. This is where countries specialize in the production of goods that have a relatively lower opportunity cost. Like in UAE, they have specialized in the production of the oil supplied to all parts of the world while they import goods and services that they do not produce locally, thus enhancing the economy (Krueger, 2020). Covid-19 pandemic will affect the comparative advantage of different countries if not controlled, thus affecting the economy; this is because of the restriction put in place like the social distancing, which will lead to a reduction of labor, thus leading to unemployment which will affect the economy negatively. The export and import restrictions that are put in place will also affect the economy due to import and export limitations, thus reducing sale volumes and returns.

The transport system plays a vital role in economic development since it acts as an intermediary between the buyer and the seller in business. Transport helps in the assembly of raw materials and distribution of finished goods; it helps in the movement of goods from the place of production to the place where they are consumed both in the local and internal markets. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, restrictions are put in place to reduce its spread, like boundaries restrictions and scanning of goods before they are received (Golskaya & Roshchin, 2011). Restrictions are expected to continue until the solution of a pandemic is gotten; this will affect the economy since there will lack movement of raw materials and finished goods from the area of production to the area of consumption, leading to low income and reduced sales volume. Also, transport affects the mobility of labor and capital, which will turn affect the economy directly since the higher the mobility, the higher the economic growth. If the resolution for covid-19 is not found, it will continue affecting the transport system, which will affect the economy by enhancing the immobility of labor and capital.

Tourism also positively affects the economy since it boosts the economy’s revenues when tourists visit different places in the country. Through tourism, unemployment is eradicated in the country since there is the creation of new jobs for the citizens, which boosts the country’s GDP. Also, tourism enhances infrastructure because for tourism to be enhanced; mobility should also be so that different sites are assessable (Pjanić, 2019). Due to the pandemic of Covid-19 pandemic regulations, tourism has been devastatingly affected because there is no movement from one place to another internally and from one country to another; if it continues, it may affect the economy negatively due to an increase in unemployment and also reductions of returns.

General management is overseeing all the activities that are going on within the company, from managing the employees to ensuring that the customer needs and wants are satisfied. The general manager is the senior-most employee who reports to the executive leadership; thus, he plays a major role in ensuring its goals and objectives are met (McLaughlin, 2018). The pandemic of Covid-19 will affect the company’s general management through different ways: management of staff, employing new marketing strategies, readjustment of the budget, and risk management preparation.

Staff management will be critical during this period of Covid-19 since the working conditions have to adhere to regulations implemented to curb the pandemic. There should be social distancing within the working station. Also, due to the financial crisis that the pandemic could accompany, some workers could be laid off so that the company cannot enter into a financial crisis. New strategies should also be put in place since the company sales volume will reduce with time, thus affecting the company’s profitability (McLaughlin, 2018). Thus, management should implement new marketing strategies and even a new distribution channel of goods in consideration of the pandemic’s effects.

The management should be able to readjust the budget to meet the requirements of the Covid-19 pandemic and those of the company in general.  Since the consumption of goods that are not essential will be low, the company budget of production will be reduced to not undergo losses due to overproduction. The general manager will also reconsider the budget of wages and remuneration of the employees. If the company undergoes losses, the pay-cut will be essential to enhance the company’s survival.

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritizing of the risk. The company’s general management should be able to anticipate the risks posed by the pandemic and how they will be mitigated. The general manager should be able to lay down strategies that should be taken during the pandemic not to undergo losses. Like what will be the way forward if the sales volumes drop drastically during the pandemic of Covid-19, what will be the way of distributing the company’s goods while there are restrictions of travel are imposed (Vincent, 2015). Thus, the company’s general management will play a vital role during the pandemic period to mitigate the risks posed.

Financial risk is the possibility of losing money on the investment of a business venture of a company. Different companies will be undergoing different risks during the pandemic period since there will be instability and losses in the financial market, which the Covid-19 pandemic could cause; these losses are movements in stock prices, currencies, interests, and others (James, 2021). There are different financial risks which a company will undergo during the pandemic, which are; market risk, credit risk, liquidity risk, and operational risk.

Market risk

Market risk is a type of financial risk caused by the movement of the prices in the financial instrument. During the pandemic, the losses will be experienced since it will affect the company’s overall performance from sales to labor resource management (James, 2021). The pandemic will affect the pricing of the goods and the general market structure because there will be a reduction in sales volumes due to change in customer needs and wants. There are different types of market risk: directional risks caused by the movement in stock price and interest rates, while volatility risks cause non-directional risk.

Credit risk

This is the type of financial risk that arises when one fails to fulfill one obligation towards their counterparts. The risk arises when the borrower cannot make required payments as agreed with the money’s lender. During the pandemic period, different companies will undergo credit risk more so those who are operating in lability that is, lender’s money. since because the pandemic will disrupt the supply chain of the company due to the restriction which is put in place to control the pandemic (Witzany, 2017). Suppose the company deals with the import and distribution of the goods. In that case, the pandemic will affect it directly since because import and exportation of the goods will be restricted in accordance to Covid-19 guidelines, hence if the company was operating on lenders money, it will not repay the amount as per obligation since because it will be undergoing loses thus enhancing credit risk. Credit risk is classified into sovereign risk, which arises due to difficult foreign exchange policies, and settlement risk arises from when one party makes payment. The other party fails to fulfill the obligation.

Liquidity risk.

This is a type of financial risk that arises from the inability to execute transactions in a given period, like when a commodity cannot be traded quickly enough in the market without impacting the market price. Covid-19 pandemic will enhance liquidity risk since the companies’ commodity will be solid in lower prices due to the lack of market and poor economy. Thus, the companies should implement strategies that could be used to mitigate credit risk (Andrews, 2021). Also, liquidity risk could be enhanced by restrictions to control the pandemic, thus leading to lower customer rates and lower sales volume.  There are two types of liquidity risk: asset liquidity risk, which arises either due to insufficient buyers or insufficient sellers against sell orders and buys orders, respectively.

Operational risk

Operational risk is a type of financial risk that summarizes the uncertainties and hazards a company faces when doing day-to-day activities within a given field. This breakdown that affects operations can be caused by internal procedures within the company, which are errors of employees and product failure or external factors like political, social, and economic factors. The coronavirus pandemic will affect the smooth flow of company activities due to the restrictions that will be put in place, thus affecting the company’s operations. The activities which will be affected are like distribution of commodities of the company, volume of sales of commodities and the employees working schedules. The managers of the company should be able to mitigate the risk to manage it. There are two types of operational risks: fraud risk, which arises due to lack of controls, and model risk, which arises due to incorrect model application.

Corporate activities are the events carried by the company or organization that enhance the company’s positive development. Through corporate events, people can come together to develop interpersonal relationships that could not exist inside the office’s structured environment (Alexis, 2015). The pandemic will affect corporate activities’ performance because of the restrictions put in place until the medication is found. There are different corporate activities affected by the pandemic: seminars and conferences, trade shows, executive retreats and incentives programs, appreciation events, team building events, and company milestones.

Seminars and conferences

Seminars and conferences help the company to convey relevant information to the target audience about the goals, mission, and any other adjustment which the company could make. Seminars are short events that will take few hours to a few workdays, they consist of multiple or single speakers, and usually, they keep the participants in the same place. Conferences consist of multiple sessions; they are held in hotels usually; they begin with a keynote session and then offer to break out the session by topic (Temnova, 2018). Seminars will be affected by the pandemic because of social distancing regulations and movement restrictions from one place to another.

Trade shows

One of the company’s corporate activity is to attend the trade show as a lead generation activity; also, a company may choose to sponsor a trade show to reinforce their image as an industry leader among who attend. When a company is planning to host trade shows, it involves negotiating sponsorship rates for booth space, advertising, and speaking of its opportunities (Temnova, 2018). Usually, the trade shows are held in large spaces, showcasing hundreds of vendors’ products and services. Covid-19 will affect this corporate activity due to low sales volume and lack of customers who will pay due to the restrictions put in place.

Executive retreats and incentive programs

At this corporate activity, business development and organizational planning are typical topics of the plan. Also, equal weight is given to enjoyable activities as part of the original incentive and reward (Temnova, 2018). At this activity, the companies generally spend more money on a personal basis to put together the events that usually last between three to five days. Its planning requires attention to the site selection, lodging, transportation, catering, and other activities. The pandemic will affect this activity since the resources which could be used in planning the event can be used to mitigate the risks which are brought by the pandemic.

Appreciation events

Appreciation events are activities that allow an event host to spend informal time with his guests in a nontraditional environment, allowing both parties to build a cognitiveness and learn more about mutual business priorities. These appreciation events can range from programs geared towards employee appreciation to those showing client appreciation to be held at dinner theaters and other places (Temnova, 2018). The pandemic will affect this event’s performance because of the restrictions put in place to ensure there is no social gathering and lack of the resources that could be used in planning for the event because the companies will be undergoing losses.

Company milestones.

Company milestones allow the company to celebrate the grand opening or major milestones or anniversary of the company. The events vary from one organization to another, but they follow the same routine in that employees and other company’s fractions are appreciated in achieving the milestones (WADE, 2018). The milestone makers are usually celebratory and can be limited to company employees or expanded to include even the local community. The pandemic will affect company milestone events since those targets will not be achieved due to poor economy and deficit in business returns.

Team building events

Team building event is an activity that is meant to boost employee confidence, morale, and goodwill. The event also provides a unique opportunity for employees to spend together in a non-work environment. The event can be carried indoors or outdoors, depending on how the schedule is prepared. Team building can also include workshops about emotions in the workplace and sensitivity learning (WADE, 2018). The pandemic will negatively affect team-building events since there will be the prohibition of social gatherings. Also, there could be a lack of resources that could be used in conducting the whole event.

During this pandemic period, different companies are undergoing losses. Others are closing down due to the lack of market and lack of ways to mitigate the pandemic’s risks. Thus, companies should implement strategies that could be used to manage the effects of the pandemic, and the financial management of the company should be able to mitigate the financial risks of the coronavirus to ensure the company does not undergo losses.




Andrews. Financial Regulation and Liquidity Risk Management. Market Liquidity Risk.

The Evolution of Risk Management and the Risk Management Process. (2015). Corporate Risk Management, 39–65.

Golskaya, Y. N., & Roshchin, L. V. (2011). The social role of the transport complex in the economy of the region. Economy of Region, 244–248.

Krueger, A. O. (2020). Trade Remedies. International Trade.

McLaughlin, S. (2018). Directors’ duties: General considerations and management duties. Unlocking Company Law, 341–368.

Pjanić, M. (2019). ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON THE WORLD ECONOMY. International Thematic Monograph: Modern Management Tools and Economy of Tourism Sector in Present Era, 291–305.

Research confirms business value of corporate community involvement activities. (2015). Corporate Philanthropy Report, 31(1), 1–12.

Reshi, N. (2020). MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES OF COVID – 19. COVID-19 Pandemic Update 2020, 214–221.

Risk Literacy and Financial Decision-Making. (2021). Financial Education and Risk Literacy, 149–149.


WADE, D. (2018). Corporate Performance Management: An Overview. Corporate Performance Management, 1–16.

Witzany, J. (2017). Credit Risk Management, 5–18.


THE CONCEPT OF RISK MANAGEMENT advanced higher history essay help: advanced higher history essay help



Risk Management

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In event management, risk refers to any type of occurrence, predictable or not, that may impede the festival from going on as planned or meeting the laid out objectives (Park & Olson, 2020). Risk management can thus be defined as the systematic assessment of potential risks to formulate strategies to mitigate them (Park & Olson, 2020). in modern society, large crowds of people are a common occurrence. Outdoor music festivals are increasingly becoming attractions, especially for the youth in summer (Tenu & Ciocoiu, 2018). These outdoor music festivals are associated with high-risk behavior, which increases the chance of adverse occurrences. Therefore, in this thesis, I shall assess and evaluate the potential risks and recommend strategies

to minimize them.

The risk management process follows four distinct steps to develop a management plan to cushion against the potential risks (Park & Olson, 2020). The first step is putting risk into context, which is achieved by identifying the type of event and the internal and external factors that may influence the event. The risks are then identified by experts who pool together their knowledge and experiences. (Raineri, 2013). The identified risks are then evaluated and ranked based on their severity and likelihood (Park & Olson, 2020). A management plan is then developed to control and minimize the risk and communicated to the staff working at the event for implementation.

The most significant risk facing people in an outdoor music festival is the increased probability of injury (Tenu, & Ciocoiu, 2018). The incidence of physical injuries is higher in concerts where organizers target younger demographic audiences who are more vulnerable to risky behavior than adult audiences (Luther et al., 2018). He notes these injuries are facilitated by the abuse of alcohol and illicit narcotics associated with these events and audiences. Developing a strategy to manage the intoxication of substances is challenging for event organizers since alcohol is sold at these events. Also, people can easily smuggle drugs into the event since they are small and concealable. To prevent long-term injury, adequate and well-equipped first-aid personnel should be deployed during the event to offer emergency interventions in case of a drug-induced fall or overdose (Luther et al., 2018). The event organizers should also establish pathway networks to reach people in need of medical assistance rather than simply passing them overhead to the back. Though not entirely effective, security checks can be done at event entrances to minimize the number of drugs entering the event, thus reducing drug-related injuries.

Additionally, lighting at the event should be adequate to prevent tripping due to decreased visual acuity. The events should also be held in areas with plenty of space to prevent overcrowding (Tenu & Ciocoiu, 2018). Overcrowding has intense pressure on the body, which makes it harder for the individual to breathe. Furthermore, most injuries and fatalities result from asphyxia, which further underscores the first aid team’s importance. These events also risk anarchy due to loss of control over the crowd (Park & Olson, 2020). Anarchy is facilitated by intoxication, which impairs thinking and mental processes. Event organizers, therefore, have to develop plans for crowd management and control. Crowd management is aimed at promoting order by facilitating crowd movement. On the other hand, crowd control describes the standard operating procedures implemented when order is lost (Park & Olson, 2020). Therefore, effective crowd control is achieved when proper communication channels have been established to ensure a seamless flow of information, which reduces reaction time. The security team should also work in tandem with the first aid team to discern potential violent altercations and offer injured casualties interventions.

Events also have to be protected against potential security breaches (Park & Olson, 2020). According to Ranieri, 2013, it is essential for persons to feel psychologically secure to encourage cooperation. Protection against theft of personal valuables during the event the responsibility of the event organizers and personal responsibility. Event organizers should employ adequate personnel to protect against internal and external threats to security. According to Luther et al., 2018, the event should also be well lit to increase visibility and minimize theft. He adds that the security should be highly trained to recognize potential threats and prevent their occurrence.

Outdoor music festivals also face a potential problem of food poisoning due to eating contaminated or toxic food. Park & Olson, 2020, report that food consumption was only allowed at specific facilities, and food was not permitted into the event to prevent food poisoning. Food poisoning can also be prevented by designating specific personnel to handle food and ensuring proper handling and food storage. Potential health risks should also be mitigated, especially in the Covid 19 pandemic, where gatherings are hotspots for spreading the disease. Organizers should thus ensure guidelines set out by the health bodies and authorities are followed.

Events should also plan for the likelihood of weather changes and loss of electricity. Though minor, the loss of electricity would derail most events; therefore, they should provide backup generators. Events should also be held indoors and during favorable weather to reduce bad weather’s adverse effects (Tenu & Ciocoiu, 2018). the organizers should also provide enough water and adequate washrooms to promote hygiene during the event

In conclusion, risk management is crucial in planning outdoor activities to minimize adverse events that might impede the achievement of set out objectives. Hence, it is vital to carry out risk management to identify risks to develop strategies to mitigate them.


Luther, M., Gardiner, F., Lenson, S., Caldicott, D., Harris, R., Sabet, R., … & Perkins, J. (2018). An effective risk minimization strategy applied to an outdoor music festival: a multi-agency approach. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 33(2), 220-224.

Park, H., & Olson, E. (2020). Risk Management: The Case of Aspen Music Festival and School.

Raineri, A. (2013). Contextualizing risk assessment–incorporating the psychosocial dimension in assessing crowd safety risks at outdoor music festivals. In Safety Institute of Australia Visions Conference.

Tenu, A., & Ciocoiu, C. N. Risk Management for Events and Festivals. The Best Romanian Management Studies 2017-2018, 119.

The Concept of Corporate governance history essay help

Corporate governance



Corporate governance

A corporate-level strategy is an action that is taken so that a company can gain a competitive advantage through the selection and management of a combination of businesses competing in several industries product markets. These strategies help the company in important decision-making, creating profit gains and generate value for stakeholders. Johnsons and Johnson’s corporate-level aspect is based on diversification philosophy, which is done by redesigning its products and implementing new market strategies based on customer wants and needs.

The Johns and Johnsons company enhances diversification philosophy by operating in three business dimensions: consumer products, pharmaceutical, and medical apparatus. In consumer products, the company offers a wide range of consumer health care products ranging from women’s health care products to skin and baby care products. These products are constantly redesigned to take advantage of the competitive market, the products are well marketed, and these are the products that many people know about. Their pharmaceutical products are the largest revenue source and its fastest-growing due to competent marketing and quality services. Thus, Johnsons and Johnsons use a diversification corporate-level strategy to ensure it meets the customer’s demand and is also able to constantly generate returns even when one function falls.

Johnson’s and Johnson’s core competence is meeting and satisfying customer needs, and enhancing the customer’s loyalty. Most of its products are customer-centered, like baby products; they are continuously redesigned in quality and according to the health specifications. Through this, they can build long-term term equity of their brand by creating sustainable customer loyalty and shareholder values. Johnsons and Johnsons company has managed to enhance its competitive advantage by strengthening both advertisement and marketing strategies based on caring for the families, thus enhancing its trustworthiness.

The most interesting thing about the article is that I realized Johnson’s and Johnson’s products are based on their needs and wants. It is pretty innovative based on the market demand, like Johnson’s and Johnson’s has created a new liquid Band-Aid based on a material used in the sound closing product sold by one of the Johnson and Johnson hospital supply business, thus meeting the customer needs. Thus, one of the company’s core principles is meeting its customers and stakeholders’ demands and wants.

Samsung corporate-level strategies help determine the direction of the firm, the target market, and the product portfolio’s diversity. Samsung has implemented various corporate-level procedures, thus becoming a competitor in the smartphone niche; strategies involve acquiring foreign firms to overcome any technology barrier and creating technological and strong entrepreneurship skills in taking high risks. Through entrepreneurship, they can infiltrate the market and understand the market needs and demands, and also, they can ensure their products are meeting the demands of the customers.

Samsung’s core competence is meeting the customer demands through innovations and ensuring that their products are at market-friendly prices. This is where the company constantly monitors the market change in demand and comes up with innovative ways to meet the demand in the limited time possible aggressively investing in the customer needs like Samsung design engineers can complete their design work in three to four months and develop eight to ten new platforms per quarter which make the world highest speed thus timely meeting customer demands. These strategies help Samsung dominate the smartphone world by constantly meeting the customers’ needs on time.

The most interesting thing about Samsung company is customer-centered, and their innovations are based on the customer’s demands.  Even though it is facing high competition from Apple and other smartphone companies, primary cores are followed, delivering quality to the customer at the lowest price available.