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The Used or Misused Vision Statement history assignment writing help: history assignment writing help


Used or Misused Statement


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Used or Misused Vision Statements

Discuss How Mission Statements Have Been Useful or Misused in An Organization

Mission statements have been of great advantage to many institutions as they have acted as guide to improved performance levels. The mission helps the workers understand the objectives of their company. Businesses thrive best as sound decisions are made in the revenue stream departments.

In making the mission, grandiose takes the center with the other citing that they ‘’ intend to change the world. The overt perception that missions are just mere cosmetic window dress later digs deep into the company’s constructions. The mission statements of an organization thus have had implications on the organization’s cultural performance. As time goes resentment and cynicism later creep.

Did They Provide Values? Did Employees Know Them-How Could They Be Used to Provide Values?

The mission statement provided substantial values to the employees. Knowing them was a priority that many organizations always embrace. The lead management always emphasized the mission statement while addressing the employees. The mission statements could provide values if crafted well.

Organizations ought to craft mission statements that do not contradict the values of the organization. Reflectively the culture of the organization should level with the matters stipulated in the mission statement. In doing so, the corporates avoid the hijacking of the mission statement’s values and the values of the organization. Employees, therefore, ought to support the organizations in striving to live to the ideals of the mission statement.




Maximizing the Use of Social Media ap history essay help


Examining the Ways of Maximizing the Use of Social Media and Mobile Technologies within the Tourism, Hospitality and Events Context in Stimulating the Visitor Economy

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Numerous developments are being witnessed in the visitor economy as a result of mobile technology and social media. However, less focus has been given to the digital communication strategies that would ensure a smooth and efficient communication flow between the visitor industries and their customers. Thus, this study aims to develop an improved digital communication strategy for the second half of the year 2021 to increase social media engagement in the visitor economy. The literature review will discuss the current theories of how mobile technologies and social media have been used in the context of destination. The case study of a goal will evaluate how social media and mobile technologies are used and create the digital communication strategy detailing social media engagement. Thus, the study will fill the gap of the little research focus given to the visitor economy’s digital communication strategies.



Table of Contents

1.0        Introduction. 4

1.1 Background overview.. 4

1.2 Aim/Purpose of the report 4

1.3 Destination selected and the reasons for selection. 5

1.4 summary of following sections. 5

2.0        Literature Review.. 6

2.1 Overview.. 6

2.2 Mobile technology in Tokyo, Japan. 7

2.3 Tourist usage of mobile technologies and social media in Tokyo, Japan destination. 8

3.0        Case Study. 10

4.0        Discussion. 13

4.1        Ways of maximizing social media and mobile technologies usage in hospitality, tourism, and event contexts. 13

4.2        How ICTs and social media can revitalize the visitor’s economy after the worst-case scenario of downfall. 14

4.3        Digital communication strategies for the second half of 2021. 14

5.0Conclusion and Recommendation. 16

References. 18




1.0  Introduction

1.1 Background overview

Information technology enhanced by mobile technologies and social media has played a critical role in the field of tourism, events contexts, and hospitality (Kim & Hall, 2020, p.100638). Technology has played a role in reducing costs, increasing operational efficiencies and customer experiences, and improving services for the sectors. The business and customers have benefited from improved communication systems, enhanced reservations, and service systems serving the guests (Benckendorff et al., 2019). These strategies have played a significant role in stimulating growth in the visitor economy.


The Internet’s influence in the tourism, social events, and hospitality sectors is impactful (Bowen & Whalen, 2017). From the advent of mobile technologies and social media usage in the visitor economy, it has experienced significant and numerous changes, which plays a vital role in its growth and an upward trend in its financial incomes. The first experience of a customer, mainly in the tourism and hospitality sector, is usually a visit to the social media page or the respective website (Sigala et al., 2012). The information consisted there plays a critical role in the decisions that the customer is likely to make regarding the visiting of the place or being a regular and loyal client.


Sufficient, appealing, and appropriate information found on the internet or social media pages goes a long way to attracting hard-core customers to the tourism or hospitality customers who cannot be wavered by other similar offers (Watson et al., 2013, p.840). The information mostly viewed includes past guest reviews and pictures and the profile used (Yamada et al., 586). Thus, it is of utmost importance for a business to effectively utilize social media, advertising, online purchasing, and blogs to effectively convince their customers enough, mostly when competitors are still using similar strategies (Lieb, 2012).


1.2 Aim/Purpose of the report

This study evaluates how social media and mobile technologies can be maximized within the tourism, events context, and hospitality to stimulate the visitor economy. In fulfilling the aim, the study will use the case study of a particular destination and create a suitable communication strategy for the second half of 2021 (July-Dec) to increase social media engagement.


1.3 Destination selected and the reasons for selection.

Tokyo’s destination in Japan is selected as the destination to be used for the purposes of this study. The reason for selection is Tokyo is more developed; thus, it is much more advanced in internet usage (Wang and Liao, 2018, p.163). It also composes numerous historic places and scenic beauty, which are major attractions of visitors in Japan. The “Asakusa’s Sensoji Temple” is a renowned tourist destination for visitors. It comprises the iconic beauty gate Kaminarimon, “Nakamise Dori souvenir-shopping Street,” which directs visitors to the fascinating complex of historical religious structures (Kamimura, 2014, p.155). Meiji Jingu is a temple set on a soothing forest a short walk away from JR Harajuku (Imaizumi, 2011, p.143). It commemorates Emperor and Empress Meiji and Shoken. Hamarikyu Gardens is a cool place for visitors to relax as they ponder the Tokyo history from the time it was named Edo and other features that attract tourists (Senoglu et al., 2018, p.136).


1.4 summary of the following sections

The following section of the study is the literature review that will evaluate the current theories of mobile technology and social media concerning the Tokyo, Japan destination context.  The case will evaluate the digital communication strategies and show an overview of how it engages social media. The discussion will provide viable ways to maximize social media and mobile technologies in the event context, hospitality, and tourism sectors. It will also explain how social media and mobile technology should revitalize the visitor economy after the economic downturn. Lastly, the discussion will address the digital communication strategies for the second year of 2021 and their objective for engagement in social media. The conclusion will round up the study’s main points, while the recommendation will address the need for future research.



2.0  Literature Review

2.1 Overview

Since the emergence of “Information and Communication Technologies” (ICTs) in the 1990s, there have been substantial changes in the field of hospitality and tourism (Dredge et al., 2013, p.23). Operations have been made much easier, efficient, and convenient. The ICTs impacts have mainly been evidenced by the websites, mobile technologies, and social media in the tourism, event contexts, and hospitality sectors which are the crucial channels that enable the industry practitioners to connect with their customers. Mobile technologies like tablets, smartphones, and mobile apps combine the ICTs and mobility virtues; thus, they have opted for the primary devices for customers to access the Internet, therefore becoming an indispensable contributor to human lives and comfort (Lalicic & Weismayer, 2016, p.173).


According to Law et al. (2018, p.626), in the year 2020, smartphones are being used by more than 2.8 billion people worldwide.  The number is around one-third of the global population, an indication that people are continually becoming digital each day and more to that embracing mobile technology at a very high speed. An average normal person spends an excess of four hours using mobile phones and their installed applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Linked In, and Reddit, which are used for social networking and making communications (Smith et al., 2013, p.145).  `


Mobile invention drastically changed tourists’ behaviors and the operations of businesses in the fields of tourism and hospitality (Wang et al., 2016). It has ascribed a different revolutionary meaning to them. The instantaneous features of mobiles enable tourists to access their information of interest and share without temporal or geographical limits (Smith, 2018, p.45). Tourists can communicate with each other and even seek advice on their travel destination. They’re even able to get direction or be served without having to follow the traditional queuing system method (Karlson et al., 2018, p.86).


The widespread and global adoption of technology has led to the adoption of mobile-related technologies specific for travel purposes only (Jinnai and Hidenobu, 2015, p.77). The specific mobile information related to services required to the tourists includes “mobile electronic tourist guide (METG), pp-based mobile tour guides (AMTG), and mobile payment using near-field communication (NFC) technologies” (Kennedy-Eden & Gretzel, 2012). Tourist practitioners leverage the GPS to perform locations according to their marketing information (Palos-Sanchez et al., 2018, p.258). Kim and Law (2015, p.692) that more than one hundred and four articles had revied mobile application usage in the tourism and hospitality industry between the period 2000-2013. However, mobile technologies and social media usage being not a contemporary issue, it has been researched thus requires more research. This study examines how mobile technologies and social media usage could be maximized within the hospitality, tourism, and event context while stimulating the visitor economy while using Tokyo, Japan as the destination case study (Barnes, 2011, p.91).


2.2 Mobile technology in Tokyo, Japan

Japan is the leading country in mobile technology. The tourism industry, specifically in Tokyo, embraces mobile phone technologies at higher levels; thus, their operations are super easy, and communication between visitors and the industry or within themselves has a good flow and is much efficient and convenient. Japanese phones were among the first to adopt specialized features such as a camera, internet browser, televisions, games, the train passes electronic wallet, music player, and GPS navigation in addition to calling, messaging, and emailing long before smartphones were brought into the picture.


NTT Docomo, Softbank, Rakuten mobile, au-KDDI, among others, are among the biggest mobile phone Japanese companies (Yamauchi et al., 2016, p.265). They mainly deal with high-quality and specialized mobile phones with enhanced features that are best for tourists and people dealing with advanced technologies applications (Chang and MT, 2018, p.167). However, the phones fetch quite several dollars to purchase them. There are other average companies that rely on the network of the larger companies that offer cell-phones at many affordable costs, which are used by average earning residents and are also equipped with internet products required by tourists. Thus, with the much-enhanced mobile technology and the affordability of the devices tourism in Japan, Tokyo is one of the major destinations, relies heavily on mobile technology for almost all its operations (Buhalis & Jun 2011, p.34).


Since the 1960s, Japan was familiar with technology (Edgerton, 2011). In the past decades, the country’s reputation in the use of technology has grown linearly and exponentially, ranging from electronics, robotics, and automotive. In Tokyo, despite all the scenic and historical sites found in the place, it is still the technology-consuming capital. Tourists not only go there to see and commigrate historical features and observe the beauty of the place, they still have the urge to buy the super gadgets found in the place. Thus, this is one place where everyone is digital, and tourists cannot afford to be left behind in their connectivity within one another or even in their operations. Moving from one place to another does not require asking for direction but making use of Google Maps.  Accommodation and tourist specialized services are requested via mobile, and also, most of the directions are offered via the same technology.


2.3 Tourist usage of mobile technologies and social media in Tokyo, Japan destination


Based on data provided by Google and Ipsos, mobile phones are used to influence travelers’ decisions (Lalicic & Weismayer, 2018, p.950). When tourists are planning to visit a place in Tokyo, they mainly turn to their phones for recommendations and making their final decisions. For example, they review the TripAdvisor for other tourists review on the place, some recommendations, and more information they need to know (Smith, 2016, p.185). They also check on the check-ins they have to make in Japan and visit google maps for the approximations of distances they have to cover. The maps also provide other features of interest that are within close proximity to the researched place and give distances and approximated time take in regard to the mode of travel used, i.e., airplane, vehicles, or walking.


Mobile technologies are also used in the online method of buying flight tickets (Park and Huang, 2017, p.181). That is embraced mostly by visitors moving to Tokyo and reside far away from the city.  Also, the mobile technologies aid tourists in reviewing the accommodation properties of their prospective lodges and also compare them with others in regard to prices and other factors such as conveniences, quality of services, and the standard of hygiene, among others. Hotels booking is also made online in Tokyo given that the high number of a tourist being accommodated by the city are astounding thus in most of the cases hotels are in full capacities thus advance booking is of utmost importance or even a requirement in Tokyo tourism and hospitality (Zhong and Liu, 2011, p.4562).


Social media has been found to make a significant impact on the tourism industry. Tourists interact with social networking sites to make informed decisions, research trips and info related to their travel and share their experiences regarding the visits, a particular issue, hotel, or airline (Mitra & Agrawal, 2015, p.76). TripAdvisor app is far much enhancing the interaction of the tourists providing them with adequate information and allowing them to do their reviews. It has over fifty million people who visit it on a monthly basis, either doing their reviews or seeking information about the destinations of their interests, such as Tokyo, Japan. The tourist hotels or sites with negative reviews lose customers since tourists view the source as an authentic and credible source of information.


Sharing information on social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and others is on the rise (Oh & Syn, 2015, p.20145). Information shared majorly from renowned people has significant impacts on the tourism industry. Tourism also advocates places in Tokyo that gave them memorable experiences on social media recommending other people to visit the place. Social media, with a huge number of follows, has a significant influence on the industry and the behavior of tourists.



3.0  Case Study

This study uses the case study of Tokyo, Japan, and focuses on developing a digital communication strategy to be used by the visitors visiting Tokyo, Japan, for the second half of the year 2021. Digital communication is crucial in branding the Tokyo tourist sites in Japan, mostly in the current world of the highly embraced internet landscape. Before the digital platforms, the Tokyo tourism industry used to navigate through print media, radio, billboard advertising, and television. Though the channels are still applicable today in Tokyo, the Japanese tourism sector is much more modernized and has highly embraced digital communication to a great extent (Ward & Rustow, 2015). It specializes in blogs, messaging apps, emails, and the most popular being the social media networks.


In building a digital communication strategy for July-August 2021, the first step is analyzing the challenges that tourists face in visiting Tokyo, Japan. Visitors visiting Tokyo face the challenges of what to do as they navigate the busy Tokyo with electronic sounds everywhere. They don’t understand what they are expected to do once they reach the place. They also face the challenge of how to do things in a particular behavior (Claveria & Datzira, 2010). Every country has its own code of ethics and accepted code of behavior which in most cases is different from other countries. That is not different in Tokyo; they got their own expectation of how one is expected to behave, and that mostly confuses the visitors as they are oblivious of the whole situation. Lastly, visitors are not able to locate exactly where everything they need is. Visitors visiting Tokyo have different needs. Despite being oriented in the tourism and hospitality sector, they also need to explore the city of technology thus want to pick the latest devices and other things. Locating specifically where a major need can be fulfilled is sometimes hectic for tourists (Bærenholdt et al., 2017).


The second step in developing the digital communication strategy is to identify the objective of proper communication, especially through social media engagement (Coombs et al., 2015). That is, how communication will solve the above-stated problems being faced by visitors visiting Tokyo, Japan.  In thinking about the solutions to the problems, they mainly encompass the goals of the tourism and hospitality industry who wants to solve visitors’ problems in Tokyo. Thus, the intended solutions will be to increase the visitor’s awareness of Tokyo major places, iconic and historical sites, developing mechanisms that can teach visitors the expected code of ethics and behaviors expected in Tokyo, and also leveraging GPS locations or even using social media to really show people what they need to know (Huili and Zhong, 2011, p. 60). Lastly, a forum for question and answer could serve better as a tourist could get real-time help any time.


The third step in the development of the digital communication strategy is the use of the target audience, social media, and mobile devices in the development (Lamberton & Stephen, 2016, p.146). The people the strategy aims to help are the visitors visiting Tokyo, Japan. The target channels are mobile technologies and, specifically the social media channels. The content that is to be provided is information solving the visitor’s problem mainly in the tourism, hospitality, and event context.  The problems in the context of solving are what to do when visitors arrive in Tokyo, Japan, how to do everything, and even in the context of behavior and where to go in relation to the place of their interests.


The digital communication strategy will achieve its goals by creating fascinating and engaging content that will attract the attention of Tokyo visitors (Van de Kaa et al., 2017, p.181). It will also priorities on the expectation of the visitors in regard to their expectations. The content they will be searching will mainly be led by how and where, which will be the main keywords of the strategy. Thus, the content in the social media will be in the form of free social media, unlike paid social media or paid search. Although the strategy of making the communication strategy free may deny it huge traffic, it will attract the relevant traffic of visitors visiting Tokyo (Lei et al., 2019, p.2894).


The strategy’s main goal is enhancing social media engagement among Tokyo visitors; thus, the social media channels made possible by the phone technologies (Leonardi et al., 2013, p.1) will be mainly embraced. They will include Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, etc. The first information relating what to do when one reaches Tokyo, Japan. It will provide varieties of lodgings and accommodation facilities that are of good quality and offer quality services alongside their prices and terms so as the visitors can select from. That is because most visitors are usually tired when they reach the place; thus, the first thing that they can do is taking a break from their long journeys and workout. Then alongside the locations of accommodations will be cafes and restaurants offering cool dinner, snacks, and cuisine to relax the quests; thus, the confusion of what next after landing in Tokyo will be long forgotten. There can also be a recommendation of means of hiring uber or other means of transport to help navigate the busy highways and streets of Tokyo (Weaver et al., 2019, p.10).


The second solution of the code of ethics or behavior can be solved by developing a social media page explaining what the Japanese in urban areas do. How they behave, and what are their expectations for visitors. Thus, one will be much prepared in comparison to being met a whole new and unexpected experience which may deny the visitors the opportunity to have full enjoying experience in their visit. Tourists will even be prepared to eat Japanese food, and the information provided in advance will develop their anxiety which will enhance their experience much more.


Lastly, regarding “where,” the social media platform will explain all the major parts of Tokyo and where what is found. There will also be a variety of recommendations of the needs the visitors may be willing to satisfy. Adequate maps will be provided on the page so that the visitors can familiarize themselves with Tokyo virtually so that when they visit the place in real life, it will appear to them like they already know everything relating to the place. There will be a section of question-and-answer forum in the social media where visitors can ask questions when they are oblivious or in a dilemma and get relevant answers.



4.0  Discussion

In this discussion, viable ways to maximize the use of social media and mobile technologies in hospitality, tourism, and event contexts will be addressed. Also, the study will provide a direction on how ICTs and social media channels can revitalize a visitor economy after the worst economic downturn. Lastly, the digital communication strategies for the second half of 2021 will be addressed.


4.1  Ways of maximizing social media and mobile technologies usage in hospitality, tourism, and event contexts.

According to Kim and Kim (2017, p.2082), social media and mobile technology, having been embraced by all sectors of the economy and almost every person in the digital world can be utilized more and maximized to get the full benefits, mostly when it comes to the hospitality, tourism, and event contexts. Mobile technologies have changed many things in the way things used to be in the traditional methods (White & White, 2018). For example, people used to queue at the airport so as to get an air ticket for their destination of travel. If there were a large number of people, they were divided into sections and served different times or even days. With the event of mobile technology, air tickets are sold over the phone (Ilhan and Celtek, 2016, p.52). Before social media or phone technologies, people used to request advices and recommendations about traveling from friends and workmates who may have traveled before (Shan & Uriely, 2012, p.421). In most cases, if the people within one’s cycle were not well equipped with information, there was a high probability of making the wrong decisions. But with social media, one can get information from complete strangers who are well-informed or even go through reviews from applications such as TripAdvisor (Brown & Chalmers, 2013, p.335).


Though social media and mobile technologies have made the operations of hospitality, tourism, and event contexts much easier and effective, they can be made more convenient than they already are (Martin & Ertzberger, 2013). That is, they can be maximized more. The tourism and hospitality industry should add information to their mobile phone services regarding the current problems being faced by tourists. Such applications should be comprehensive, providing tourists with all the needed information that they need to acquire or know in regard to their destination or the process there off. Social media should be maximized by creating more forms of interaction between the visitors themselves as they tend to trust each other although unknown to each other. The forums should enhance more communication between visitors and ensure they get real-time help in case they need it at any stage.


4.2  How ICTs and social media can revitalize the visitor’s economy after the worst-case scenario of downfall.


ICTs and social media can be used to ensure the visitor’s economy gains stability after the worst-case scenario downfall. Social media will be used to market the visitor economy making more customers be interested in it (Sajid, 2016). Social media has a high population of followers because, as discussed in the literature review, an average normal person spends around four hours using his or her phone, and much of the time is used on social networking sites. Thus, when the tourism and industry are marketed via social media mostly with specialized eye-catching features, it is likely to attract huge traffic to the tourism and hospitality industry revitalizing it.


Social media can also be used to attract traffic by posting the most beautiful pictures of historical and iconic sites, let’s say, of Tokyo and commenting positively below them to create the urge of people to visit the place (Tobing, 2015, p.249). Given the huge flow of people on the Internet and the fact that people are mostly attracted by what they see, that is likely to have their attention drawn, and they act accordingly and as expected by visiting the places. Also, mobile technologies can be used to provide creating awareness to people on the places in which they need to visit and alerting them to the necessity of doing so.


4.3  Digital communication strategies for the second half of 2021

The digital communication strategies for the second half of 2021 developed in this study entails solving problems that visitors visit on their tourist journeys. This study took the scope of a case destination of Tokyo, Japan, a place that embraces technology more and also has numerous historical and iconic sites (Baruah, 2012, p.1). In these strategies, the problems being solved were what to do when tourists arrive at their sites of interest, how they should behave while observing the code of ethics in their new places and where they should go or get their needs fulfilled. The communication strategy was created in a way that allowed or enhanced social media engagement to high standards.


The strategy developed sought that social pages be created, which will be made possible by the mobile phone technologies, and they should be equipped with the relevant information in solving the tourist problems as that is the main goal of the strategy creation. The information in the pages should direct tourists on what to do, such as a request for uber to take them to their destinations. It also should provide them with a list of available accommodations with information regarding each for proper decision-making. The pages should also be filled with different places codes of ethics and behavior so visitors can know what to expect. Lastly, the page should contain maps and directions of different places as people to familiarize themselves virtually before they do it in the real world so as to avoid confusion.



5.0Conclusion and recommendation


In conclusion, social media and mobile technologies have played a significant role in hospitality, tourism, and event context. From the advent of technology, things have drastically changed in the field of tourism and hospitality and have become much easier and more efficient. Operations are conducted faster and at the convenience of both the customers and industry practitioners. Customers embrace the use of phones and social media in virtually everything, unlike the traditional methods in which one relied on information provided by friends and workmates, which had a high probability of misleading information and thus, misinformed and wrong decision making.


With mobile technologies and social media, customers of the tourism and hospitality industry seek information and recommendation from websites, phone applications such as TripAdvisor, and social media (Grant and O’Donohoe, 2017, p.80). The website’s different information regarding various tourist sites is provided and their unique features that may attract one to visit. TripAdvisor is composed of reviews of other airlines, restaurants, lodgings, which rank them according to numbers. Thus, the most ranked places are the highly prioritized and provide good quality services, high hygiene standards, customized customer services, and other requirements. When tourist sites, hotels, or airlines are ranked lower, they are likely to lack customers.


Social media and mobile technologies can be maximized in different ways to provide maximum output in the tourism, hospitality, and event context. The various forms of maximization can also enable them to revitalize the industries if they face the worst cases of downtrends in their economic recessions. Such ways including using social media as marketing channels such as using captivating and fascinating imageries. Also, they can modify ads and social media pages in the best interest of the tourism and hospitality sector.


A digital communication strategy enables the industry to meet its goals. Creating such an approach will allow the tourism and hospitality industry to meet its objectives of solving the problems being faced by the tourists, mainly after they reach their destinations of interest. Thus, such problems as to where to start and how to behave can be solved via social media engagement. Social media pages are created and equipped with all the information they require, and chatting forums where one can ask questions and give responses in real-time.

The study recommends that more research should be conducted in the future to identify the complete list of the problems faced by tourists majorly in their destination places. The appropriate solutions should also be found to those problems in a broader view, unlike social media and mobile technologies. Also, further research should find out the current technologies being developed in the tourist industry and how effective they will enhance its efficiency.








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UNDERSTANDING PUNCTUATION IN ENGLISH help with history assignment: help with history assignment








There are a couple of rules that follow sounds and bear meaning due to how people say them and analyze them in their speech. It is important to remember that rules such as phonological that guide the way sounds are pronounced. And the other is syntactic, which follows language structure and states that words should have vowels. In some instances, the rules stated above do not apply on infrequent occasions (Scheer, 2010). One can imagine the response when one meets words that try to change one’s ideas from these rules. Numerous individuals typically use the phrase walking down the aisle; however, the word is entirely different from what one writes from the sound and pronunciation. It makes life difficult for all those who won’t go further and beyond to understand the reasons for its spelling.

It is easy to get lost in the spelling, sound, and pronunciation of simple words; it is even harder to realize the connection between sound and writing. Any linguist needs to come up with ways that offer sounds and spelling. The person can know which words are used when a particular sound is heard or said. It applies to the story since if one does not understand what the sounds mean, it makes it difficult to know the words or phrases, it’s meaning, and significance (Scheer, 2010). Furthermore, it allows the speaker to develop a system that gives them the power to learn the whole language due to studying sounds. Phonological and syntactic are essential in the language since they offer the writer or speaker the opportunity to know what category many words fall.




Scheer, T. (2010). A guide to morphosyntax-phonology interface theories: How extra-phonological information is treated in phonology since Trubetzkoy’s Grenzsignale. Walter de Gruyter.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children world history essay help


Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children


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According to Wechsler’s approach, testing and evaluate cognitive ability came from his keen clinical skills and knowledge. He conducted many extensive experiments as an examiner and eventually succeeded in his theory. In this text, the concentration will be on the validity reliability of the Wechsler Intelligence scale for children and the advantages of his study as a clinician. Weschler experience and outstanding work in developmental test suggest that the evaluation of cognitive and measure of IQ is important for children. The different models he used have kept on improving over time until the recent and famous fifth model. The ten primary subtests which determine the tests are well discussed, and also the focus of the five secondary subtests is highlighted.

The WISC-V contains numerous subsets that give approximation of the overall and general intelligence consistent with his global capacity. The WISC-V Procedural and Explanatory Manual record the reconsideration goals featured in apprising theoretical foundations, growing developmental suitability, raising the user relationship, taming psychometric belongings, and ornamental scientific and clinical usefulness so that the goals which are based on thoughts of structural representations of intelligence, neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive studies, psychometric findings, scientific usefulness, and clinicians’ applied experimental needs.

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children


Wechsler intelligence test is the most recognized and practiced test in many schools and communities across the different parts of United States to which they are. They are periodically normed as a means of recalibration. The fourteen subtests of WISC comprise different indices, which are rendered as an IQ score: working memory, processing speed, visual-spatial, fluid reasoning, and verbal comprehension. When these tests are complete, the children receive a score for the five indices and a scale of intelligence quotient score. These tests reflect the person’s intelligence is determined and comprised of many abilities in a number of cognitive realms and aims at the tested children’s mental processes (Weiss et al., 2015). The ultimate question left is how valid and reliable are these intelligence tests. The modern version of the text focuses on the key point which determines the intelligence quotient of the child the verbal competencies.

Technology and the involvement of computers in administering valid and reliable cognitive tests on individuals’ abilities, such as the Wechsler intelligence scale test for children. The introduction of technology has stood in the psychologist and other professionals’ place in streamlining and reducing arguments with a client in the testing process. When the process is fully automated, the paper record forms may still be required for the subsets in using the Q-interactive on the Wechsler child scale test (Weiss et al., 2015). The child’s response to stimuli on the automated machine displays the scores and records them in the system. The use of technology assures accuracy of better timing, scoring and eliminating the use of overload paperwork but may help change planning and attention components of the task. The subsets also could be displayed on an android tablet where the child or the examinee may indicate their responses via a simple process using their fingers to tap the choices rather than using pen and pencils. The use of technology and the automation scoring method is advantageous in more precise timing, the elimination of alteration due to a lot of page-turning. It is also of an advantage since it is relied on instructing at appropriate times during administration where human examiners may fail to offer the subsets.


The reliability of the psychological test is evident since from its original version founded on Wechsler’s views of some basic clinical work which are more indicative of intelligence and has evolved, shined to reflect the models of children and adults mental and cognitive functions measuring that may affect learning and understanding. Wechsler’s intelligence scale for children has expanded from a mare intelligence quotient test mechanism into testing a variety of cognitive abilities that determines the functioning of behaviors of children. The five-scale structure is the essential key player in determining the full-scale IQ in average (Watkins et al., 2016).  The regular improvement of these scales and its consistency in measuring the children’s intelligence over the years make it meaningful and relevant. The reliability was derived using internal consistency, stability and the interscorer agreement. The produce’s internal consistency came and the split-half correlations across all the subsets, excluding a few like symbol search, coding and symbol translation. Short-term stability and test-retest criteria was used to estimate the test reliability. Interscorer treaty was projected by double-scoring many WISC-V subtests for all calibration trial record forms by more than one sovereign scorers (Weiss et al, 2015).

Exhibition of indication for Wechsler intelligence scale for children validity was planned about the Morals, which replicated incorporated validity theory that recommends indication based on the contents of the test, response processes, inside construction, relatives with different variables costs of challenging. The evidence collected on the internal structure may be one of the most crucial determinants for contrast validity to learn and understand the interrelationship between the theoretical constructs and the subsets. The exploratory factor analysis method extracts separate the latent factors from the matrix of correlation indicator on the divergent relationship and the convergent. These models are higher than others on a wide intelligence factor that influences subtest through full five-first order determinant. Model-based reliability should be considered and included to enable the clinicians to judge the advantages and interpretability of the latent factors (Watkins et al, 2016). The other issue consists of Enciphering and Representation Search, and is mentioned to as the Dispensation Speed factor. Occupied together, the Verbal Understanding and Perceptual Party factors provide firm and strong support for the concept validity of the Verbal and Performance intelligence quotients, and important unrotated first factor supports the construct underlying Wechsler’s Full-Scale intelligence quotient.

Technology has also improved the structures like multiple-choice, such as the ruth or false test question, to determine a child’s intelligence quotient. Computerization also measures and helps improve the validity and reliability of a test in that the biasness of individuals will not be experienced in the machines. Hence, a quality intelligence report will be written. The subset scores weaknesses and strength can be compared using all the ten primary subsets. Interscorer contract was projected using the method of double scoring where most Wechsler intelligence subtests for some adjustment sample record formed using two independent scorers. Since many WISC-V subtests contains simple objective criteria, interscorer organization ranged from 89 to 93, which is considered very high (Watkins et al, 2016). The unknown remains to be the grade on which physicians with less or no training at all or employed by the test publisher attain such remarkable contract when they issue and score the Wechsler intelligence because there are countless causes of error in giving and scoring cognitive tests. The changes in the administration standards of mental tests have many influences in the final test results or the outcome of the test score. Many clinicians affect the outcome of the child’s final test score; therefore, it is advantageous and might be a solution to the outcome of the results if the proper usage automation of machines and modern technology is used.

As much as the structural validity gets support from the factor analysis study, it does not provide the essential information concerning the stability of some of the factors and the structures across the age of six to sixteen. The corporation also did not provide the factor correlation of factor analysis’s approval; hence, the nature of the cognitive and mental construction measured remains unclear, making it a disadvantage. Additionally, some neuroimaging evidence supports the functions of the tests on the importance of processing auditory, verbal, and crystalized measures (Watkins et al., 2016). On the other hand, visual-spatial processes are important in the organization and reasoning in the essence of psychological process tapped by the subtests. Based on the comparison between the five and the four-factor models, research has shown that the latest model provides a more accurate result as far as the cognitive evaluation of children’s IQ is concerned.

In conclusion, the Wechsler intelligence scale for children gives many countries a better opportunity to conduct an intelligence test. It also helps in knowing whether the child is in a normal mental condition or has some disabilities. Administration of the ten basic subtests is suggested for an all-inclusive explanation of intellectual ability. The six minor subtests may be issued or provided in support of the basic subtests to provide a larger sample of intellectual operatives and give more data for clinical decision making. This test has a lot of advantages as compared to the disadvantages discussed above. It is of great significance to perceive test scores as a picture of children’s present state of intellectual functioning. When these scores are used as part of a comprehensive evaluation, they contribute to an understanding of a child’s current strengths and any needs that can be addressed.



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