The use of stem cell research and cloning to personalize the medical world would allow doctors to more accurately treat sickness and disease in each individual. As World Health Organization introduces in their section on the justifications of nonreproductive cloning: “Scientists engaged in cloning for research argue that it presents a unique method for studying genetic changes in cells derived from patients suffering from such diseases as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes” (WHO 129). Gen…
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…oning Human Beings: An assessment of the ethical issues. Commissioned Paper.” Georgetown.edu, 1997. Web. 20 July 2011.
Häyry, M. “Considerable Life Extension and the Meaning of Life.” Raionality and the Genetic Challenge: Making People Better? Cambridge University Press (2007): 183-195. Print.
Hinman, Lawrence M. “Introduction: A Pluralistic Approach to Moral Theory.” Contemporary Moral Issues (2nd Ed.). Prentice-Hall, New York (1999): 17-28. Print
Sandel, Michael J. “The Ethical Implications of Human Cloning.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 40.2 (Spring 2005): 155-161. Print.
Wilmut, Ian and Highfield, Roger. “Therapeutic Human Cloning is Ethical.” Veiwpoint 2 in Biomedical Ethics (ed. Viqi Wagner). Greenhaven Press (2007): 162-166. Print.
World Health Organization. “A Dozen Questions (and Answers) on Human Cloning.” Who.int, 2009. Web. 20 July 2011.
Marxist Literary Criticism
While literary critics do attempt to elaborate or develop ideas articulated by Karl Marx, it is important and necessary to make a distinction between Marx’s specific socio-economic and political agenda and the body of literary theory which emerged years later. Marxist literary criticism proceeds from the fundamental philosophical assumption that “consciousness can never be anything else than conscious existence…Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life” (Marx 568-9). Marxist critics use this challenge to the notion of an innate, prefigured, individual human nature to reexamine the nature of creative or literary authority.
Power seems to reside outside or beyond the bounds of humanity. Rather than dipping into a world of universal forms or expressing a subjective interior, artists and their work are determined by the web of power relations in which they exist; literature is thus inescapably tethered to a continuum of socio-political concerns. Hegemony is the term most often used by Marxist critics to describe this continually renegotiat…