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The Classic Of The Way And Its Virtue History Essay Help

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Confucius and Laozi

Introduction

The Daodejing (‘The Classic of The Way and Its Virtue’), which is the most translated word in China, was attributed to Laozi (Lazio, pg.1340). It forms a basis on which most of the Daoism doctrines and ideas were established. Daoism derives its name from a philosophical concept called Dao, which has various interpretations that play varied and significant Daoist philosophy roles. The cosmos, which reveals itself naturally, is the most profound meaning of the term Dao. This implies that Dao is the spiritual and philosophical text for Daodejing. Additionally, Dao is also used to refer to a specified ‘way’ of an object or a group of objects and the entire humanity (Lazio, pg.1340). Confucius is also another Chinese philosopher who developed the Confucianism theory. This theory is entirely aimed at the development of good relations amongst humanity.

Contrast

Daoism and Confucianism are two ancient philosophies that determine the styles of living in China. Daoism focuses on harmonious living (Lazio, pg.1344). It also encourages people to live peacefully. Confucianism philosophy argues that people should learn to be role models so that others could emulate them. According to Confucianism, there are five sets of relationships on which the philosophy is based. These are friend and friend, older and younger sibling, father and son ruler and subject, and wife and husband. One major difference between the two philosophies is that Daoism does not define what is right or wrong, while Confucianism stipulates what ought to be followed and what should not be adhered to. Daoism philosophy embraces nature and human experience. Daoism defines the relationship between humanity and nature, while Confucianism examines the interrelationships between human beings.

Confucianism and Daoism have their roots in China. Confucianism practices involve visiting temples and attributing God, Confucius, and ancestors. In contrast, the Daoism practices are conducted in temples, shrines, and Taoist monasteries (Lazio, pg.1432). Confucianism allows the practice of using statutes and pictures on their temples. When those of the Confucius faith dies, the living has to arrange ceremonies to worship the ancestors and address them with respect. Daoists believe in rituals and worship their ancestors through sacrifice, mourning, and festivals.

Comparison

Although Daoism and Confucianism have many contrasting features, they still have some similarities. First, the two philosophies were created in the same period to offer a solution to the confusion that arose after the Zhou Dynasty lost power (Confucius, 1341). Additionally, the two philosophies focus on self-improvement: Daoism focuses on enhancing man’s relationship with nature, while Confucianism aims to develop good relations amongst human beings. Even though there is a strong contrast between the two philosophies, many people believe that they need both to be whole.

How Some of The Ideas Might Be Relevant to Us Today?

Confucianism philosophy could be relevant today in infinite ways. First, it enables people to learn how to conduct themselves correctly. This ensures minimum collisions and thus enhancing peace in society. Second, the philosophy defines relationships and boundaries in socialization. Therefore, all humanity needs to embrace this philosophy to encourage the development of good relations. According to Confucius, ritual attention and goodness are meant to promote order in society. Confucius states that humans owe each other “goodness” or “humanity” (ren)- that is reciprocal concern and empathy (Confucius, pg.1340). Third, the philosophy defines better ways of handling others and challenges. Therefore, people are able to adopt advanced methods of conflict resolution apart from the use of conflict.

The Daoism philosophy is also relevant in today’s society in varied dimensions. The core principle of philosophy is the development of good relations between humanity and nature (Lazio, pg.1344). The methods show improved ways in which humanity can relate to natural phenome. For instance, the Daoism theory defines the essence of worshipping.

What some of the teachings that you think our government should consider?

The two philosophies define some teachings which the government should consider instituting in the nation’s governance. One of the essential teachings is the enhancement of good relations among the subjects. Confucianism philosophy defines a ruler and subject as one of the core relationships. Rulers need to embrace this philosophy to ensure that the subjects develop and maintain excellent interrelationships and themselves. Additionally, this principle is essential in the development of the servant-leader relationship.

The government also ought to consider using the Daoism philosophy to enhance man’s relationship with nature. This could lead to an improvement in nature as the man will be committed to maintaining the environment and effectively responding to nature’s requirements. For instance, humanity could learn the essence of acknowledging deities and the importance of conserving the environment.

In conclusion and summary, Both Daoism and Confucianism are significant for the development of humanity, and thus they ought to be embraced to establish a better society. Embracing these principles could lead to the mitigation of human differences (racism, class-based discrimination) and building a strong nation.

Work Cited

Confucius, Confucius. The analects of Confucius. BoD–Books on Demand, 2019.

Lazio, Dao De Jing. University of California Press, 2019.

 

 

Constructing Leadership Metaphors in Non-Written Form gcse history essay help: gcse history essay help

 

Constructing Leadership Metaphors in Non-Written Form

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Constructing Leadership Metaphors in Non-Written Form

PART I

Metaphors are incredibly powerful figures of speech that help to communicate effectively by providing an image of issues using objects. Leadership metaphors may be used by an individual to communicate how they would want to create change in the world. It is essential to note that in many instances where metaphors are used in the context of creating positive change in society or community. In a world that is characterized by many challenges, it is critical to seek solutions that are tailored to addressing the unique challenges.

In a YouTube video titled Great leaders use metaphors: a top speechwriter explains, Bespokespeeches (2016) indicates that it is one trait of effective leaders to use metaphors in their communication. The producer of the video suggests that some of the greatest ideas and events that have occurred in human life have been communicated with the aid of metaphors. In the video, Simon Lancaster, a top speechwriter, says that when leaders use metaphors in their communication, it is possible that they may create varying responses and, as a result, make sure that they elicit desire responses from their audiences (Alvesson & Spicer, 2010). The speechwriter gets it absolutely right that when leaders are communicating, they are always interested in enforcing change, and that makes it critical for them to seek ways that will get the best response from their audience. One of the main reasons that make the use of metaphors in leadership is because it makes use of objects with which people are familiar, and this is critical in making the audience relate and give the desired response. On the other side, when people make empty statements that are devoid of metaphors, it may be difficult for the audience to understand it and apply it.

In another video, ‘Graeme de Bruyn: A leadership metaphor?‘, the speakers talk about a leader being able to have conversations that are capable of having positive impacts on the audience. From the beginning, the speaker makes it clear that a leader needs to see not only after the rain has ended but also in the midst of the storm. The most effective leaders are often seen during the worst moments of society. Effective leaders are capable of leading or steering groups during the worst times of society. Communication is one of the tools at the disposal of leaders that they may use to lead the group. The speaker says that during the hard moments of communities, it is only through effective communication that it becomes possible for leaders to steer their communities to act towards the achievement of common goals (Rodriguez & Rodriguez, 2015). The essence of using metaphors during crises is that it helps leaders to make communities have a better understanding of the circumstances in which they are so that they may work towards obtaining solutions. To this extent, it is always necessary for leaders to master the use of metaphors in their communication so that they may have a desired level of effectiveness during crises.

Chow (2014), in a YouTube video titled ‘Leadership 101: Why Use Metaphors To Inspire?’ indicates that metaphors can be used in leadership to make sure that leaders are capable of inspiring groups in their communication. Since leaders are agents of change, it is critical for them to make sure that they are capable of inspiring communities to act in certain ways. In many instances, leaders deal with people who are low in spirit and reluctant to take action (Schechter et al., 2018).  The leaders need to make sure that they inspire the peopled with whom they work so that they achieve the goals that they desire. There is nothing that a group of people can achieve when they are not clearly inspired and motivated. When society is broken and uninspired, it is the leadership of that society that will help to address these challenges, and the use of metaphors in their communication will be critical.

PART II

Defining a personal leadership metaphor

There is a process that needs to be followed in the creation of leadership metaphors. The following is a description of a four-step process that may be used in coming up with a metaphor. The first step in the creation of a leadership metaphor is to look at the prevailing environmental situations and see the possible challenges that call for the establishment of solutions. The realization in this step is that the foundation of metaphors must be grounded in realities rather than hypothetical situations. Thus, when a metaphor is developed, it must address real challenges in communities. The second step is to look at the aspects of nature that inspire individuals so as to come up with elements of nature that may be associated with the challenges in the community that they would like to address.

The third step is to look at the specific element of nature that may be interesting to the leader. In any element of nature, there is a possibility that there may be deeper aspects of the elements that may be of interest to the individual.  In the development of the leadership metaphors, one must make sure that the aspect of nature is not only relevant but also of interest to the individual. The fourth step is to consider who will benefit from the solution being offered. When there is a problem, and a solution is being offered, there is a need to make sure that the solutions are targeted at impacting some people positively.

 

References

Alvesson, M., & Spicer, A. (Eds.). (, 2010). Metaphors, we lead by Understanding leadership in the real world. Routledge.

Bespokespeeches. (, 2016). Great leaders use metaphors: a top speechwriter explains. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RGv0YB07cko

Chow, E. (2014). Leadership 101: Why Use Metaphors To Inspire? YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvMUyoNtGDc

Rodriguez, A., & Rodriguez, Y. (2015). Metaphors for today’s leadership: VUCA world, millennial, and “Cloud Leaders.” Journal of Management Development.

Schechter, C., Shaked, H., Ganon-Shilon, S., & Goldratt, M. (2018). Leadership metaphors: School principals’ sense-making of national reform. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 17(1), 1-26.

TEDx Talks. (, 2015). Graeme de Bruyn: A leadership metaphor? YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JUI_vI_GE6U

Coronavirus declared as a Global Pandemic help me with my history homework

 

 

 

Coronavirus epidemic

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On 11 March, the coronavirus was declared a global pandemic. Several countries, including Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan, were significantly affected by this virus. The virus had devastating and far-reaching effects on the countries globally. It saw many nations declare partial and full lockdowns to try to curb and control the pandemic. Several people died due to the deadly virus. Mostly affected were the persons falling between 50-60 years age gap. Most were advised to stay indoors and observe self-isolation. As a result of this epidemic, economies of all countries were affected. Many people lost their jobs, and employers had no other alternative to help their employees. Hence, life became a living hell, resulting in the development of simple lifestyle forms to control the virus.

World health organization came up with some laws to help the people control the epidemic. Among these were, practicing social distancing, avoiding close contact with someone, proper sanitization, and wearing a mask at all times. Persons who had recently traveled were advised to observe self-quarantine to help safeguard their loved ones’ lives. Formulation of these laws saw several recreational and enjoyment bays closed. It was now a turn to the worse (Nicola et al., 2020). Other countries came up with their restrictions to help control the pandemic. Curfews and banning of social gatherings are some of the new limits that some states’ citizens had to face. Therefore, this affected everything, and to survive; people had to comply with these strict laws.

Scientists all over the world made efforts to find a vaccine for the virus. But due to the uniqueness of the virus’s strains, it became even more challenging to find a vaccine don’t even mention the cure. The inability to find its vaccine meant that we had to embrace living with the virus. Due to economic constraints, some nations opted to open up and try to resume normal operations. Unfortunately, some had to close down again due to the rising number of infections and deaths caused by the virus.

Three interviewers will be featured in this paper, and their life experiences and adaptation to the epidemic will be discussed. Teen, young adult, and middle-aged adults will be the respondents providing their expertise. Because normal life operations were affected by the pandemic’s occurrence, different persons had their separate ways on how they dealt with the epidemic. How the virus affected young adults is entirely different from how it affected middle-aged adults. Teens also have their stories to tell based on how their social life and activities were affected. Therefore, this paper will extensively interview their life experiences based on the epidemic.

Mike, a 24-year-old American male, narrates his life experience with the pandemic. Mike responds to how the epidemic affected his life by saying it resulted in the loss of a job. Mike worked in a coffee shop that belonged to one of his friends. Due to the government’s directive to a full lockdown in the US, many citizens lost their jobs. This made it difficult for Mike to meet his daily needs and expenses. Mike says he had to relocate to a cheaper apartment because he could not afford his previous one. He sorted to doing other jobs online and volunteering to do social services for little or no pay to ensure he survived. Therefore, Mike says the epidemic cost him his job.

Mike articulates that the epidemic caused a hike in the expense of living. Bearing in mind, he had lost his job, and raising income became difficult for Mike. He says relief food from the government helped him and other affected young adults. Mike had to cut down his living cost and do away with luxuries he enjoyed before. Even though mike got another low paying job, it was also affected by curfews and travel restrictions. Having curfews imposed by the government prevented them from doing business optimally, thus making him strain in making a living. Hence, mike says the epidemic caused him to do things he never thought of before.

Mike responds to what change she made to his everyday life by saying he resulted in the wearing of masks. He also adds that he stopped partying as it was against the health directive. It was meant to prevent social gatherings that would cause an increase in the spread of the virus. Mike says he also had to sanitize everything he bought or came into contact with. He did this to protect himself from contracting the virus, which is said to settle on surfaces for long hours. Avoiding shaking of hands, hugging, and kissing is another change that mike had to implement in his life. Thus, by so doing, he kept himself safe from contracting the deadly virus.

The respondent sadly acknowledges the fact that he lost his grandfather to the disease. Mike’s grandfather, who was 87 years of age, contracted the virus in a store where he had purchased groceries. After a few weeks of infection, his grandfather started coughing and had an increase in body temperature. Sneezing was also the order of the day for mike’s grandfather after the illness. Efforts to try and save him proved futile, and he succumbed to death after just a month. Besides, his grandfather mike also lost his nanny, who was 72 years. However, it said that she had underlying lung conditions, and contracting the virus made it difficult for her. Therefore, mike happened to lose two people in his life that he much adored.

Joseph, a 39-year-old African adult, explains how the pandemic affected his regular daily routine. First of all, with the occurrence of the epidemic, joseph close down his mechanic shop. He suffered a considerable blow under the belt because his primary income source was directly affected by the epidemic. The shop’s closing means that he indefinitely stopped his employers from reporting to work days due to the business’s low rate. This happened due to fewer jobs to handle during the epidemic, which resulted in registering or losing something that turned out to be expensive to deal with. Thus, events turned out to take the wrong course.

Another factor that led to his shop’s closing was the inability to receive shipment products from his suppliers. Due to the epidemic, many countries decided to a lockdown as the only solution to control the pandemic—closure of the superpowers affected countries in Africa, highly dependent on products from abroad. Joseph was unable to receive products for his shop from China, Germany, and America. Moreover, the epidemic made everyone stay at their homes, which meant that traveling was significantly reduced, and therefore vehicles and locomotives did not need much repair. As a result of this, Joseph was unable to conduct ethical business, forcing him to shut down.

Joseph says that with the epidemic, the cost of living increased, which made life very difficult. The inability to get the shipment from other countries worldwide meant that everything was now produced locally. Whether the government had facilities or not, some products which required a high cost of production were also costly to buy. Due to such scenarios sustaining life became hard. Joseph is a family man who says that he had to depend on his wife, a nurse at a neighboring clinic, to provide for the family. Therefore, joseph states that the epidemic made life a living nightmare.

When asked about what changes he made to his life to curb the virus, joseph responds by saying that he had to deploy the government’s regulations. The government of the day during the epidemic formulated several rules to help manage the outbreak. Deploying social distancing saw joseph avid public gatherings as it was scientifically proven that it is in such groups that the virus spreads fast. He also began wearing face masks to protect his nozzle from contracting the virus from an infected person. Frequently sanitizing is another practice that joseph claims to have deployed to defend himself and his family. Joseph says that following the world health organization on the directive to use hand sanitizers to kill the virus, they may have picked or touched worked. Thus, joseph managed to keep his family safe from the virus.

Joseph responds to the question posed to him whether he was a victim or not by saying the virus-infected him, but his son healed. Joseph narrates how he contracted the virus from a colleague he went to greet three months after the epidemic was declared. Joseph says he experienced a lot of sneezing and immediately noticed a change in his body temperature. A few days later, he started coughing and opted to get tested for the virus. Results came the following week, and it was confirmed that he tested positive. He was advised to self-quarantine and observed all the regulations put in place by the ministry of health. As a result of the close following of the steps to fight the virus, joseph managed to defeat the virus.

Tito, a 16-year-old Latino boy, also narrates how the epidemic affected his daily life. Tito’s main frustration was how the plague affected his studies. Tito, who was expecting to finish his high school level by November 2020, was devastated by the thought that he had to redo the same class next year. This made Tito very angry because he was overwhelmed by the government’s idea directing them to repeat the same level. Even though Tito could not attend school anymore, he, however, conducted personal studies hoping that soon enough, they will reopen schools again. Thus Tito wished the government would allow them to return to their respective schools to complete their final year of high school.

Tito acknowledges that his recreational activities with his friends were greatly affected. Parties that would be held occasionally in the neighborhood seized to happen due to the strict laws imposed by the world health organization. Other places of interest, such as malls and recreational parks, were closed due to the government’s safety measures. Soccer matches that were organized weekly within the neighborhood were forced to stop as the government demanded. Thus Tito was forced to spend long hours at home with his family doing nothing at all.

When asked about how he managed to adapt to the epidemic, Tito answered that he learned to wear face masks and follow the government directives. Tito learned to wear a face mask whenever he wanted to go out to meet his friends. He says that he knew face masks prevent contracting the virus from other infected persons (Jarrott et al., 2019). Maintaining social distance and avoiding handshakes is another thing that he learned from the world health organization that could prevent the virus’s spread. Thus, this meant that Tito avoided social gatherings and places where there were many people.

Tito finally says that he pitied his parents, who lost their jobs due to the epidemic. Tito’s parents, who owned a small family business within the locality, had to close it due to losses caused by the epidemic’s occurrence. Due to the government’s strict rules and regulations, Tito’s parents could not manage the shop on such stringent measures, thus were forced to close down. As a result, they had to toil extra hard to maintain a living provide for their families. Not only was Tito’s family only affected but also several other families across the country as well as across the world.

In analysis with Erikson’s and intergeneration theories’ developmental theories, the whole epidemic can be extensively looked into. Erikson’s theory suggests that there are several stages of psychological development, which means that each step’s successful completion results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of essential virtues. A similar scenario is observed with the three interviewers. Based on their experiences with the epidemic, they learned some values to fight through the pandemic. Therefore, these virtues are considered strengths that the person can use to resolve subsequent predicaments.

The intergenerational theory focuses on equal attention to the development of all the members affected. It influences both family and individual behavior based on different life events. As a result, it creates a concurrent existence of desirability and hatred, thus creating contradicting relationships among individuals. Moreover, it enables individuals to have better internal uniformity and good test-retest reliability. Social services, such as discipline and practice, are also put into consideration. With this kind of theory also comes some setback. These include; more significant life stress, reduced competency, psychological distress, and increase vulnerability among individuals. The intergenerational approach tries to raise ideas that solve conflicts that arise between individuals of different generations. Therefore it is associated with generation gaps and emotional, social, or cognitive terms.

 

 

References.

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., … & Agha, R. (2020). The socio-economic implications of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): A review. International journal of surgery (London, England), 78, 185.

Jarrott, S. E., Stremmel, A. J., & Naar, J. J. (2019). Practice that Transforms Intergenerational Programs: A Model of Theory-and Evidence Informed Principles. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 17(4), 488-504.

 

The Basics of Correctional Psychology history assignment help cheap: history assignment help cheap

 

Correctional Psychology

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Psychology refers to the application of scientific principles in the study of the human mind and behavior. It is characterized by various sub-fields that focus on multiple areas, including sports, health, clinical, human development, the cognitive processes, and the social behavior of people. Correctional psychology is an exciting field, which forms the basis of our discussion. Correctional psychology is one of the sub-fields in psychology, mainly focusing on the employment of the basic and applied scientific methods and applied psychological science to facilitate efficient treatment, classification, and offenders’ management. The primary purpose of the field is to minimize the risks of recidivism and offender misconduct and thus guarantee the safety of the public and a successful rehabilitation process of the criminal justice system.

Correctional psychology is not accessible when entering into the system; it is essential to note that the field of correctional psychology is not as simple as it may seem to be and may thus be faced with a lot of difficulties. As a correctional psychologists, I should to handle my emotions, attitudes, and values when tending to the clients. The goal is to eliminate compromising the assessment procedure of the clients (Magaletta, 2018). Some clients are very manipulative and stubborn, and it might not be easy to shut off such clients completely.

I may face the challenge of creating a system characterized by a theoretical framework and critical in guidance and procedural framework in the activities they participate in. The challenge may also involve establishing a criterion that defines the individuals’ classification in the correctional facilities and an effective treatment program. A psychologist is faced with a setback in developing an effective way of utilizing research information and creating databases that can be useful to social agencies, particularly those focusing on the delinquency and crime programs(Magaletta, 2018). Such a database assists in enhancing research and advancing the evaluation and monitoring of treatment programs.

The nature of correctional psychology often requires dedication and personal initiative. I may also need to demonstrate an enthusiastic commitment to serving clients. To fulfill this, it can require to create lasting professional relationships with the clients. The policies of the correctional institution may limit the time and availability of the clients for counseling. Besides incorporating honesty, integrity, and confidentiality, the psychologist is expected to practice these values as a psychologist (Day, 2009). However, some institutions, especially those dealing with delinquents, may require the psychologist to submit some clients’ confidential information—the policies may conflict with my values and those I uphold as a psychologist.

The correctional environment is characterized by high levels of stress, anxiety, aggression, and violence. There might also be a lack of support from the co-workers, others even labeling correctional psychologists based on their relationships with offenders. In other cases, the relationships between the offenders and the prison staff are marked with anxiety and tension, with each side pushing for their interest against the opposing groups. Therefore, creating a practical framework of working is faced with difficulties, and the creation of rapport and positive attitudes towards the opposite might be frustrating, tedious, and time-consuming (Magaletta, 2018). To address the working environment issues, I might need to conduct research and use the acquired data to develop a practical framework that monitors and evaluates the characteristics of offenders and co-workers. Building professional relationships and embedding a robust ethical code could provide the most significant breakthrough in the challenges.

I believe that I can have a powerful and healthy impact on a system regardless of the constraints. To achieve that success, i’d needs to incorporate various tools. First, id needs to access the clients’ psychological state, then analyze their cognitive distortions and help understand how negative thoughts influence their emotional states. The other tool is challenging those cognitive distortions. Practicing gratitude for both the client and the psychologist increases happiness. Meditation is a potent tool that often decreases anxiety and aid in stress management. Teaching the clients the A-B-C-D model to manage their anger can help understand how anger is triggered and how to calm it(Psychology Tools Series, n.d.). Visualization is a tool that enables individuals to respond to situations skillfully.

 

References

Day, A., & Casey, S. (2009). Values in forensic and correctional psychology. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 14(4), 232-238.

Magaletta, P. R. (2018). The Practice of Correctional Psychology. In The Practice of Correctional Psychology (pp. 1-7). Springer, Cham.

Psychology Tools Series. (n.d.). HealthyPsych.Com. https://healthypsych.com/psychology-tools-series/

Defining the Costing Methods in a Firm ib history essay help

 

Costing Methods

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Definition of each costing method

Full costing or absorption costing: this is a method of costing a service or a product that charges all the costs of a firm – both overheads and direct costs- to the cost unit (Hunton, 2017). This costing method usually takes an absorption approach to the costing of services and products.

Variable costing: this is a costing method that includes the variable costs directly incurred in producing goods and services (Kristensen, 2020). The following costs are included under the variable costing: variable manufacturing overhead, direct labor, and direct material.

Target costing: this method estimates product cost through subtraction of the desired profit margin from a competitive market price.  This costing method plans and manages costs out of the process or product in its early stages (Hunton, 2017).

Lifecycle costing: this costing technique compiles all costs incurred by the owner or producer of an asset over the product’s lifespan.

Activity-based costing: this is a costing method that assigns both overhead and direct costs to related services. This technique recognizes the relationship between overhead activities and manufactured products and assigns indirect costs to them.

Uses of the costing methods by the firm (EEC)

EEC can use full costing when assigning fixed, direct, and variable overhead costs related to the provision of electricity to various parts. The firm can use variable costing to assign electricity rates to expenses that it incurs when generating electricity. Also, EEC can use lifecycle costing to compile all costs it incurs during the generation and supply of electricity.  Additionally, the firm can use target costing when determining the costs of providing electricity and when planning prices. Lastly, EEC can use activity-based costing to assign overhead and indirect costs, such as rent and utilities, to services related to them.

Advantages and disadvantages of the costing methods

Full costing/absorption costing

This method is advantageous because it takes into account fixed overheads that are involved in the manufacturing process. Full costing is also good at tracking profit within a given period (Hunton, 2017). On the other hand, this method cannot be used to effectively monitor or evaluate the profitability of a firm. Also, full costing cannot be used for budgeting and forecasting.

Variable costing

            This costing method is useful in planning and control because sales forecasts can be used to determine levels of expenditures for variable costs (Kristensen, 2020). Variable costing is also useful in making appropriate managerial decisions. This technique also has some limitations, which include separation of costs into fixed and variable costs; this cannot be true under all circumstances.

Target costing

Target costing is advantageous because it matches products to the needs of clients and reduces production costs. On the other hand, this method is disadvantageous because it involves a lot of compulsory cost-cutting.

Lifecycle costing

This technique helps firms make decisions that will make them get high profits. In contrast, this method can be disadvantageous because a company can struggle for profits at the expense of quality and productivity (Hunton, 2017).

Activity-based costing

This method is advantageous because it is accurate in service costing. On the other side, activity-based costing is time-consuming; hence, it may be unsuitable for some firms.

Recommendation

The variable costing method is the best for EEC Company. The method can help the company plan for its expenditures. Also, variable costing can provide useful information to the management of EEC for pricing decisions. Lastly, this costing technique is useful in controlling costs because it separates fixed and variable costs (Kristensen, 2020).

 References

Hunton, N. (2017). A Case Study on Inventory Costing Methods.

Kristensen, T. B. (2020). Enabling the use of standard variable costing in lean production. Production Planning & Control, 1-16.