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STRATEGIC ANALYSIS OF A COMPANY world history essay help: world history essay help

Liberty University BUSI 400 Individual Assignment 2 Strategic Analysis Part II Power answer A+ Guarantee:

The resource-based view of the firm suggests that the _________of the firm are due to its endowment of strategic resources that are valuable, rare, costly to imitate, and costly to substitute.

Pfizer pharmaceutical patents provide what important characteristic that supports inimitability?

Gerber Products Company brands its baby food and is an example of

a resource that is potentially inimitable, making it difficult for competitors to copy. What characteristic of sustainable competitive advantage is involved?

In industries like consulting, advertising, and tax preparation, clients tend to be very loyal to individual professionals employed by a firm, instead of to the firm itself. This enhances employee

In the balanced scorecard, cycle time, employee skills, and productivity are part of the ______ perspective.

Competitive Analytics at CarMax



CarMax has transferred data analytics into a competitive advantage. It has utilized analytics to help streamline its processes and enhance the information transfer efficiency within the organization.


The ability of CarMax to create a competitive advantage through its information systems is discussed, as well as the value created from its analytics and how that is leveraged within the firm.



Read the case below and answer the questions that follow.



Organizations increasingly face the challenge of making sense of the enormous amount of data available for analysis. While not too long ago companies used data analytics almost exclusively for financial forecasting and supply chain management, businesses increasingly demand that their information systems generate competitive advantage. This development led to the emergence of a new breed of information systems, also known as competitive analytics systems.


Consider CarMax, the largest U.S. retailer of used cars, for an example of how competitive analytics looks in practice. With over $12 billion in 2014 revenues, CarMax’s success has many reasons, such as its compelling service offering, no haggle prices, and proven quality guaranteed by its 125-point inspection.

Besides these more traditional sources of competitive advantage, CarMax also operates a proprietary information system that captures, analyzes, interprets, and disseminates information about all cars on CarMax lots. CarMax’s data analytics helps track “every purchase, number of test drives and credit applications per car, and color preferences in every demographic and region,” states Katharine W. Kenny, CarMax vice president of investor relations. The ability to integrate various value chain activities in this proprietary system allows CarMax to realize a competitive advantage.


The key features of this system provide CarMax management with real-time business insights into different store operations, such as inventory management, pricing, and sales consultant productivity. This advanced information system allows CarMax to decrease uncertainties in traditionally hard to forecast areas, such as

inventory management, allowing management to improve

operational efficiency and anticipate future trends. Moreover, CarMax invests heavily in store technology, with some CarMax stores using Apple iPads to assist customers, who are becoming more tech savvy. According to CEO Tom Folliard, all these IT initiatives are targeted to give customers “a better experience from the time they walk in the door to the time they leave, so they are more likely to buy a car and they’re more likely to tell their friends about it.”


Sources: Kiron, D. & Shockley, R. 2011. Creating business value with analytics. MIT Sloan Management Review, 51(1): 57–63; Felberbaum, M. 2012. CEO: CarMax focused on customer experience. Bloomberg BusinessWeek, June 25: np.

Making “sense of the enormous amount of data available” to it is a(n) ________ CarMax.

When CarMax uses its information system to better manage its inventory of vehicles, it is primarily improving its ________.

CarMax’s information analytics system integrates various activities of CarMax’s ___________ by tracking and analyzing factors ranging from test drives per vehicle to sales consultant productivity.

CarMax’s proprietary information system is a valuable resource that its competitors do not possess and will have a difficult time imitating or replacing with something else. Therefore, it gives CarMax ____________.

Amazon Prime:

Difficult to Copy



Amazon’s Prime service has been the foundation of tremendous success for Amazon since 2008. Competitors have had a difficult time providing a comparable service, and customers have flocked to the site because of the unique product offering Prime provides.


Resources must be difficult to imitate in order for a company to realize sustainable competitive advantage. This case discusses how Amazon’s Prime service has enhanced company value and

proven to be a difficult resource for competitors to copy.



Read the case below and answer the questions that follow.



Amazon Prime, introduced in 2004, is a free-shipping service that guarantees delivery of products within two days for an annual fee of $99. According to Bloomberg Businessweek, it may be the most ingenious and effective customer loyalty program in all of ecommerce, if not retail in general. It converts casual shoppers into Amazon addicts who gorge on the gratification of having purchases reliably appear two days after they order. Analysts describe Prime as one of the main factors driving Amazon’s stock price up nearly 300 percent from 2008 to 2010. Also, it is one of the main reasons why Amazon’s sales grew 30 percent during the recession, while other retailers suffered.


Analysts estimate that Amazon Prime has more than 5 million members in the United States, a small slice of Amazon’s 152 million active buyers worldwide. However, analysts claim that Prime members increase their purchases on the site by about 150 percent after they join and may be responsible for as much as 20 percent of Amazon’s overall sales in the United States. Such shoppers are considered the “whales” of the $161 billion (in 2011) U.S. e-commerce market, one of the fastest-growing parts of U.S. retail. And, according to Hudson Square Research, Amazon, with a hefty 8 percent of the U.S. e-commerce market in 2010, is the single biggest online retailer in the United States.


Amazon Prime has proven to be extremely hard for rivals to copy. Why? It enables Amazon to exploit its wide selection, low prices, network of third-party merchants, and finely tuned distribution system. All that while also keying off that faintly irrational human need to maximize the benefits of a club that you have already paid to join. Yet Amazon’s success also leads to increased pressure from both public and private entities. For a long time, Amazon was able to avoid collecting local sales taxes because Amazon did not have a local sales presence in many states. This practice distorts competition and strains already tight state coffers. Some states have used a combination of legislation and litigation to convince Amazon to collect sales taxes; Amazon began collecting Texas state sales tax in July 2012.


Moreover, rivals—both online and off—have realized the increasing threat posed by Prime and are rushing to respond. For example, in October 2010, a consortium of more than 20 retailers, including Barnes & Noble, Sports Authority, and Toys ’R’ Us, banded together to offer their own copycat $99, two-day shipping program, ShopRunner, which applies to products across their websites. As noted by Fiona Dias, the executive who administers the program, “As Amazon added more merchandising categories to Prime, retailers started feeling the pain. They have finally come to understand that Amazon is an existential threat and that Prime is the fuel of the engine.” Brick-and-mortar retailers are also trying to fight back by matching Amazon’s prices, as they did during the 2012 holiday season, and by tightly integrating their on- and offline offerings.



Sources: Stone, B. 2010. What’s in the box? Instant gratification. Bloomberg Businessweek, November 29–December 5: 39–40; Kaplan, M. 2011. Amazon Prime: 5 million members, 20 percent growth., September 16: np; Fowler, G. A. 2010. Retailers team up against Amazon., October 6: np; Halkias, M. 2012. Amazon to collect

sales tax in Texas. Dallas Morning News, April 28: 4A.

Amazon Prime was a key driver in the success of Amazon in the midst of a recession, as the company saw sales increase _______ between 2008 to 2010.

According to Hudson Square Research in 2010, how did Amazon rank among the largest online retailers in the United States?

Which of the following has become a political pressure from states on the business practices of Amazon?

ShopRunner was created in 2010 by a consortium of retailers, including ___________, ____________, and ___________, to compete directly against Amazon’s Prime service.

SWOT Analysis


This video explains the SWOT Analysis.


Click the ► button to watch the video. To view a video in full screen, click the full-screen button [ ] in the lower right hand corner of the video player. Then, answer the questions that follow.

Managers use SWOT Analysis to ______.

Offensive strategic actions consider how the company can ______.

A firm overcoming weakness so that it can take advantage of an opportunity is called a(n) ______ strategic action.

________ capital can be defined as the difference between the market value and book value of a firm, or a measure of its intangible assets.

Human capital does not include the ______________ of an individual.

Engineering drawings, software code, and patents are examples of

New knowledge involves the continual interaction between __________ and __________ knowledge.

In order to fully leverage the talents of the best and brightest employees, a firm should be concerned with

Initiatives to develop human capital should be directed __________ to maintain a competitive advantage in the current knowledge economy.

Added insight and cultural sensitivity, and heterogeneity in decision making and problem solving are some of the arguments supporting ________ in the workplace.

Advantages of effective social networks for career success include all the following except

Ratio analysis can be made more meaningful in all the following

ways EXCEPT by

The management of intellectual property involves all the

following except

Financial Analysis: Procter & Gamble


The following questions are about key financials that impart useful insights into the financial health of Procter & Gamble (P&G). The financials offer quantitative measurements of the success or failure of P&G’s strategies.


Part 1: Key Financial Ratios Using available data in the case, calculate the requested financial ratios. Round all numbers to the nearest hundredth. For example, answers should look like −0.05 or 1.33.

Part 2: Annual Growth Activity


Exhibits 1, 2, and 4 in the case provide performance information for Procter & Gamble for the years 2015 through 2017. For each item listed below, calculate the rate of annual growth (or decline) from 2015 to 2016 and for 2016 to 2017. All calculations should be rounded to one decimal (e.g., 12.7%).

Part 3: Questions


Based on the case and previous calculations, please answer the following short answer questions. Note: Your instructor will need to manually grade these questions.

Refer to Exhibit 4 (Financial Breakdown). What were the largest and smallest divisions by net sales in 2017? Identify the one most important division in terms of the proportionate net earnings for

the company.

Based on the financials presented in Exhibits 1 and 2, how would you describe P&G’s financial position in the years 2016 and 2017? Do you think the company ought to make any major changes to improve its financial outlook? What changes would

you suggest?

An important implication of the balanced scorecard is that managers need to look at their job as primarily balancing stakeholder demands.

Because primary activities like inbound logistics, operations, and outbound logistics are applicable only to tangible goods, value-chain analysis is not appropriate for service organizations.

__________ ratios reflect whether a firm is efficiently using its resources.

In value-chain analysis, research and development is a broader concept than technology development.

Intangible resources are not as difficult for competitors to imitate as tangible ones.

The prosumer concept in value-chain analysis is promising because it has the potential to generate ideas and lower costs for firms and to create greater satisfaction for customers.

Microsoft has improved the ________ part of its value chain by providing formal reviews of its suppliers, which has helped to clarify expectations for them.

Which of these is not an example of socially complex organizational


All activities associated with transforming inputs into the final product form are known as ______ in the value chain.

A primary weakness of the balanced scorecard is that it fails to complement financial indicators with operational measures of customer satisfaction, internal processes, and the organization’s innovation and improvement activities.

Just-in-time systems are considered part of which primary activity in the value chain?

In value-chain analysis, primary activities include human resource management and procurement.

In value-chain analysis, value is measured by total revenue.

ConAgra and Cargill imitated the meat packing company, Iowa Beef

Processors by automating their plants. This reduced the IBP competitive advantage because its capabilities were easily imitated.

An individual who uses the contacts they develop to pursue their own interests and agendas that may be inconsistent with the organization objectives is one potential downside of

Why did the artist, Pablo Picasso, become wealthy during his lifetime and the artist, Vincent van Gogh, remain poor his entire life? Works by both artists now sell for over 100,000,000 USD.

Companies have found that referrals from their own employees are not generally an effective approach to recruiting top talent.

Email is an effective means of communicating a wide variety of information and employees should use it extensively for personal reasons.

When leaving a job, desirable knowledge employees are most likely to find new employment on Internet career sites and go alone to work for complete strangers.

Sales and engineering departments are a classic example of two groups whose members traditionally interact with their peers rather than across groups. This is best described as ________ in social network analysis.

Managers use __________ for developing human capital.

Intellectual property rights are not as easy to define and protect as property rights for physical assets (e.g., plant and equipment).

Attracting top talent is not a challenge for many organizations. In the current economy, knowledge workers typically have a limited number of employment opportunities.

Social capital is based on the skills and abilities of an individual employee, not on the network of relationships within a firm.

Firms such as Oracle, Google, and Apple will tend to have a lower ratio of market value to book value than industrial companies such as Nucor Steel.

Despite geographic or time separation of members, electronic teams can be very effective in generating social capital.

________ teams complete tasks primarily through email communication.

In the current economy, reliance on the three traditional financial statements (income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flow) has decreased.

The task-first relationship with fellow employees, in which emotions and personal life are checked at the door, is becoming more common and essential with the current increased focus on efficiency.

________ include the ability to seize new opportunities, generate new knowledge, and reconfigure existing assets and capabilities.

The Essentials of health care marketing us history essay help

Running Head: CASE STUDY

Case Study

Shaydie Smith

BUSI 528 Liberty University

December 6, 2020

When one thinks of advertising you think of a business and that business making revenue, but that is not always the case. In healthcare, advertising can allow for the public to know of the newest medical treatment and the most up to date information regarding a certain specialty. For example, when going into an OBGYN office, there are advertisements for birth control plans, parenting classes, and the benefits of breastfeeding. This is an example of advertising informing the public rather than making money. The money will be made but it is not the sole purpose of the advertisements. Before the 1975 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) antitrust laws allowed healthcare to advertising like other businesses or marketplaces. Before the 1975 antitrust laws in 1957, the AMA’s Principles of Medical Ethics states “solicitation of patients, directly or indirectly, by a physician, by groups of physicians, or by institutions or organizations is unethical” (Berkowitz, 2017, p. 451).

The role of advertising has come far within the healthcare industry. Since the 1950s when healthcare organizations were unethical. Since the 1950s, more people have come around to the idea of advertising in healthcare. In the 1990s-people felt that advertising was beneficial but also increased healthcare costs, which is slightly true. “In 2013, U.S. hospitals spent $1.5 billion annually on advertising. In 2014, pharmaceutical direct-to-consumer spending increased dramatically by 21 percent to a total of $3.8 billion” (Berkowtiz, 2017, p. 452). The cost of advertising has greatly increased because most people see it beneficial for the patients to be the most up-to-date.

Yes, there has been a complete reversal in opinion regarding advertisement in the healthcare industry. “Advertising of medicines is growing rapidly in the past few decades and is now the most prominent type of health communication, common in the public domain.

Advertising can influence the purchase decision and/or recommendation of a product” (Manolov, Getov, Lebanova, Kalaidjiev, Belcheva, & Grigorov, 2015, p. 27). The advertisement has changed the way healthcare completes its day to day function. In times of social media, most people are on their phones they will see the information that the medical professionals want them to see. Most people still think that advertisement is a money scheme but do feel it benefits the patients because they can see know the newest advancements in healthcare. Knowing those facts will allow the patient to reach out to their providers will any questions and concerns.

The Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act or HIPAA is a law that was enacted to protect the health information of patients. While it is the law that the patient’s personal information does not get used in the advertisements, “HIPAA does not cover health or health care data generated by noncovered entities or patient-generated information about health. That information includes “information about a person’s physical activity, income, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood can help predict the risk of cardiovascular disease” (Cohen & Mello, 2018, p. 231). While the patient’s more important information such as sickness or illness is protected, that information and other information can be sold for the advertisements. Proverbs 11:13 states, “Whoever goes about slandering reveals secrets, but he who is trustworthy in spirit keeps a thing covered” (English Standard Version). Giving out patient information is unethical to do, one must never give out information.


Berkowitz, E. (2017). Essentials of health care marketing (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones &

Bartlett Learning. ISBN: 9781284094312.

Cohen, I. G., & Mello, M. M. (2018). HIPAA and protecting health information in the 21st century. Jama, 320(3), 231-232.

Manolov, D., Getov, I., Lebanova, H., Kalaidjiev, K., Belcheva, V., & Grigorov, E. (2015). Pilot study on the impact of medicines advertising on healthcare professionals and patients. J of Int Scientific Publications: Media & Mass Communication, 4, 27-36.


Explaining About Alcohol Excise Taxes. us history essay help: us history essay help


Alcohol Industry










Current status and of the federal budget and fiscal policy in place in the United States



Current Status of Federal Budget and Fiscal Policies in the United States

            Running from 30 September 2020 and having passed on 27 December 2020, the 2021 budget of the United States stands at a total of $4.829 trillion and has eclipsed all other budgets previously structured. Having predicted a $3.863 trillion in government revenue, the US government spending deficit stood approximately at $966 billion from 1 October 2020 through 30 September 2021. The budget instituted by the Federal Reserve during Triumph’s 2021 Financial Year was broken down into three major categories as follows; interest on US debt at $378 billion, discretionary spending at $1.485 trillion and mandatory spending at $2.966 trillion (Office of Management and Budget, 2021). Given the increased government spending through its budget, fiscal policies have been at its core in determining the US economy’s general performance. Currently, in the United States, expansionary fiscal policies have been put in place hence the institution of increased budget in the 2021 FY, particularly following the COVID-19 pandemic that necessitates the need to stimulate the US economy.

Current Fiscal Policies in the United States

            Currently, the United States has advocated for fiscal policies to regulate aggregate demand which affects wage rate, business revenue, business investment and employment rates. During the rapid growth of the economy, the US government advocates for contractionary fiscal policies that include reducing government spending to slow growth of the economy, whose rapid growth is supported by credits to cover budget deficits (Congressional Research Service, 2021). On the other hand, the government advocates for expansionary fiscal policies that comprise increasing its budget as well as reducing the tax rates upon Americans in order to facilitate the growth of the economy by upsurging its growth. This means the government will increase its borrowing to finance these heavy burdens.

By advocating for a cut in tax rates to Americans, more income is available for spending in terms of disposable incomes since US citizen are left with more cash to spend for goods and services as well as investment in money-generating projects. Equally, through the Federal government raising its budget levels at the expense of loans borrowed, more money is availed in the US economy, thus acting as its stimulus, especially in terms of recession like the one impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Alcohol Industry

            The alcohol industry marks one of the most significant dockets of the US’ economy. Sustaining an averagely of 4 million jobs and more, the growth of the alcohol industry plays a central role in decreasing unemployment levels and increasing overall government revenue. In terms of revenue generation, the alcohol industry generates about $70 billion annually. Besides, an increase in average wage rates in the United States has increased thanks to late-night pizza shops and restaurants that benefit from the alcohol industry. It can be thus ascertained that alcoholic beverage plays a central role in increasing US’ aggregate demand.

How the Fiscal Policies and Current Budget affect the US’ Alcohol Industry

The enacted fiscal policies in the United States plus the current increased budget amid the COVID-19 pandemic is central in ensuring a stimulus growth of the economy. The expansionary fiscal policies such as raising government spending from 2019’s $4.45 trillion, a $34 billion increase from 2018’s $4.11 trillion to 2020s $4.829 trillion have affected many sectors, including the alcoholic industry.

The Influence of Government Expenditure and Taxes on Alcohol Industry. Bearing the fact that the alcohol industry is one of the biggest sectors and contributes to more than $70 billion in revenue to the US grid, the industry is expected to grow even more. As such, rising government expenditure will stimulate its growth by availing more money to the general public. More government spending will avail more cash to the US economy, thus enabling Americans to purchase more alcoholic drinks. Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the rise in US budget spending by about $379 billion facilitated the growth of the alcohol industry, with RTDs reporting a spike in growth by 43% despite claims of the industry falling by about 8%. In the coming two years, the alcohol industry is expected to rise by approximately 5.9% annually between 2021 and 2022.

The increased government budget, particularly the agricultural sector by the US government, is fundamental in ensuring farmers, especially barley growers, benefit from the increased government budget to enhance the growth of the alcoholic industry. Maintaining a saving of about $36 billion for the last ten years as of 2020 and the coming years is critical in establishing growth of the industry. However, a fall in the agricultural budget following budget deficit and allocation of contractionary fiscal policy through reduced government expenditure would trigger a decline in the growth of the alcohol industry. Requesting an allocation of $600 million in agriculture and food research institute (AFRI) in 2021 from the 2020s $175 million is even more promising to the growth of the alcoholic industry in the next in 2021 through 2022 and 2023 following increased budget in US’ AFRI (Office of Management and Budget, 2021).

Taxes are another form of fiscal policies that are central in determining the growth of the US economy and alcoholic industry in general, which encompasses wines, beer and spirits. To regulate the growth of the alcohol industry, the US government institutes discretionary fiscal policies through regulating taxes. By raising taxes on alcoholic beverages, consumers end up purchasing less alcoholic products due to increased prices that in turn discourage their consumption—on the other hand, lowering taxes on alcoholic beverages such as wines, spirits and beer work to surge the growth of the alcoholic industry as Americans are encouraged to buy more.

Currently, the alcohol excise tax rates stand at $2.7, $13.34, $1.5 per proof gallon for the first 100,000, 22,130,000 and 22,230,000, respectively, in the case of distilled spirits. In addition, the wine excise tax rate stands at $0.07, $0.017, $0.535 and $1.0 per gallon of wine produced for the first 30,000, 100,000, 130,000 to 750,000 and 750,000 gallons and more in the respective order (Center Forward, 2021). What’s more, Beer excise tax stands at $3.50 and $16 for the first 60,000 and 6 million barrels, respectively. With this in mind, the overall increase in excise tax in terms of alcoholic beverage that stood at 5.4% in 2020 and currently standing at 7.5 as of 2021 is expected to rise to about 7.8% and 7.9% through 2022 and 2023, respectively. These contractionary fiscal policies can be explained by increased projection in the US government budget, which is at the expense of the loans borrowed, with most recently Biden’s $1.9 trillion loans to finance the recession impacted by COVID-19. As such, the government institutes high taxes on alcoholic beverages to facilitate payment for future loans.  Upon rapid growth of the US economy, the expansionary gap created can be twisted to maintain equilibrium Aggregate Demand through advocating contractionary policies and advocating a reduction in the government budget.




Center Forward. (2021). Explaining Alcohol Excise Taxes. Retrieved 13 April 2021, from.

Congressional Research Service. (2021). Fiscal Policy: Economic Effects. Retrieved 13 April 2021, from.

Office of Management and Budget. (2021). A BUDGET FOR AMERICA’ S FUTURE. Retrieved 13 April 2021, from.


The Texas Electoral Reforms Concept. history assignment help cheap


Texas Electoral Reforms



Student’s Name

Department, Institutional Affiliation

Course Name: Course Number




The two existing electoral rules I would change are vote harvesting and giving more rights to poll watchers. Poll watchers are allowed but appointing authority on duty to observe each feature of the election. Thus, they can look out for electioneering, voter bribery, or interfering with voting equipment. Likewise, poll-watchers monitor the voting machines installation and testing, return the election officials prepare, records delivery from a precinct to a focal counting station, and vote tallying (Hajnal, Lajevardi, & Nielson, 2017). If they realize a violation, they must report it to the precinct’s election clerk. However, a poll-watcher cannot discuss that issue any further except if invited to do so by the location’s election judge. The poll watcher’s role became a pillar for persons fostering baseless accusations of election fraud in 2020. A reform would vastly improve the rights of persons sent by Republican or Democratic parties to witness ballot being cast.

I would propose a reform to permit watchers to be near enough to observe and hear election officers. Thus, this reform will permit poll-watchers free movement anywhere votes are being tallied, and if a county official bars them, that official can lose his or her job. My reform proposal eliminates an existing provision that stops watchers from recording the procedures. Voters are not permitted to bring recording tools into a polling location; however, the watchers can present the recordings they did to the state’s office secretary if they trust it depicts proof of unlawful activity. But poll-watchers can report an election worker’s illegal activity, but they lack evidence. My reform proposal is meant to permit proof because the poll-watchers are the public’s eyes and eyes and from political parties.

Vote harvesting is another electoral law ii would propose for reforms. In several states such as Texas, both Democrats and Republicans practice vote harvesting, amassing absentee ballots from electorates already cast, signed, and sealed. Republicans are beginning to oppose this practice in states where absentee voting is becoming more frequent, like Texas (von Spakovsky, 2019). my proposal on this electoral reform it’s for the Texas legislature to make this practice a crime both from the individual getting paid and the persons doing the act. My proposal is targeted at the harvesters and not the electorates. This reform is meant to offer a strong incentive for persons to adhere to the law or a disincentive to persons who cheat. In the existing Texas electoral laws on vote harvesting, if a losing candidate mistrusts, he or she loses an election due to vote harvesting. The contestants are permitted to contest the election results. If they can demonstrate that vote harvesting occurred, they are qualified to gather the money paid for the unlawful practice plus the attorney’s fees.

I would lobby the Texas legislature to present a bill that makes it a crime to provide person compensation pegged on the number of mail-in ballots they father amid local, state, or national elections. Likewise, this law would make it an offense for an individual to get compensation for gathering and mailing the ballots. An individual sentenced to the misdemeanor crime would face between thirty days and a year in prison and a $4000 fine. Repeat criminals would be charged with a state prison felony of a maximum fine of $10000 and a jail sentence of up to two years. this new reform I am proposing will not be applied to persons who collect ballots whereas doing campaign work like block-walking as long as their payment is not linked to the collection of the mail-in ballots. Someone getting paid to amass ballots causes voter fraud and likely voter intimidation.

In conclusion, the two electoral reforms discussed above advocate for free and fair elections through best practices that increase voter turnout and safeguard the integrity of the contests.


Hajnal, Z., Lajevardi, N., & Nielson, L. (2017). Voter identification laws and the suppression of minority voters. The Journal of Politics, 79(2), 363-379.

Von Spakovsky, H. (2019). Vote Harvesting: A Recipe for Intimidation, Coercion, and Election Fraud. Heritage Foundation Legal Memorandum, (253), 2019-10.