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The AKS Criminal And Civil Penalties Imposed By Individual Or Entity History Assignment Example


Type of cost proposal or cost information included in the bid university history essay help: university history essay help

What type of cost proposal or cost information should be included in the bid



St Kilda’s healthcare system formed an accounting care organization (ACO) to ensure patients receive high-quality care from both the physicians and healthcare providers. Through the ACO, patients were expected to build a strong connection with their healthcare team. Healthcare providers were to focus on providing high quality care at an affordable cost. The cost could be minimized by avoiding repeat tests and saving on resources.


Types of cost information

Labour costs. This is approximate of how many workers will be needed and how much each will be paid. All the expenses by stuff are under this, also transportation costs for both workers and patients.

Equipment cost. Is the cost of equipment needed to perform health system operations and the cost of maintaining the equipment. They include surgical tools, machines for carrying out different tests, data processing, and storage tools, among others.

Outpatient cost. This Cost entails the consultation cost and cost of the prescribed medicines. The proposal should include averagely the cost for most medications prescribed. It is a summary of a rough figure on the amount it will cost a patient to buy medicine per visit to the doctor.

Surgical operations cost. The cost of each procedure should be outlined like the cost for organ transplantation, for both single and multiple and the cost for operation. Cost for treating underlying conditions like diabetes, cost for orthopedics among others.

Cost of tests. This includes cost of testing diseases like bacterial and viral infections. Common cold and malaria. Most of the tests are carried out in laboratories therefore; the cost of the reagents should be included in this.

Admission cost. This will come in if a patient is admitted for observation because of a severe condition. It should include the overall cost per day that is for food, medicines, and bed cost.



Cost analysis helps in improving the efficiency of healthcare systems. It will help ensure the proper use of resources. With the cost proposal from different bidders, it will be easy to make a comparison and choose the best healthcare providers


Wendt, C., Frisina, L., & Rothgang, H. (2009). Healthcare system types: a conceptual framework for comparison. Social Policy & Administration, 43(1), 70-90.


Bello, B., Bello, D., Browne, B., Brushey, J., Bui, T., Joya, M., … & Patry, R. (2005). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/822,559.


Fisher, E. S., & Shortell, S. M. (2010). Accountable care organizations: accountable for what, to whom, and how. Jama, 304(15), 1715-1716.


Fisher, E. S., Staiger, D. O., Bynum, J. P., & Gottlieb, D. J. (2006). Creating Accountable Care Organizations: The Extended Hospital Medical Staff: A new approach to organizing care and ensuring accountability. Health affairs, 25(Suppl1), W44-W57.




The use of standardization and adaptation a level history essay help

Question 1. Create a table or tables which;

allow a clear visual comparison of Hello Fresh’s marketing mix across eight countries (see the separate website list in Assignment Brief folder where suggested countries have been highlighted in yellow)
help both you and the reader to understand the use of standardization and adaptation, with examples.




Market Mix









Question 2: How should Hello Fresh’s approach to branding best be described; ‘global’, ‘regional’ or local’?

Hello Fresh’s approach to branding would best be described as being global. Global brands refer to products and services that have a market and recognition worldwide, or at least across different continents. Examples of global brands are Coca-Cola, Microsoft, Facebook, and many others. Firms and business entities that employ global branding possibly use the same marketing strategy to promote their brands everywhere that it is offered, regardless of the region and country where it is operating. Some marketing strategies make Hello Fresh a global brand and are discussed below.

According to Interbrand (2019), identifying consistency is key to a brand going global. Consistency makes a brand easy to recognize, resulting from high levels of awareness of the brand. High awareness levels mean that consumers in different market places have due knowledge about the product and services. As a result, global brands are considered by consumers as highly desirable and have the advantages of economies of scale. For Hello Fresh, since its founding in 2011, it has maintained a consistently high level in the market, steadily climbing to the top of the food kit company by beating hundreds of similar companies that had already been in existence. (Helm, 2018).

Also, a genuinely global brand should beat geographical and cultural boundaries. Hello Fresh operates in twelve different countries, namely, Germany, Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States of America, New Zealand, Belgium, Austria, and Luxembourg. These countries are located across different geographical borders with different cultural practices and beliefs. With Hello Fresh having markets in various continental divides, it is therefore correct to describe the brand to be global. Also, by having a large market base, Hello Fresh enjoys economies of large scale production, where increased production volumes result in production costs, and therefore increases revenue streams.

Interbrand also states that for a brand to be described as global, the brand has to be present and be operational in different continents, particularly in Europe, Asia, and North American markets. Despite Hello Fresh being German-based, it has other markets in seven other European countries, two countries in North America and Australia. The markets have branches that specifically deal with the unique requirements of the geographical location of a country and cultural practices. As a result, Hello Fresh operates on three continents and still with the potential to further expand to the rest of continents- Asia, Africa, and South America. As a result, it is evident from different markets to categorize Hello Fresh as a global brand and not local or regional.

A global brand has to expand across established world economic centers, while also making it presence establishment in the significant future markets. Hello Fresh, by having markets across Europe, North America, and in Australia, proves of its position as an established brand in the major world economic centers. Its meal-kit brand still has the potential to spread to other markets in the future. Therefore, for a global brand, Hello Fresh has a space in the primary market centers around the world. Europe and the United States are major economic centers, and having markets there proves its global brand description.

Interbrand also requires that for a brand to be global, there must be sufficient public information about the brand’s financial performance and any other information that affects the consumers. This information comes in the form of financial statements during annual reports, quarterly revenues, and published reports on websites and in commercial media. Hello Fresh publishes its financial reports annually on its websites, and this information can be obtained easily. For instance, it is possible to get information on the internet regarding the expected profits, annual reports, customer size, and subscriptions.

For a brand to meet a global status, economic profits must be expected to be positive over the longer term (Interbrand, 2019). That is, returns have to be above the brand’s operating as well as financial costs. Buck (2018) reports that profits of Hello Fresh jumped by a staggering fifty-two percent (52%), making its share price improve by six percent (6%). As a result, Hello Fresh acquired a specialized and organic meal kit provider known as Green Chef in the United States. The acquisition of Green chef would help Hello Fresh to address the growing differences in consumer meal preferences. For profitability, the purchase was set to add annual revenues of up to sixty million US dollars (USD 60m), according to Hello Fresh. Therefore, Hello Fresh has returns that are above the operational costs, while also having a set up that would guarantee positive returns in the future and remain competitive.

A global brand needs to have at least thirty percent (30%) of its revenues outside the home region. According to Hello Fresh annual report, as of 31st December 2018, the United States market alone contributed to up to a whopping sixty percent (60%) of total revenues in the year 2018. This revenue income form the US market is far above the minimum requirement from external markets for a global brand, thereby implying that markets outside Germany have a higher revenue contribution, and therefore the brand is recognized globally. The revenue streams also mean the brand has a strong financial performance, which is an essential feature to define a global brand.

As per the discussions above, Hello Fresh’s brand strategies are global as they are aimed at promoting the product in different regions. Besides, having operational markets in twelve different countries and three continents makes Hello Fresh a globally recognized brand. Continued economic profits, performance on non-German based markets, and presence in world commercial markets meet Interbrand’s criterion of identifying a global brand in 2019.


Question 3: Critically evaluate the above options and make clear recommendations on the best way forward, as concerns both:

The video
The high or low importance of mobile marketing


Discussion on the Chief Marketing Executives’ Proposal.

This section evaluates and discusses the media campaign proposed by the chief marketing executive on the use of a video that is exclusively in English and also focuses on mobile marketing.

Dollar-shave style video in English using Chef Jamie Oliver. Dollar Shave Club is a California based razor and grooming essentials subscription company that delivers to customers via mail. Apparently, Dollar Shave came to light with the release of the funny and hilarious Dollar Shave Club video that starred the CEO Michael Dublin that went viral, thereby making the company continuously climbing the ladder of success. The video was exclusively in English.

The chief marketing executive suggests using such a hilarious, funny video, starring the chef Jamie Oliver, and exclusively in English to help promote the expansion of Hello Fresh brand to Denmark, Finland, and Sweden.  English is one of the most commonly used languages around the globe, and a more significant proportion of citizens of the three countries understand and communicate using the English language. Therefore, making a Dollar Shave style video in English would reach a higher number of the target group and would increase the chances of the media campaign being successful and therefore expanding the market reach in the three countries.

On the other hand, despite English being a common language, Swedish, Danish and Finnish are the first languages in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland, respectively. Besides, Swedish is the second language used in Finland and not English. Some countries put measures on protecting the local language from rivals. For instance, in 2015, a Danish Member of Parliament called for the introduction of the tax in use of English words in an advertisement to protect the ‘beautiful’ Danish tongue from the influence of its rival (Orange, 2015). Also, humor in promotional videos is a double-edged sword, as what is considered funny in one place might be offensive in the other (Laroche, Vinhal and Richard, 2014), hindering the use of a Dollar Shave style video.

Major focus on mobile marketing strategy. Mobile marketing is a promotional activity designed for delivery to cell phones, smartphones, and other handheld devices, usually as a component of a multi-channel campaign


Discussion on the Swedish Staff Proposal.

This section evaluates and discusses the media campaign proposed by the Swedish staff that different videos be used for each of Denmark, Sweden, and Finland to meet the cultural differences and consumer needs of the three countries.  The team also suggests a low focus on mobile marketing.

A different video for each of Denmark, Sweden, and Finland Strategy. Bai (2016) groups Scandinavian countries under low context cultures that exhibit high levels of individualism; there is less involvement in other people’s livers and lack of social hierarchy. As a result, communication is more direct and interpersonal. Therefore, Swedish staff suggests different videos for each country to communicate in a way that meets the cultures and needs of consumers.

Very little use of mobile marketing strategy.


After the evaluation of the two proposals, below are the recommendations as per the best ways to approach this media campaign by considering how to use video and mobile marketing strategies in the three countries.

Use of video.

The high or low importance of mobile marketing



Bai, H., 2016. A cross-cultural analysis of advertisements from high-context cultures and low-context cultures. English Language Teaching, 9(8), pp.21-27.

Buck, T., 2018. HelloFresh delivers higher revenues and narrows losses. Financial Times, [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Helm, B., 2018. The World’s Most Ruthless Food Startup: The Inside Story of How HelloFresh Clawed Its Way to the Top. Inc., [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 7 May 2020].

Laroche, M., Vinhal Nepomuceno, M. and Richard, M.O., 2014. Congruency of humour and cultural values in print ads: Cross-cultural differences among the US, France and China. International Journal of Advertising, 33(4), pp.681-705.

Orange, R., 2015. Danish MP calls for tax on use of English words in adverts. The Telegraph, [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 7 May 2020].


Role of ICT and the general media plays in the portrayal of people with disabilities history assignment example: history assignment example

Briant, E., Watson, N., & Philo, G. (2013). Reporting disability in the age of austerity: the changing face of media representation of disability and disabled people in the United Kingdom and the creation of new ‘folk devils’. Disability & Society, 28(6), 874-889.

This article examines the effects of the reforms enacted in 2010 by the UK Coalition Government in consideration of the media’s depiction of people with disabilities after the government restructured disability-related benefits following the 2007/ 2008 financial crisis. The article compares the portrayal of people with disabilities in newspapers in 2007/2008 to 2004/2005.

An analysis of the article suggests that there were significant changes in the portrayal of people with disabilities. The print media coverage of people with disabilities in 2010/2011 was less empathetic in comparison to previous years through increased articles focusing on disability-related frauds and benefits. It also acknowledges the increase in the use of degrading language to describe people with disabilities- they are regarded as folk evil.

The relevance of this article is quite apparent since it raises the issue of the role the media plays in manipulating the perception of people to disability-related issues. It uses less technical jargon, making it appropriate for a general audience. However, it fails in addressing the issue of digital media and instead focuses on the print media, making it out of date.

You only live twice. Dr. Lewis Gilbert. Fox, 1967.Videocassette.

            In most of the James Bond movies, the villain is usually disabled or with queer personalities. The villainous character is usually portrayed as evil, sinister,, and with intimacy issues. In the film “You only live twice,” Ernst Stravo  Blofeld, who is physically impaired, plays the role of the villain. He intends to conspicuously intercept Russian and American spaceships to create a grudge between the two nations, which would later culminate into war. In addition to sinister plots, he is also portrayed as sexually abnormal in that he enjoys feeding pretty women to sharks. The creation of this evil persona brings forth the issue of how the film industry leverages on disabilities to create an uneasy atmosphere in their films.

Despite being an old film, it is relevant in this research since it demonstrates how the film industry portrayed people with disabilities in the past. It, therefore, makes it a viable baseline indicator of how the portrayal of disabled people has evolved over the years. There hasn’t been a significant change in the portrayal of people with disabilities even in modern films, therefore, making this film still a relevant source.

However, the film fails in demonstrating how we can help these people with disabilities. For Instance, in the closing scene, James Bond eventually kills Blofeld, which brings forth the issue of how society handles disabled people. In the case of Blofeld, his psychological issues could have been a result of his disability and, consequently, low self-esteem. Killing him shows that society has no regard for the disabled in that they never try to understand them and that the only way to handle them when they are troublesome is by eliminating them.

Swain J., French S., Barnes C., Thomas C. (2013) Disabling Barriers – Enabling Environments. SAGE Publications.

This an essential book for anyone interested in disability issues. It tackles issues ranging from early writings on disabilities, death, hate crime to sports. Chapter 6 stresses the importance of creating an enabling environment for the disabled to enable equal participation. It stresses the importance of creating an enabling environment for people with disabilities, such as providing ramps, information, and other physical amenities. It, however, stresses that despite creative an enabling physical environment, there is also a need for attitude adjustment concerning the general perception of people with disabilities. It highlights the role of ICT, and the general media plays in the portrayal of people with disabilities.

This book is quite relevant for this research because it not only addresses the issues regarding disability but also touches on psychological issues. Also, the authors are recognized professors, and some of them are disabled ergo the book was written from actual experiences. Moreover, the initial publication of the book was in 1993 and it has undergone revision over the years, making up to date . I intend to use the book in this research to understand the genesis on the biased consensus on disabled people and the role the media plays.

Longmore, P. (2016). Telethons – Spectacle, Disability, and the Business of Charity. Oxford Publications

In this book, the author describes a conspicuous form of fundraising known as Telethons, which has become a staple of American life. In his book, Longmore compares Telethons to analogous concepts such as the “comic emcees ” and the “poster children.” The book provides a vivid account of how the perception of disabled people evolved from symbols of pity in the sixties to symbols of empowerment in the 21st century.

In his book Paul (2016) highlights that over the years, telethons have described disabled children as individuals incapable of participating in everyday community life. He goes on to argue that these televised telethons, positioned the audience as the givers while reinforcing the notion that the receivers, the disabled-, should be depended on their able donors. He also criticizes these telethons as tools for raising money instead of creating awareness. This book is pivotal in this research since it clearly shows how the media typically portrays disabled people as needy. Besides, it focuses on video media, which is the most popular form of media ergo, subjecting it to less bias.

Howe, P. D. (2008). From inside the newsroom: Paralympic media and the production of elite disability. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 43(2), 135-150.

The article begins by highlighting the role of the media in shaping the representation of social issues and managing the general understanding of the people of the world. It stresses the importance of controlling the information in media centers, especially at major sporting events such as paralympic sports.

According to the article, despite the print media collecting relatively moderate content from these events, the influence of editors who have strong opinions on what’s best for their audiences results in a product lacking cultural understanding of the sport.

This article is relevant to this research since it focuses on an area that is often overlooked -sports for the disabled. It criticizes the media for not leveraging these sports in creating awareness on the disabled. However, it fails to address the issue of Paralympics being held separately from the Olympics.

Burns, S. (2010). Words matter: Journalists, educators, media guidelines, and representation of disability. Asia Pacific Media Educator, (20), 277.

This article uses humor to stress its message that words matter. It goes ahead and gives a historical account of the origin of the phrase. In 2010, there were disturbing cases of racism that prompted the sporting organizations in Australia to put in place measures to curb racism. The center of this debate was two former rugby players, Andrew johns and Mal Brown, who engaged in a heated exchange of words that eventually led to the debate. Essentially during their heated exchange of words, Johns described Mal Brown as a retard, which brought up the issue of how the choice of words the disabled.

The article highlights the importance of developing guidelines to assist journalists in representing disabled people. It addresses issues concerning word choice and also provides guidelines on ways of preparing for interviews with people with disabilities.

This article is quite relevant to this research since it clearly illustrates how the right choice of words in the media, including films, can result in a different outlook on people with disabilities. I would, therefore, recommend this article to anyone interested in social science.

Children of a lesser god. Randa Haines. Fox. 1986. Disk

The theme of this movie focuses on disability. It tells of a love story between a deaf woman, Sarah, and a hearing man, James. The two meet in a school – where Sarah attended as a kid- where they work and eventually fall in love. The movie raises the issues of the difficulties that arise from these two being a couple. In the opening scenes of the movie, the School director addresses the teachers telling them that their duty is not to change the world but to help deaf kids. He also describes Sarah as a bright student who can only work as a janitor in the school.

The general idea in the film is that we can’t help the disabled since their condition is irreversible. However, we can help them in various ways to make them more acceptable in the able society. This is clearly shown when James tries to teach some of his deaf students to speak.

The film illustrates the conflicts that could arise when “abled” people get into relationships with the disabled. In the case of the two love birds, Sarah and James,  conflict arise when they are on a date, and James cannot listen to his favorite music because Sarah wouldn’t share it with his pleasures. However, they reach into a consensus that James wouldn’t listen to his music. This clearly shows one of the ways of integrating the disabled as part of us is by making slight compromises. Generally, the film illustrates the ideal world where the disabled and the abled interact. It is relevant for this research since it shows how we can cope and incorporate the disabled into our lives.

Barden, O. (2018). Disability Media Studies. New York University Press.

The book tries to combine the fields of disability and media studies. The rationale behind this is to grapple with the complexities arising when the two fields are addressed separately. The book initiates interdisciplinary discussions by presenting a variety of essays and theories covering various topics. The range of interdisciplinary topics covered includes disability and media disability and race, disability and technology, disability and gender and disability, and the pop culture.

Also, the book cover issues regarding the civic participation of the disabled and their participation in media production. It also describes how some processes and products are disabling. For Instance, Tom Miller, in his chapter, elucidates how the electronics recycling industry is disabling to the citizens, but the media covers up.

The greatest strength of the book lies in its variety. Also, it criticizes the media for covering up for corporations that contribute to the disabling of people. By incorporating research on how disability relates to other fields, the book creates a chain link that illustrates how the various disciplines inter-relate. Moreover, it clearly shows that disability isn’t entirely innate, and anyone can be a victim. In general, the book is a great resource since it covers a broad area helping the reader acquire a broader perspective of the subject


security trading and financial tools transformed by the use of technology us history essay help

High-frequency trading

High-frequency trading is a set of professional trade algorithms that uses sophisticated and high-speed computer programs (Jones, 2013). These automated algorithms enhance the rapid generation of orders, submission, and even cancellation of these orders in an attempt to achieve desirable trade options (Jones, 2013). High-frequency traders are engaged in strategies that result in increased trade numbers within a given time. In most firms, these strategies are not necessarily new. They are automated traditional trading strategies to fit in the current technological merchandise environment (Chlistalla et al.,2011). However, some firms have employed entirely new techniques of trading, such as cross-market arbitrage. High-frequency trading has numerous advantages in trade. On the other hand, it is accompanied by some disadvantages, which has resulted in the enforcement of various regulatory options (Chlistalla et al.,2011). In 2010, US trade markets experienced a drastic rise in trade by the flash crash.

Over the last forty-years, security trading and financial tools have transformed by the use of technology (Jones, 2013).  Before computers had been invented, trading activities were carried out among humans on the trading floor. Trading offices were filled by supervisors and clerks to ensure proper completion of transactions (Jones, 2013). Gradually, automation transformed these trading processes and back offices. Human intermediaries via telephone or floor trading have been replicated by automatic trading systems such as electronic limit order book (Jones, 2013). Since 2010, algorithmic trade has been refined by advanced computer technology making buying and selling orders appear very much faster, causing a great need for automation to trading avenues.

High-frequency trading is accompanied by evident impacts on trade. Their high speed on information processing helps in discovering the best prices and how to increases the number of sales (Jones, 2013). High-frequency market-makers have quick access to valuable information on how to reduce bid-ask spread. High-frequency traders hold short period inventories, which enable them to interact with new buyers and sellers in the market (Jones, 2013). Traders are also capable of making counterparties through the intermediation functions. High-frequency traders focus on on-demand liquidity, which generates massive sales and price volatility (Jones, 2013). Quick update orders on any new reports help to avoid adverse selection, which improves trading welfare.

While high-frequency trading adds liquidity to the trade market, some market participants are disadvantaged. High-frequency trading firms do not have consistent liquidity obligations causing insufficient market liquidity during volatile conditions (Chlistalla et al.,2011). The marginal size of high-frequency trading quotes has a little contribution to the market depth. This minimal size results in many small orders transacting large orders leading to an increased sum of the transaction cost (Chlistalla et al.,2011). An order canceled over a short duration is barely accessed, affecting the smoothness of execution. Other participants in the market replace these narrow spreads of canceled quotes with possibly unrealistic quotes (Chlistalla et al.,2011). High-frequency trading affects price formation whenever it creates natural liquidity, which makes some participants not able to keep up with the vital investments in the current trade.

On 6th May 2010, there was extreme volatility on the US financial market, referred to as the flash crash (Kirilenko, et al., 2017). In about thirty minutes, US market indices and trade-exchange funds underwent a sudden price drop of about five percent. Though it recovered within the next few minutes, many questions arose about the financial stability and structure of the US market (Kirilenko, et al., 2017). During this duration, the Dow Jones Industrial Average reached its daily sales minima for all its components. By the next five seconds, thousands of orders were made, resulting from the price drop (Kirilenko, et al., 2017). This selling pressure trigged the execution of many selling programs. There was a five-second pause on all logic functionalities, a period called ‘reserve state’ by which orders were available for submission, modification, or even cancelation (Kirilenko, et al., 2017). At this period, the execution of all pending orders was until trading returned to normal.

In the knowledge of the adverse market conditions, regulators are subjecting high-frequency trading under strict supervision (Chlistalla, et al.,2011). There is an ongoing discussion to regulate high-frequency trading, claiming that the trade algorithms of trade are democratizing business transactions against the adverse selected people. The fact that only professionals can access these technological form of trade raises concern for the disadvantaged sellers and market-makers (Chlistalla, et al.,2011). Among the regulations put in place is NMS, which requires traders to offer access to all participants without discrimination (Jones, 2013). Other regulatory options are near real-time orders audit and no flickering quotes.

In conclusion, high-frequency trading is the use of computers in trade to increase orders hence a large number of sales in a short time. It focuses on increasing liquidity, which poses a challenge to people who are not conversant with electronic technology. The flash crash of 2010 made a sudden wake-up call to trade. High-frequency trading is an exhibitor to inconsistent patterns of the traditional definition of commerce. The need for consistent business has resulted in new trade restrictions by competent authorities.

Chlistalla, M., Speyer, B., Kaiser, S., & Mayer, T. (2011). High-frequency trading. Deutsche Bank Research, 7, 3-4.

Jones, C. M. (2013). What do we know about high-frequency trading? Columbia Business School Research Paper, (13-11).

Kirilenko, A., Kyle, A. S., Samadi, M., & Tuzun, T. (2017). The flash crash: High‐frequency trading in an electronic market. The Journal of Finance, 72(3), 967-998.


(Chlistalla, et al.,2011)

(Jones, 2013)

(Kirilenko, et al., 2017)