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A Story Of Screening And Referral DISCUSSION free essay help: free essay helpAndy: A Story of Screening and Referral
 
Resources
 
Attributes and Evaluation of Discussion Contributions.
Professional Communications and Writing Guide.
List of Tests by Type.
In this unit, you are introduced to the clinical psychology, counseling psychology, and neuropsychology branches of psychology. While these three specialty areas share overlap with goals for clients and the tools they employ in the process of assessment, they each have unique content knowledge and skill they acquired through training and provide differentiated roles and services. Subsequently, the referring concern and the needs of an individual will likely indicate which professional may be best suited to complete the assessment.
 
In Units 6 through 9, you have studied different applications of tests and measurements in a variety of settings and specialty areas. Regardless of the specialization, it is likely that at some time, a psychologist will have a client with one of the referral concerns including possible neurological problems. In this unit, you read about psychologists using a standard battery to gather information on an individual from a variety of tests and instruments as a means of screening for a neurological deficit. A minimum amount of testing for an adequate neuropsychological screening includes an intelligence test, a personality test, and a perceptual, motor, or memory test.
 
In this discussion, you will refer to the following case study to answer the questions in Part 1 and Part 2 of this activity.
 
Andy was referred to you, a psychologist.
 
Name: Andrew “Andy” Davis.
Age: 6 years, 0 months.
Mother: Emily Davis, single parent.
Sibling: Molly.
Recent changes: Relocation to a smaller house, father abandoned family.
Referral concerns (reported by mother): Frequent intense imaginative play, significantly reduced social interactions, talks to self in his room, destroys toys (for example, rips arms of dolls), falls frequently, and concerns that he fell down stairs (with no open head injury) at the new house (that is, Andy reported falling down and off staircase railing).
Part 1
 
Based on this referral information, what would be the three tests you would include in a standard battery for screening purposes that include neurological concerns? You may use, as a guide, the same test list that was provided to you in Unit 2. You are allowed to choose tests outside of those on the list. This task will allow you to review tests covered in earlier units of this course, as well as some that are introduced in this unit. However, remember to address a minimum of three recommended areas of assessment for a screening of this type. Be sure to take into consideration age range appropriate for the tests and instruments you select. Then, provide an explanation for using each instrument and how it connects to your working hypothesis on Andy and his mother’s concerns.
 
Part 2
 
You complete your evaluation using the three (or more) tests in your standard battery and obtain signs signaling that a more thorough neuropsychological evaluation is recommended. Subsequently, Andy is referred to Dr. Woody Pride, a neuropsychologist. Dr. Pride decides to administer Andy the Brief Neuropsychological Cognitive Examination (BNCE) published by WPS since it can be administered in one sitting and reports that it minimizes reading skills to complete it.
 
Based on this information from Dr. Pride, and after conducting your own research on this test selection, determine if this is an appropriate test to obtain additional data on Andy regarding neuropsychological concerns. If it is appropriate, then state that and provide your rationale for supporting this as a test selection. If it is not appropriate, then state that and provide your rationale for rejecting this as a test selection. Finally, regardless if you find the BNCE appropriate or not for Andy and the referring concerns, identify a second neuropsychological test that would be highly recommended for its use with Andy (you may select one from the list provided you in Unit 2, or another neuropsychological test battery).
 
As a test user, identify any AERA standards regarding The Rights and Responsibilities of Test Users, which are implicated in this case study of Andy Davis.

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Research and Acceptable Scholarly Sources essay help tipsTOPIC:Research and Acceptable Scholarly Sources
THREAD:Post properly formatted APA references for two journal article sources that you will use in your literature review next week.Include a quick mention of the topic and a short defense of why you want to use these two sources.Imagine that if you do not defend your use of them well enough, you will not be allowed to use them. How are they relevant and useful to your topic? What value or benefit do they provide your research proposal? Make sure they are both scholarly journal articles. While many books are acceptable sources, this is a good time to practice using the JFL website. Do not include any books, magazine articles, book reviews, or websites. There is no minimum word count, but do not go beyond 400 words.

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American & Norwegian Incarceration Systems Paper essay help writing: essay help writingDiscussion post: Compare and contrast the American and Norwegian incarceration systems. Distinguish at least three characteristics that are similar as well as distinct. Identify what is being done in each system to minimize the negative impacts on individuals lives, the community, and the larger issue of incarceration and its impact on society. Which characteristics seem to be the most effective?
 
 
Minimum 250 words
 
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Natural Disasters best essay helpNatural Disasters
Working with Communities
 
Name
Affiliation
Course
Professor
Date
 
Working with communities
Tropical storm Imelda landed in Texas as a tropical storm. The storm was theto hit. A state of disaster declaration was declared. The storm was characterized by significant flooding, with many road closures.Five people succumbedto storm-related deaths and several people were injured (CDP, 2019). The Center for Disaster Philanthropy, a human service organization, was integral in the aftermath of the storm.
Ethical and cultural consideration that is theoretically relevant and practically helpful should formulate an important background of establishing a practical path for addressing disasters. These considerations include identification of the vulnerabilities, wants and abilities of marginalized communities. There is need to eliminate social inequities to help in aid access to prevent the exclusion of minorities, women and the poor (CDP, 2019). Cultural traditions tend to keep some disaster victims out of the formal aid system and addressing it appropriately is important. Secondly, everyone within national borders, including displaced people, and refugees, should have equal rights to decent, humane treatment, as well as to security and assistance when needed. Failure to acknowledge that local people are the first respondents and know what they need to respond to an emergency should not be overlooked.
When the affected community is not knowledgeable of danger and vulnerability nor sufficiently empowered to mitigate a disaster, it is unlikely to have a say in disaster response and reconstruction needs. In an event of a disaster, employees should not impose their values and biases to the victims (Geale, 2012). Services should be provided to all victims without bias in regards to culture, race, religion, ethnicity, ability, age, gender, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. They should also be aware of multiculturalism in society and respect the cultures and beliefs of and victims.
Reference
CDP. (2019) Tropical Storm Imelda. CDP
Geale, S. (2012). The ethics of disaster management. Disaster prevention and management, 21(4).

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System Documentation Assignment essay help from professional writersSystem Documentation” Please respond to the following:

Ray and Jason have just finished developing the documentation for a system your team recently completed. Ray insists that the documentation should be printed in booklet format and included with the system. Jason insists that paper manuals are outdated and that the documentation should only be distributed electronically via DVD. Compare and contrast the use of online documentation and paper documentation. Then, make a decision about what documentation you will provide with your system and explain it to Ray and Jason.
Debate whether or not to give credit to authors and designers of training manuals. Support your argument.

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Society the Social Environment & Drug Use Discussion instant essay help: instant essay helpNumber of pages- 4 full pages not including the title page and bibliography
 
Arial or times new roman font theme only
 
use scholarly research material used (no jet, Newsweek, times, ebony… material used) all research should come from criminal justice, criminology, sociology, or psychology books/ journals.
 
You must use a minimum of 2 books and 1 journal or 1 book and 2 Journals.
 
The research paper must reflect an analysis of drugs and society
 
All papers must include a title page.
 
All papers must include a bibliography.
 
All papers must be submitted online via canvas.
 
All papers must be typed using microsoft word only
 
All work must reflect your own ideas.

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Social networking sites source of online harassment get essay helpAre social networking sites a source of online harassment for teens? Evidence from
survey data
Anirban Sengupta a
, Anoshua Chaudhuri b,

a Economist, Digonex Technologies, Inc, United States
b Department of Economics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132, United States
article info abstract
Article history:
Received 8 February 2010
Received in revised form 17 September 2010
Accepted 17 September 2010
Available online 25 September 2010
Keywords:
Online harassment
Social networking sites
Cyber-bullying
Youth risky behaviors
Media reports on incidences of abuse on the internet, particularly among teenagers, are growing at an alarming
rate causing much concern among parents of teenagers and prompting legislations aimed at regulating
internet use among teenagers. Social networking sites (SNS) have been criticized for serving as a breeding
ground for cyber-bullying and harassment by strangers. However, there is a lack of serious research studies
that explicitly identify factors that make teenagers prone to internet abuse, and study whether it is SNS that is
causing this recent rise in online abuse or is it something else. This study attempts to identify the key factors
associated with cyber-bullying and online harassment of teenagers in the United States using the 2006 round
of Pew Internet™ American Life Survey that is uniquely suited for this study. Results fail to corroborate the
claim that having social networking site memberships is a strong predictor of online abuse of teenagers.
Instead this study finds that demographic and behavioral characteristics of teenagers are stronger predictors of
online abuse.
© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Media reports on incidences of abuse on the internet, particularly
among teenagers, are growing at an alarming rate (Goodstein, 2007).
A recent video of a Florida teenager being beaten, posted on YouTube,1
created uproar and a renewed call for assessment of unmonitored
use of the internet by teenagers. A Pew Internet survey reported
that one in three teenagers experience some form of cyber-bullying
and typically more frequent victims are girls. Cyber-bullying or
internet abuse takes the form of unwarranted contact by strangers,
distortion of photographs, posting distorted information, and even
coercive actions like sending threatening or aggressive messages
online (Slonje & Smith, 2008). These incidents have been on an
upward swing causing much concern among parents of teenagers and
prompting state-level legislations aimed at regulating internet use
among teenagers (Thierer, 2007).
Internet use, particularly the use of chat rooms and instant
messaging can be addictive (Becker & Murphy, 1988) and risky if
teenagers indiscreetly divulge private information, indulge in inappropriate behaviors, and encourage contact with strangers. Scholars have
found correlations between internet use and online harassment and
sexual abuse of youth and teenagers (Finkelhor, Kimberly, & Wolak,
2000; Ybarra & Mitchell, 2008). Finkelhor et al. (2000) conducted a
survey on the internet use of representative youth aged 10 to 17 years in
the United States and found that one in five youth were exposed to
sexual solicitation, one in seventeen were harassed or threatened and
only a fraction reported these cases while more than 63% reported being
upset, embarrassed or stressed as a result of these unwanted contacts.
Abuse on the internet creates emotional distress, psychosocial trauma
and has serious mental health consequences for teenagers (Ybarra,
Mitchell, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2006; Wolak, Mitchell, & Finkelhor, 2006).
To protect teenagers from being bullied and abused in the cyberspace,
there have been calls for restrictions on youth access of the internet with
the hope that such restrictions may reduce the intensity of risky
behaviors. In some cases, harsher consequences have been introduced
to dissuade bullying and harassment of teenagers by peers and
strangers. For example, the state of California enacted a new law in
2009 based on AB 86 that added cyber-bullying to school disciplinary
codes and gives school officials the authority to suspend or expel
students for bullying fellow students electronically.
Internet technology has provided social networking sites (SNS) like
MySpace, Facebook, Orkut, LinkedIn and others in addition to instant
messaging and online chat rooms as means to contact friends, acquaintances and socialize over the internet. SNS have become increasingly
popular among teenagers (Mishna, Saini, & Soloman, 2009) and are
also potential vehicles for adolescents to engage in risky and
destructive behaviors (Duncan, 2008). SNS have been particularly
blamed as a source of harassment for teenage internet users and for
the recent increase in teen abuse (Thierer, 2007) making a case for
restricting teen access to social networking sites. However, there is no
Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290
⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 415 338 2108; fax: +1 415 338 1057.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (A. Sengupta), [email protected]
(A. Chaudhuri).
1 Report: Teen beaten in youtube attack to be homeschooled, Wednesday, April 09,
2008, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,348908,00.html.
0190-7409/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.09.011
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Children and Youth Services Review
j o u r n a l h om e p a g e : www. e l s ev i e r. c om / l o c a t e / c hi l d yo u t h
consensus that SNS leads to greater harassment or abuse of teenagers
and studies that have explicitly measured this correlation have not
been able to determine whether SNS sites are to be blamed solely, or
that it is a result of use of different types of online technology as well as
teen attitudes and behaviors (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2008; National School
Boards, 2007). Critics have thus blamed the media for alarmist
coverage (Goodstein, 2007) on the impact of SNS on teen abuse.
Although the cost of networking on SNS may be incidences of
harassment, there are also tangible benefits of online social interactions. It is difficult to establish causal effects of social networking on
incidences of online harassment because there may be unobservable
characteristics that may predispose certain teenagers to specific types
of harassment online. Use of SNS is a fairly recent phenomenon and
lack of longitudinal data makes it difficult to establish causality
between use of SNS and rise in online harassment. Some researchers
have suggested the need for investing in virtual outreach to help teens
that are more prone to internet abuse (Ybarra & Mitchell, 2008).
What is completely lacking in this literature is a study that
systematically examines the demographic and behavioral characteristics of teenage internet users, and other factors that may potentially
increase their likelihood of being victims of online abuse. This would
help determine the youth most at risk and also identify the key
intervention for prevention of such abuse. Our study fills this gap by
studying the characteristics of teenagers, their environmental and
parental characteristics that are correlated with their likelihood of
becoming victims of online abuse. We examine whether is it having
SNS site memberships or the nature of internet use that results in
incidences of cyber-bullying and online harassment for teenagers in
the United States. Although researchers have established that parental
characteristics are highly correlated to youth behaviors and outcomes
(Painter & Levine, 2000), there is a limited understanding of the
relationship between parental characteristics and controls and teen
abuse on the internet. Using parental background information, we
seek to shed light on the relationship between parental characteristics
and teen abuse on the internet.
We use a unique data collected by Pew Internet™ American Life
Survey that tracks internet usage of individual households. A
component of this survey is the Teen Online Survey that was most
recently conducted between October and November 2006. It tracks
activities of teens on the internet and asks participants questions that
help to identify whether a teen was abused, bullied or approached by
strangers through the virtual medium. The survey also collects
household demographic information that allows us to track education
levels and internet use among parents of teen respondents.
This study, therefore, fills important gaps in the existing literature
by examining the following four questions: First, what kinds of
teenagers are most likely to have SNS access? Second, does SNS access
increase the likelihood of being cyber-bullied or harassed? Third,
what kind of teenage characteristics and behaviors make them most
prone to online abuse? Finally, what is the impact of parental
characteristics and parental controls on teen online abuse? The study
thus has important policy implications. It systematically identifies
predictors of risky online behaviors of teens that can help policymakers and health professionals identify the most vulnerable teens
and target interventions to prevent potential harassment and
consequences that are likely to be faced by these teenagers.
2. Methodology
2.1. Data and variables
We use data from Pew Internet™ American Life Survey’s Online
Teen Survey, conducted in October and November 2006. The survey
asked a variety of questions to both parents and their teenage children
on their online awareness and activities. This nationally representative
survey collected data from 935 teens in the age bracket of 12 to 17
belonging to the census regions of North-east, Mid-west, South and
West. In particular, the survey focused primarily on the social
networking activities of the teens on the internet and parents’
awareness of their children’s online activity. It also tracked parent’s
monitoring of their teenage children’s internet activities. Most
importantly, the survey collected information on whether the teens
have been contacted by strangers online or have been bullied in any
form, including whether they had rumors spread about them, embarrassing pictures posted online or received threatening messages.
For the purposes of this study, teen internet abuse can be of
two types: cyber-bullying and online harassment. Cyber-bullying is a
categorical variable that is 1 (0 otherwise) if the teenager has experienced bullying in the form of rumor spreading, receiving threats,
embarrassing information posted about them, and forwarding private
messages. Online harassment is defined as a categorical variable
with a value of 1 (0 otherwise) if a teenager has been either bullied or
contacted by a total stranger (not known to the teen or their friends)
online.
Incidences of online abuse may depend on a variety of factors. We
take into consideration whether a teen has an online profile on sites
such as MySpace or Facebook and whether these profiles are
protected, i.e., only visible to friends. Teens who visit SNS more
frequently are more likely to be exposed to online abuse hence we
consider the frequency of such, very high to extremely low, visits to
SNS. An important factor that may expose teens to online abuse is the
ease of access that the teen has to SNS and the frequency with which
they access the internet. Teenagers can access the internet from home,
school, workplace, libraries, friend’s houses or other places, but are
more likely to spend time at home surfing the internet. Therefore,
whether the teen has access to the internet at home is considered as a
determinant of online abuse.
One of the key determinants that may result in internet abuse
is the online behavior of teen users and the information they disclose
in their online profile. This primarily consists of their personal
information (name, address, school name, city and state, cell or home
phone number, and instant messenger id) and pictures of themselves
or their friends. We use these online behaviors to determine the
relative importance of these behavioral characteristics on the
incidences of teen abuse. Flirtatious activities and display of fake
information may encourage stranger contacts or other forms of
harassment. Hence, other determinants of online abuse include
whether teens display fake information on their profiles, whether
they use online chat rooms, and whether they occasionally use SNS or
chat rooms to ‘flirt’.
Since teenagers spend significant time surfing the internet at home,
there has been much discussion of whether parents should place
computers in a more public space in the home, install monitoring
systems to prevent their children from visiting adult sites and track
their child’s online behavior. To test if monitoring teen behavior makes
a difference, we control for whether the teen uses internet privately
(example, in bedroom) or whether parents monitor their children’s
internet use (by using monitoring or filtering software or by checking
the history of sites visited).
Besides these key variables, we examine the influence of other
demographic characteristics such as age, race, gender and household
income on the likelihood of internet abuse. Family environment, such
as parents’ marital status (married or otherwise) that can influence
teen behavior in the household is examined as an additional factor.
We also add categorical variables indicating broad geographical
regions such as north-east, west, mid-west and south to control for
geographical differences in the use of the internet.
2.2. Estimation
We estimate three different models using logistic regression
analysis. All estimations use sampling weights to generate nationally
A. Sengupta, A. Chaudhuri / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290 285
representative estimates. To examine the association between teens’
SNS memberships and incidence of online harassment, we employ
a two-stage estimation process. Not all teens have an SNS site
membership (only 53% of teens report having an SNS membership).
Also, we are interested in understanding the determinants of who are
likely to have SNS access. Hence, in the first stage (Model 1), we
examine the determinants of having access to SNS. We are also
interested in determining who will experience abuse conditional on
having SNS access. Therefore, in the second stage (Model 2), using a
truncated logit analysis, we examine the factors that increase the
likelihood of being abused conditional on having SNS access. We
examine two kinds of online abuse: cyber-bullying as well as online
harassment.
Model 1 (pooled):
Likelihood (SNS membership) = α+β1TC+β2TU+β3TB +β4PC +
β5Race+β6Inc+β7Reg
Model 2a (truncated model conditional on having SNS membership):
Likelihood (online harass)=α+β1TC+β2TU+β3TB+β4PC+β5Race+
β6Inc+β7Reg
Model 2b (truncated model conditional on having SNS membership):
Likelihood (cyber-bullied)=α+β1TC+β2TU+β3TB+β4PC+β5Race+
β6Inc+β7Reg
where TC represents teen characteristics, TU is frequency of teen
internet use, TB is teen online behavior, PC is parent characteristics, Inc
is income, and Reg is geographic region.
In addition, we also do a pooled analysis (Model 3) to determine if
having an SNS website is correlated with an increase in the likelihood
of online harassment or cyber-bullying for all teens, controlling for all
other characteristics. In Model 3, the covariates of interest are SNS
membership (SNS) and the related online behaviors of teens.
Model 3a (Pooled)
Likelihood (online harass)=α+β1TC+β2TU+β3TB+β4PC+β5Race+
β6Inc+β7Reg+β8SNS
Model 3b (Pooled)
Likelihood (cyber-bullying)=α+β1TC+β2TU+β3TB+04PC+β5Race+
β6Inc+β7Reg+β8SNS
3. Results
3.1. Data summary
Table 1 summarizes the data used for this analysis. The data is well
represented nationally in terms of census regions, teenager’s age
and gender. There is a slight over-representation of whites in the
survey. Teens in the different age brackets, 12 to 17 are adequately
represented. More than half the teens have an SNS profile and almost
a third of all surveyed are frequent internet users, accessing the
internet several times a day. Almost 80% of the teens interviewed have
married parents while 56% used computers which had a monitoring
device installed.
Fig. 1 is a graphical representation of the proportion of teenagers
that have had some kind of negative internet encounter. Of the total
population, 30% has been contacted by strangers and more than 25%
has faced some kind of cyber-bullying. Looking at those who have SNS
profiles, the proportion of teenagers contacted by strangers (45%) or
having been cyber-bullied (40%) is higher. This bivariate distribution
may suggest that SNS creates a higher risk of online abuse but
multivariate analysis is necessary to draw a true picture.
3.2. Determinants of SNS profile
Table 2 presents results for model 1 that examines the characteristics of teenagers who are likely to have SNS access. Results suggest
that female teens are 63% more likely than male teens to set up a
profile on one of the many available social networking sites. Also,
teens in higher age groups have a much higher likelihood of having an
SNS profile. The results also suggest that the likelihood of teens having
an SNS profile is strongly associated with the frequency of internet
usage. Higher frequency of internet usage, either from home, school,
workplace or libraries is associated with a higher likelihood of having
SNS profiles. Teens who access the internet once a day are 51% less
likely to have an SNS profile than teens that access the internet several
Table 1
Descriptive summary statistics.
Descriptive variables Obs. Mean Std. dev. Min Max
Female 935 0.50 0.50 0 1
Teen’s age 935 14.66 1.70 12 17
Teen’s age group
Age 12 935 0.15 0.36 0 1
Age 13 935 0.14 0.35 0 1
Age 14 935 0.17 0.37 0 1
Age 15 935 0.16 0.37 0 1
Age 16 935 0.20 0.40 0 1
Age 17 935 0.18 0.39 0 1
Race
White 935 0.88 0.32 0 1
Black 935 0.07 0.26 0 1
Others 935 0.05 0.21 0 1
Frequency of internet usage
High 935 0.34 0.48 0 1
Moderate 935 0.26 0.44 0 1
Low 935 0.17 0.37 0 1
Very low 935 0.09 0.29 0 1
Rare 935 0.14 0.35 0 1
Type of internet usage
Have profile on a social networking site 935 0.53 0.50 0 1
Chat online 935 0.17 0.37 0 1
Involved in extra-curricular activities 935 0.87 0.34 0 1
Work part-time 935 0.23 0.42 0 1
Use computer in a private area (bedroom) 935 0.23 0.42 0 1
Information disclosed online
Disclose name 935 0.48 0.50 0 1
Disclose school 935 0.71 0.45 0 1
Disclose cell phone number 935 0.29 0.46 0 1
Disclose home address 935 0.20 0.40 0 1
Disclose instant messaging ID 935 0.51 0.50 0 1
Disclose e-mail ID 935 0.44 0.50 0 1
Disclose other private information 935 0.86 0.35 0 1
Internet encounters
Rumor spread 935 0.11 0.32 0 1
Embarassing picture posted 935 0.06 0.23 0 1
Contacted by stranger 935 0.31 0.46 0 1
Received threatening or aggressive e-mail 935 0.11 0.31 0 1
Took private e-mail/IM/text message
from a forward
935 0.13 0.34 0 1
Cyber-bullied 935 0.29 0.45 0 1
Parental characteristics
Less than high school 935 0.01 0.10 0 1
High school graduate 935 0.29 0.45 0 1
College graduate or higher 935 0.70 0.46 0 1
Married 935 0.79 0.41 0 1
Monitor devices installed on computer 935 0.62 0.49 0 1
Household income
0–$40,000 935 0.21 0.41 0 1
$40,001–$99,999 935 0.47 0.50 0 1
$100,000 and higher 935 0.22 0.41 0 1
Unknown 935 0.10 0.30 0 1
Census regions
North-east 935 0.20 0.40 0 1
Mid-west 935 0.28 0.45 0 1
South 935 0.31 0.46 0 1
West 935 0.20 0.40 0 1
286 A. Sengupta, A. Chaudhuri / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290
times a day. Contrary to anecdotal evidence, teenagers who use the
internet privately at home do not have a significantly higher
likelihood of having an SNS profile. Doing part-time jobs or extracurricular activities is not significantly associated with having SNS
profiles. Further, teens living in western and southern United States
are more likely to have SNS compared to those living in the east or the
mid-west.
Teens with married parents are 37% less likely to have an SNS
membership than teens of divorced or single parents. This suggests
(and corroborates with other findings) that teens of divorced or single
parents may spend more time unsupervised or face an environment
that induces riskier behaviors such as seeking a social circle on the
internet and contact with strangers. Other parental characteristics
such as income and education are not significant determinants of
teenagers’ likelihood of having SNS access.
3.3. Determinants of online harassment
Table 3 contains results for models 2a and 3a with estimates of
correlates of online harassment. Column 1 in Table 3 presents pooled
estimation results (model 3a). Female teens are more than 250% more
likely to be harassed online than male teens. This is consistent with
media reports that suggest that female teenagers are more prone to
online bullying and unwanted stranger contact. Lower frequency of
use reduces the likelihood of being harassed. Disclosure of private
information, primarily disclosing instant messenger id, disclosing
school information and uploading picture of oneself on SNS attracts
unsolicited contacts or other forms of aggressive behavior from
strangers and others. Teenagers who use SNS as a platform to flirt are
300% more likely of being harassed online in comparison to those who
do not use SNS for flirtatious activities. Teenagers whose parents
monitor their online activity seem to have a higher likelihood of being
harassed. Though this finding may appear to be intuitively contradictory, it is entirely possible that greater harassment warrants
greater monitoring.
Teenagers who have part-time jobs are more likely to be harassed
online. It is possible that teens who have part-time jobs may possibly be
using the internet for their social networking needs and may be more
prone to facing online harassment. It may also mean that there may be
unobservable factors that make teens work part-time as well as make
them prone to online harassment. Hence, part-time work may be a
potentially endogenous variable that needs to be corrected using
instrumental variable estimation. Since this is not the main focus of the
paper, we plan to address this interesting finding in our future work.
Column 2 in Table 3 contains results of determinants of online
harassment conditional on teens’ having SNS access (model 2a).
Results are similar to the pooled case though in addition we observe
that teenagers who have extra-curricular activities and have SNS
memberships are less likely to be harassed online. This may suggest
that these teens may be spending less time on SNS, lowering their
potential for harassment. Teens of more educated parents were found
to be less likely to face online harassment. However, monitoring
teenagers’ computer use had no significant association with likelihood
of being harassed for those who were accessing SNS.
Table 2
Determinants of having an SNS profile.
Teen has an SNS profile
Female 1.6299⁎⁎⁎
(0.29)
Have a computer at home (teens) 1.0523
(0.26)
Teen’s age (omitted category: age 12)
Age 13 1.5488
(0.50)
Age 14 2.1899⁎⁎
(0.67)
Age 15 2.3366⁎⁎⁎
(0.76)
Age 16 2.2387⁎⁎⁎
(0.68)
Age 17 2.4226⁎⁎⁎
(0.77)
Frequency of internet usage (omitted category: high)
Moderate 0.5142⁎⁎⁎
(0.12)
Low 0.2991⁎⁎⁎
(0.08)
Very low 0.2216⁎⁎⁎
(0.08)
Rare 0.0882⁎⁎⁎
(0.03)
Other teen characteristics
Use internet privately 0.9312
(0.19)
Work part-time 1.3579
(0.30)
Involved in extra-curricular activities 1.0613
(0.26)
Race (omitted category: white)
Black 0.6574
(0.24)
Other 1.2482
(0.48)
Parents’ education and other characteristics
(education omitted category: college and higher)
Some school 0.696
(0.65)
High school 0.9877
(0.20)
Married 0.3764⁎⁎⁎
(0.10)
Monitor devices installed on computers 1.0801
(0.20)
Household income brackets
(omitted category: 0–$40,000)
$40,001–$99,999 1.2959
(0.34)
$100,000 and higher 1.1803
(0.36)
Unknown income bracket 0.7384
(0.26)
Census regions (omitted category: north-east)
Mid-west 1.3804
(0.34)
South 1.9216⁎⁎⁎
(0.45)
West 2.4387⁎⁎⁎
(0.64)
Observations 935
Notes: odds ratios are reported (robust standard errors in parentheses).
⁎⁎ 5% significance level.
⁎⁎⁎ 1% significance level.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Threat Contact
by Stranger
Rumor Forwards Bully
Forms of Online Harassment
Percentage (%)
As a Proportion of Total Population
As a Proportion of Population with SNS Profiles Only
Fig. 1. Different types of online harassment faced by teens.
A. Sengupta, A. Chaudhuri / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290 287
3.4. Determinants of cyber-bullying
Table 4 reports estimation results of models 2b and 3b. Column 1
in Table 4 presents odds ratios of covariates that are correlated with
cyber-bullying for the pooled sample (model 3b). Column 2 contains
results for the truncated sample conditional on having an SNS
membership (model 2b). Results indicate that having access to SNS
is not a predictor of cyber-bullying. Instead, being female, posting
pictures online, chatting online, disclosing school information and
instant messaging ID, doing part-time work, and flirting online are
strongly associated with the likelihood of being cyber-bullied.
Conditional on having SNS membership, teenagers who are engaged
in extra-curricular activities and older teens are less likely to be
bullied online. Parental characteristics are not significantly correlated
with teenagers likely to be cyber-bullied. However, using the internet
privately, away from parents’ watchful eyes, is associated with a 60%
higher likelihood of being cyber-bullied, consistent with prior studies
and reports.
3.5. Sensitivity analysis
To see if our results hold up in different specifications, we tried
several variations to the basic model. These results are not reported
but available on request. We looked at a stricter definition of online
harassment that includes cyber-bullying and unwanted stranger
contact and found similar results. Likelihood of female teenagers to
face cyber-bullying and unwanted stranger contact is much stronger.
We also introduced interaction terms to check if children of single
parents are left unsupervised more and hence more likely to be
harassed or bullied. Although the results indicate that children of
married parents who access internet at home are less likely to be
bullied or harassed, they are not statistically significant.
4. Discussion and policy implications
It is commonly believed that social networking sites serve as a hub
for sex offenders and cyber-bullies. This study, based on survey data of
teens in the age bracket of 12 to 17 years fails to establish a strong
empirical support to this widely held belief. This study rather finds
Table 3
Who is likely to be harassed on the internet?
Harassed
online
Harassed online
and has an SNS
profile
Female 2.4195⁎⁎⁎ 2.6077⁎⁎⁎
(0.49) (0.65)
Have a computer at home (teens) 1.0175 1.4626
(0.27) (0.51)
Teen’s age (omitted category: age 12)
Age 13 1.0392 0.5188
(0.37) (0.29)
Age 14 0.8844 0.4361
(0.31) (0.23)
Age 15 1.0552 0.546
(0.36) (0.29)
Age 16 1.0905 0.7694
(0.36) (0.43)
Age 17 1.1756 0.4082⁎
(0.41) (0.22)
Frequency of internet usage
(omitted category: high)
Moderate 0.8511 1.0026
(0.20) (0.30)
Low 0.6219⁎ 0.6869
(0.18) (0.26)
Very low 0.3781⁎⁎⁎ 0.3701⁎⁎
(0.13) (0.18)
Rare 0.2862⁎⁎⁎ 1.0112
(0.10) (0.58)
Race (omitted category: white)
Black 1.0099 1.173
(0.33) (0.54)
Other 1.9726⁎ 1.8365
(0.75) (1.01)
Other teen characteristics
Have an SNS profile 1.57
(0.46)
Chat online 2.2811⁎⁎⁎ 1.9941⁎⁎
(0.57) (0.63)
Involved in extra-curricular activities 0.9094 0.4779⁎⁎
(0.20) (0.16)
Work part-time 2.0105⁎⁎⁎ 2.0829⁎⁎
(0.43) (0.63)
Use internet privately 1.334 1.3705
(0.29) (0.40)
Parents’ education and other
characteristics (education omitted
category: college and higher)
Some school 0.4709 1.7519
(0.29) (1.51)
High school 0.8116 0.4716⁎⁎⁎
(0.16) (0.12)
Married 1.0137 1.0531
(0.26) (0.32)
Monitor devices installed on computers 1.5487⁎⁎ 1.2271
(0.30) (0.33)
Household income brackets
(omitted category: 0–$40,000)
$40,001–$99,999 0.9878 1.2005
(0.26) (0.39)
$100,000 and higher 0.8897 1.024
(0.28) (0.42)
Unknown income bracket 0.7212 1.2242
(0.25) (0.62)
Information disclosed on SNS profile
Name 0.947 0.7173
(0.18) (0.18)
School 1.5845⁎⁎ 2.4132⁎⁎⁎
(0.35) (0.65)
Cell phone number 1.1395 0.8317
(0.27) (0.23)
Home address 1.2641 1.211
(0.31) (0.42)
Instant messaging ID 1.8919⁎⁎⁎ 1.6577⁎
(0.39) (0.49)
E-mail ID 1.0582 1.1269
(0.21) (0.30)
Table 3 (continued)
Harassed
online
Harassed online
and has an SNS
profile
Information disclosed on SNS profile
Other private information 1.1265 1.6975
(0.32) (0.63)
Other characteristics on SNS profile
Post picture of self 2.4564⁎⁎⁎ 3.3431⁎⁎⁎
(0.66) (1.01)
Profile is password protected 0.8988 0.9244
(0.21) (0.22)
Use a false ID 0.8197 0.8747
(0.18) (0.22)
Use SNS to flirt with others 3.4631⁎⁎⁎ 4.0652⁎⁎⁎
(1.24) (1.49)
Frequent with social interactions 0.5812⁎⁎ 0.5421⁎⁎
(0.15) (0.15)
Census regions (omitted category: north-east)
Mid-west 1.1534 1.4453
(0.29) (0.52)
South 0.9888 0.9626
(0.25) (0.33)
West 1.577 1.5649
(0.45) (0.64)
Observations 935 493
Notes: odds ratios are reported (robust standard errors in parentheses).
⁎ 10% significance level.
⁎⁎ 5% significance level.
⁎⁎⁎ 1% significance level.
288 A. Sengupta, A. Chaudhuri / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290
support for the view that online attitudes and behaviors of teens,
including the amount of information they disclose in the public
domain, the way they use the internet (privately or publicly) and the
manner in which they interact with people online play a key role in
determining whether they eventually become victims to online
harassment and cyber-bullying. Uploading pictures of themselves
accessible to all users, disclosing information about the school they
attend or home phone number and instant messenger id, flirting with
unknown people, visiting online chat rooms and privately accessing
the internet are all key to unsolicited stranger contacts or being
bullied online. Further, female teenagers are particularly vulnerable to
online harassment. Simply having a profile on SNS does not imply a
higher likelihood of facing online harassment, unlike what has been
repeatedly reported earlier.
The results suggest that teens that use their computers privately
and away from their parent’s watchful eyes are more likely to be
bullied. Installing a monitoring system in the computers does not
seem to have any significant association with the likelihood of being
harassed or bullied for those who access SNS. These results emphasize
the importance of parents’ interaction with their teenage children.
Installing monitoring software or devices may not be as crucial as is
discussing with their children the potential dangers associated with
using the internet.
This study has important policy implications related to teen access
to the internet and SNS. Instead of restricting access to SNS, teen abuse
on the internet can be prevented through creating greater awareness
and targeting the root of the problem. Results suggest that outreach
programs, to make teens aware of the harmful consequences of risky
online behavior, would be a better way to reduce online harassment
than limiting teen access to SNS and online chat rooms. Moreover,
parental guidance and parental controls can help teenagers learn the
appropriate use of the internet and protect themselves from
unwarranted and unpalatable contact from strangers. Educated
guidance can minimize disclosure of critical information and ensure
appropriate social interaction in the public domain and thus avoid any
adverse consequences.
References
Becker, G. S., & Murphy, K. M. (1988). A theory of rational addiction. Journal of Political
Economy, 96, 675−700.
Table 4
Who is likely to be bullied on the internet?
Bullied
online
Bullied online and
has an SNS profile
Female 1.9582⁎⁎⁎ 1.9363⁎⁎⁎
(0.41) (0.48)
Have a computer at home (teens) 0.8719 1.1333
(0.23) (0.41)
Teen’s age (omitted category: age 12)
Age 13 1.315 0.604
(0.48) (0.34)
Age 14 1.0939 0.4346⁎
(0.38) (0.21)
Age 15 1.229 0.5297
(0.43) (0.26)
Age 16 0.7266 0.3027⁎⁎
(0.25) (0.15)
Age 17 0.7766 0.2464⁎⁎⁎
(0.29) (0.12)
Frequency of internet usage
(omitted category: high)
Moderate 0.5702⁎⁎ 0.5695⁎
(0.14) (0.16)
Low 0.6642 0.7278
(0.20) (0.30)
Very low 0.4862⁎⁎ 0.5645
(0.17) (0.30)
Rare 0.2454⁎⁎⁎ 0.9598
(0.10) (0.56)
Race (omitted category: white)
Black 1.2212 1.8323
(0.43) (0.84)
Other 1.7592 1.4376
(0.66) (0.74)
Other teen characteristics
Have an SNS profile 1.1245
(0.34)
Chat online 1.8194⁎⁎ 1.8272⁎⁎
(0.43) (0.52)
Involved in extra-curricular activities 0.8873 0.4243⁎⁎
(0.22) (0.15)
Work part-time 1.7757⁎⁎ 1.9955⁎⁎
(0.40) (0.57)
Use internet privately 1.1286 1.5537⁎
(0.25) (0.42)
Parents’ education and other characteristics
(education omitted category: college and higher)
Some school 1.2367 4.0512
(0.97) (4.68)
High school 1.3441 0.8631
(0.27) (0.21)
Married 1.026 1.1541
(0.29) (0.36)
Monitor devices installed on computers 1.2607 1.1724
(0.26) (0.30)
Household income brackets
(omitted category: 0–$40,000)
$40,001–$99,999 1.0599 1.0113
(0.29) (0.34)
$100,000 and higher 1.2176 1.3693
(0.39) (0.56)
Unknown income bracket 1.0213 1.0512
(0.36) (0.49)
Information disclosed on SNS profile
Name 1.0141 1.0315
(0.20) (0.26)
School 1.6520⁎⁎ 2.0809⁎⁎⁎
(0.39) (0.58)
Cell phone number 1.267 1.0697
(0.29) (0.29)
Home address 1.0119 0.9544
(0.27) (0.33)
Instant messaging ID 1.6420⁎⁎ 1.3926
(0.36) (0.39)
E-mail ID 1.0059 0.8465
(0.21) (0.23)
Other private information 1.0971 1.5369
(0.35) (0.58)
Table 4 (continued)
Bullied
online
Bullied online and
has an SNS profile
Other characteristics on SNS profile
Post picture of self 1.255 1.9332⁎⁎
(0.34) (0.63)
Profile is password protected 1.2451 1.2043
(0.28) (0.29)
Use a false ID 1.1435 1.3738
(0.26) (0.34)
Use SNS to flirt with others 2.3198⁎⁎ 2.3754⁎⁎⁎
(0.78) (0.77)
Frequent with social interactions 0.7712 0.7531
(0.20) (0.21)
Census regions (omitted category: north-east)
Mid-west 1.1247 0.9171
(0.29) (0.32)
South 1.1912 0.9794
(0.30) (0.33)
West 1.2489 0.9379
(0.37) (0.36)
Observations 935 493
Notes: odds ratios are reported (robust standard errors in parentheses).
⁎ 10% significance level.
⁎⁎ 5% significance level.
⁎⁎⁎ 1% significance level.
A. Sengupta, A. Chaudhuri / Children and Youth Services Review 33 (2011) 284–290 289
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Substance Abuse Prevention In The United States argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help onlineIn a 1,000-1,250-word assignment, examine at least two substance abuse prevention programs in the United States.  
Refer to the list of useful websites at the end of Chapter 16 to help you successfully complete your paper. Make sure you choose prevention programs and not intervention programs.  Your assignment must include the following for each program: 
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2.The goals of each program (why)
 3.How each program is funded (how) 
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 6.An analysis of how government involvement may enhance or hinder each program’s effectiveness. 
7.Describe at least one relapse prevention model that would be helpful to support and mentor a substance use client.   
8.Include at least four scholarly resources in addition to the textbook in your paper. 
 
Out of the four, a minimum of one scholarly resource should be referenced for each prevention program.  Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.  
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Personal Leadership Plan Introduction narrative essay help: narrative essay helpPERSONAL LEADERSHIP PLAN 2  Personal Leadership Plan Introduction  
 The role of a global leader involves a particular complexity that is different from domestic and  regional  leaders.  An  effective  global  leader  must  be  able  to  manage  various  challenges. According  to  Mendenhall  et  al.  (2017),  global  leadership  research  suggests  that  a  successful domestic  leadership  change  to a  global  leader  requires  high leadership  skills  and  knowledge. Domestic leadership techniques may not apply in a global setting since cultural groups’ needs differ across the globe. Thus, the global leadership environment consists of multiple complexities. Global leaders are the main actors of cross-border expansion. Cross-border business expansion is one of the global needs that require the sharing of experiences, knowledge, and best practices.  Prewitt et al. (2026) suggest that neither total localization nor centralized HQ can serve these purposes. Therefore, the role of a global leader includes integration, which entails multi-directional sharing, identifying important commonalities, and leveraging diversity. Based on the recommendation derived from the literature on becoming a global leader, the leaders should create more diversity for global leaders, develop necessary competencies, establish belongingness and connectedness, and educate about globalization. In this regard, this paper describes my vision and expectation, objectives, and knowledge resources that I would use as a global leader. Vision and Expectations  
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Online Restorative Justice Response essay help websitesWrite 200–250 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. This will be the foundation for future discussions by your classmates. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas.
 
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Restorative justice views crime as more than breaking the law. Crime also causes harm to people, relationships, and the community. The foundational principles of restorative justice are as follows (Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, 2020):
 
The foundational principles of restorative justice are as follows (Centre for Justice and Reconciliation, 2020):
 
Crime causes harm, and justice should focus on repairing that harm.
 
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The responsibility of the government is to maintain order, and that of the community is to build peace.
Some common restorative justice programs include the following:
Victim–offender mediation programs

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Strategic market position that attracts several investors college essay help free2  
 Assignment 3  
 Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Aramco) is a state-owned energy company that deals in petroleum and natural gas and has its headquarters in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The company was founded in 1933 after a mutual agreement between the standard oil company of California and Saudi Arabia and has been a leading oil producer for the last three decades. It operates in several countries globally, including China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, among other counties, and has over 270 billion barrels in oil reserves (Ahmed et al., 2018). Aramco has employed over sixty-five thousand individuals to contribute towards its goal and has various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, with several political, economic, legal, and cultural challenges affecting its operations in multiple countries. SWOT Analysis Strengths   Aramco’s strengths facilitate its success and lie in various factors. The company is a  
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