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States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa art history essay help: art history essay help

States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa

This article articulates the traditional preservation story of the lion prince Sundiata. The oral tradition means of communication involved histories, stories, epics, and singers transmitted information. Later, scholars began attaining oral traditions about the middle of the 20th century. The narration of Sundiata was available only in the recited stories. This article analyses the Effects of Early migration to the population and Agriculture. In this case, some Africans preferred to take the small-scale movement. Most migration appeared to be complete due to the African unity to build the society and the generation of other communities. The migration of the populations affected the spread of agriculture in a considerable effect. In this case, the cultivators and society herders displaced many hunters and gatherers. Farming unhabituated the trans-Saharan and absorbed the community of the originality. Due to the development of agriculture and farming in Trans Saharan Africa, a fresh migratory surge was established. Therefore, due to this aspect, political governance was necessary for the community. The increase in population required management. Thus, the Bantus preferred the chief governance in the villages. A group of villages formed a district that was governed by a larger government apart from the chief. The communities were led by the leaders who negotiated on the matters associated with two or more villages.

Moreover, this article explores the Islamic kingdoms and the Empires organized by the Bantus in the African tradition. The Islamic faith was introduced by merchants from southwest Asia and north Africa. Later, the political, social, and economic aspects as profoundly influenced by Islam. Trans-Saharan Trade was conducted in the desert, which rarely served s a barrier of communication to the traders. The nomads that migrated around the desert acted as translators. The trans-Saharan trade was successful due to the camels, translates, and the traders from both sides of the barter trade. On the other hand, the article explodes, the effectiveness of the Indian ocean Trade and Islamic States in the East Africa. The means of Trade, the resources used, and the goods traded in this Trade.

Apart from the above consideration, the article displays the African Society and cultural development. This aspect involved the social classes, the African Religion, and the arrival of Christianity and Islam. The discussion narrates the introduction of Christianity and Islam in sub-Saharan Africa. More so, the Islamic culture is discussed and how it came into existence in Africa.

Western Europe during the High Middle Ages

Western Europe during the High Middle Ages, is an article that outlines various aspects of the European concepts. One of the involved elements is the establishment of Regional states. This aspect conducted an overview o the Holy Roman Empire that faded in the 9th century, dukes, and other authorities that were locally located that took the role of providing personal regions. The gradual extension of the influence beyond their jurisdiction as built in the bigger states. Also, the regional Monarchies in England and France started the compelling power of empire where the regional states emerged throughout the European medieval. The content outlines the prince establishment of the regional monarchies in France and England. Also, the author implies the concept of the Regional States in Iberia and Italy. This discussion concentrates on the emersion of regional states in the other hands of Europe. However, the consideration is not on a large scale but specific small-scale regions.

Apart from the above aspects, the article determines the economic c development and the social development of Western Europe. The development of agriculture is one aspect that promoted to industrialization in the regions. Also, the revival of Trade and Towns in Trade was entailed. The author majors on the critical element of social change due the growth and development. Among the social change are the governance, the rules, and the financial stability of the regions over a given time. Also, the article focuses on the Christianity of Europe during the High Middle Ages. It included the universities, the schools, and the poplar Religion known as Theology popular. Apart from that, The Medieval Expansion of Europe was mitigated. The Baltic colonization and Atlantic, the crusades, and the Reconquest of Spain and Sicily.

AN AGE OF CROSSCULTURAL INTERACTION, 1000 TO 1500 C.E.

The cross-cultural interaction in the 1000 to 1500 CE is an article that articulates the essence of the classical and the post-classical times, tremendous, India, Southern West, and the Mediterranean dominant and the eastern hemisphere. This essay concentrates on the lands built extensively in the networks of Trade and the communication that is seen in the territory of the east side of Europe. The settling of the nomadic people from 1000 to 1500 C.E is discussed. The Turkish and Mongol people were the community that settled in the empires of China to western Europe. This article outlines how the nomadic people toppled various states that were classical, mainly the song Chinese composition of the song in southwest Asia. The report depicts that the political foundation framed sharply increased communication among different people of different cultural religions and societies.

Besides, the article discusses the nomadic empires and the integration of Eurasian Integration. The imperial expansion and the migration of the Turkish involve various aspects such as the nomadic economy of the society. The article also outlines the Turkish empire in India, Anatolia, and Persia. Moreover, the material sublimes the Mongol empires into particular aspects. The Mongol empires after Chinggis Kham, The Mongols and Eurasian Integration, Chinggis, and the construction for the Mongol Empire. Lastly, the essay describes the results after the Mongols. The Tamerlane the whirlwind, The Foundation of the Ottoman Empire.

Worlds Apart: The Americas and Oceania

The African peoples, Asian, and European regularly interacted before the modern times; this article entails the interaction between the people and from the western and the eastern hemisphere. The communication was fleeting and random rather than regularity and the sustainability of the period from 1000 to 1500 C.E. The organization of the empire of the cultural and religious traditions, and they created elaborate networks for trading networks in many regions. The artic outline the states and the realms in Northern America and Mesoamerica. The organization and the existence of the empires in the country. Moreover, there is an outline of the wealth in the states of Mesopotamia, the organization of wealth. Also, the Toltecs and the Mexica resulted in a unified rule. The migration onto the area in the 18th century. They eluded from northwestern Mexico, and they settled mainly in Tula. Apart from the above aspects, Mexico society survives in more society where great deal offer direct testimony about the way of life in Mexico. Also, the organization in Mexico was hierarchical and rigid with the honors and the public going, mostly into the military elite. This article also articulated the noblemen’s birth, who received the most careful instruction and intense training.

Moreover, the Mexican religion peoples and the societies of the North is also an aspect to be discussed. Mexican religion has been a prevalent adaptation. They adopted the culture and the religious traditions, some dating from the time of Olmecs. The society and the people of the North are discussed in context, and they developed a wide variety of political, social, and cultural traditions. Many people from North American depended on hunting, fishing, and collecting edible plants. Also, the article articulates the empires and the states of South America and the script and no tradition of writing before the arrival of the Spanish. As a result, the experiences built a strong and powerful state in a vast region.

Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions

One of the greatest world travelers of all time was the Moroccan legal scholar Ibn Battuta. This essay, however, outlines the long-distance trade travel in various dimensions. At first, the context describes the patterns of Long-Distance Trade that occurred as a result of the Trade. The main reason for the long-distance Trade was that nomad people ranged widely in the migration course and campaigns of conquest. The merchants engaged in Long Distance trade relied on two major networks of trade routes. The goods of the high value relative to their weight. The silk textiles and gracious stones often traveled over the land on the roads of silk from the time of classical. More massive commodities, sand, coral, and building materials. Besides, political and Diplomatic travel is organized in the article and the illustration form the fourteenth-century, where the French manuscript depicts Marco Polo picking pepper with local workers in southern India. The report illustrates the missionary campaigns as well on the Islamic value that are spread not only by the efforts of a legal scholar but through the missionary activities—lastly, the long-distance travel and the cross-cultural exchange.

Work Cited

Migdal, Joel S. Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Pfister, Christian, et al. “Winter air temperature variations in western Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages (AD 750–1300).” The Holocene 8.5 (1998): 535-552.

Bentley, Jerry H. “Cross-cultural interaction and periodization in world history.” The American Historical Review 101.3 (1996): 749-770.

Bentley, Jerry, Herbert Ziegler, and Heather Streets-Salter. Traditions & Encounters: A Brief Global History. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013.

Presbitero, Alfred. “Cultural intelligence (CQ) in virtual, cross-cultural interactions: Generalizability of measure and links to personality dimensions and task performance.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 50 (2016): 29-38.

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effects of behaviors on an individual’s mental health and development do my history assignment

Description            Describe the different effects of behaviors on an individual’s mental health and development, explain various factors that may lead to mental disorders.

Instructions:

This test comprises of 5 short answer questions.

All questions should be answered in pen.

                       

Materials allowed: Ruler, pens, pencils, eraser, highlighters (No notes)

 

 

 

Question 1 (15 marks)

For the first six weeks of his life, John had to be kept in the hospital since he had been born prematurely. He had a happy childhood since he was greatly cared for by his family. When he joined high school, his stress intensity increased, because he was under a lot pressure to perform high grades and fit in with the cool kids. His new associates encouraged him to smoke marijuana, which would help him relax. After a few months, John started hearing voices. He avoided using his mobile phone since he believed the FBI was recording his thoughts and trailing his movements. He lost interest in his studies, became introverted, and spoke when it was essential without showing any emotions. His parents were distraught and took him to a psychiatrist, who diagnosed him with schizophrenia.

Which type of schizophrenia is John suffering from? (1 mark)

_______________________________________________________________________________

State four positive symptoms of schizophrenia exhibited by John.(4 marks)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Describe two negative symptoms of schizophrenia exhibited by John.(4 marks)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Using the two-hit hypothesis, explain the development of John’s schizophrenia.

(5 marks)

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

 

To which category of mental disorders is schizophrenia placed? (1 Mark)

_______________________________________________________________________

 

Question 2 (5 marks)

Explain two cultural aspects that can lead to stress to a new immigrant in a foreign country.(2 marks)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What coping mechanisms would you recommend to the immigrant to help relieve stress.(3 marks)

____________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Question 3 (6 marks)

David was very close to his mother, when she died he was extremely distressed. It has been four months since the loss yet David has not gone back to work and he has cut off all his friends. David has also stopped going to church where he offers piano lessons to children.

Is David suffering from a mental disorder? Justify your answer.(4 marks)

_____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Discuss two ways in which stigma interfere with an individual’s recovery from a mental illness.(2 marks)

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Question 4 (6 marks)

The DSM model explains mental disorders in five categories. In the table, identify an example of an indicator associated with each category.

 

 

AXIS NUMBER
NAME
EXAMPLE

i

Schizophrenia

ii
Personality Disorders

iii
Severe Medical Conditions

iv

Latest relationship breakup

v

Fifty-Five

 

Question 5 (3 marks)

According to DSM-IV-TR on which axis would you categorize Phobic disorder?( 1 mark)

_______________________________________________________________________________

Why would you classify this disorder in the axis given above? (2 marks)

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

 

End of assessment

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Creating an eCommerce Business history assignment example: history assignment example

Creating an eCommerce Business- Feasibility Analysis

Introduction

QuikTrip is a series of convenient stores that were first started in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the year 1958 by two ex-military men. The company first started as a grocery store before devolving into a convenient store that now has over 700 stores across several US states. Most of the founding staff had served in the military. The convenience store expanded to a small town but later closed down operations in small markets due to the limited revenues. The founders opted for more significant metropolitan markets with populations of over a million. QuikTrip’s exponential growth is, in part, attributed to their culture of investing in their employees, making it one of the best companies to work for as according to Forbes magazine (Gorham,1999). QuikTrip has also adopted measures to improve customer experience, such as ensuring they provide friendly fast services in a thoroughly clean family environment. QuikTrip employees are also neat, presentable, and well trained for their jobs. QuikTrip has also developed innovative ways of keeping their customer secure from financial fraudsters, thus maintaining a very loyal customer base. The company targets to open more stores while also maintaining customer convenience.

Question One:  Evaluate QuikTrip operations strategy and explain how the organization seeks to gain a competitive advantage in terms of sustainability.

QuikTrip has, for a long time, been listed on Forbes as one of the best companies to work for. Part as to why it is a dream workplace too many people is because of their superior operations strategy. QuikTrip’s operations strategy is centered on investing in their employees (Ton, 2012). To begin with, QuikTrip puts a lot of resources in the hiring and training process of its workers. The company, to ensure that it ends up with high performing workers, has invested in studies that help in identifying indicators of high reforming workers, like, level of education, previous experience, and service in the military. Employees of the organization are well rewarded, promotion opportunities from within, receive health insurance, receive paid vacations, among other benefits. The company has invested in developing its employees because it also expects them to be leaders of the organization. As a result of investing in their employees, customers often receive a consistently high-quality experience of friendly fast services and a thoroughly clean family shopping environment. To maintain superior work and superior customer service ethic, the company has adopted a culture that operates around standardized policies about sales, monitoring, and evaluating employees’ performance, maintaining discipline among workers, among other strategies.

One of QuikTrip’s managers is reported saying that the company is excellent at many things. Still, there are two things the company is even better at that is selecting people and locations. The company is seeking to grow their competitive advantage by continuing to open at least ten stores in a year and importing their culture to the new stores by ensuring that 50% of the staff in the new stores are from the companies store in other areas. By so doing, QuikTrip basis able to maintain its culture of offering friendly fast services through its clean and presentable employees in a thoroughly clean family environment. Consequently, the company can create a loyal customer base because their stores have the same layout and are also consistent in the services delivered and the nature of their environment. As a result, the loyal customer base due to the superior operations strategy, QuikTrip, can have an edge over its competitors.

 

Question Two:  Analyze how operation management activities affect the customer experience. Select two (2) operation management challenges and provide the solutions for confronting them.

Operations management involves making plans, schedules, and controlling activities that have an impact on the end services. Operations managers are, therefore, mandated with formulating strategies, programs, and mitigating measures to help improve customer experience, among other things. The layout of a facility is one of the challenges that might affect a client’s experience. QuikTrip has, however, developed a similar design for all their stores to assist customers in finding products most easily and quickly possible. The company has also developed a system known as “Three to one standard” that ensures that there should not be more than three clients being served by one employee in a cash register. Employees without responsibilities are supposed to help in cash registers with more than three customers. This policy helps in ensuring that customers are served within the shortest time possible. To assist in maintaining a consistent experience for customers, QuikTrip, for instance, developed the Daily Activity Worksheet and the Mystery Shopper Visits. The Daily Activity Worksheet helped in ensuring that work got done in all shifts.  The worksheet indicates the available work that needs to be done, and employees can inversely note once they have done the available jobs. Data from the sheet helped in scheduling staff either on the register, tasks, and upkeep duties in a store. The other strategy was Mystery Shopper Visits. The mystery shopper strategy is used to evaluate customer service standards and consequently helps in the improvement of customer experience (Ton, 2012).

Operation Managing is susceptible to several challenges in QuikTrip; for example, has their QuikTrip kitchens operate below the capacity they were built for. Despite being built to serve a more significant volume, The QuikTrip Kitchens have not yet met the amount of production they were built for and, as a result, make a lot of losses.

Such a loss can be mitigated through developing food delivery services to extend the customer base for the company’s fresh food wing. Many people are opting for online deliveries since they are quite convenient and is time savings. Adopting such a measure would probably help to bridge the gaps in the expected production volumes and thus reduce losses for the company.

Another operational challenge being faced by the company is that of keeping up with the pace, especially for new employees and finishing all wok allocated for experienced employees. This, as a result, made many employees feel overburdened, and new employees who could not keep up found themselves exiting.

There is a need for managers who draw the Daily Activity Worksheet to be a little considerate in their allocations and make room for flexibility in the work schedules to avert this challenge. Overburdened employees are likely to be affected in their service delivery.

 

Question Three:  Examine the QuikTrip value chain and evaluate its effectiveness in operations in terms of quality, value, creation, and customer satisfaction.

The value chain plays a crucial role in every business, and this is because the value chain helps determines the quality of a product or service delivered to a customer and also helps in shaping a company’s set up for success. QuikTrip, for instance, had to close stores that were not in a position to pump gasoline when it entered into the business in 1971. It took more than twenty years for the company to build a reputation for selling high-quality gasoline at low prices. To improve the quality of their gas, the company had to invest millions of dollars into the gas business. Also, in the same period, QuikTrip developed an aggressive advertisement campaign. The campaign involved issuing free gas coupons, giving customers free floor mats, and fixing any problems caused by gasoline from QuikTrip. Through a lot of hard work, QuikTrip has been in a position to get improved value chain advantage, bending, quality, and prices and, as a result, become a leading gasoline seller. QuikTrip is famous for its quality and low priced gasoline, which is valued by Audi and BMW.

 

Question Four:  Determine the different types of performance measurements that can be used to measure QuikTrip service-delivery system design. Select at least two (2) models that can be applied and provide justifications for the selection. 

Several performance frameworks can be used to measure a company’s service delivery. Some of these frameworks include the Value chain framework, The Service profit chain, The Du Pont model, and the Balanced scorecard method. The Value Chain and Balanced scorecard models are quite famous and effective and can be used to measure the service delivery system. The service delivery system entails business layout, facility location, job design, service process organizational structure, and technology. QuikTrip can adopt the Value chain framework in its service delivery system design because it helps in connecting with customers, aids in ensuring customers are provided with high-quality products. Additionally, it breaks down every process in the business and helps in indicating potential opportunities for innovation. If adopted, it can help transform business through increasing connections and ensuring quality while also giving a company a competitive edge over their competitors.

The Balanced Scorecard approach is also another practical approach that can be used to measure service delivery systems. The method operates by analyzing the internal business processes to look out for any gaps, challenges, and even delays (Kaplan & Norton, 2017). It also evaluates the feedbacks of customer indoor to gauge the level of customer satisfaction. It also reflects on the growth perspective and financial information of a business. Economic data is vital in understanding the financial performance of a business. The Balanced Scorecard approach is appropriate for QuikTrip because it covers a wide area and thus would examine the broad performance of the system. During reviewing the service-delivery systems, factors like service safety, the quality of services and products, delivery time, the environment of service are all considered.

 

Question Five:  Examine the different types of technologies applied to QuikTrip service operations and evaluate how the technologies strengthen the value chain.

The 21st century is characterized primarily by the significant technological milestones that have taken place. Some of the technological developments have been of help to humankind, while some people have developed technologies to steal from unsuspecting persons. Criminals have, for instance, developed skimmer devices that they install on gasoline pumps and illegally got details of credit and debit cards of innocent persons. To avert this problem, QuikTrip has developed Pump Shield a silent alarm security that notifies the headquarter in case a person tries to install a skimmer device on their pumps. Such innovation helps in keeping QuikTrip’s customers safe; thus, attracting customers who could face the challenge.

Another innovation by QuikTrip is the employee’s automated performance; this system helps in monitoring the status of an employee’s work. Due to the development, employees are more responsible and know that they are answerable for what they do. QuikTrip also developed automated digital assistance to help in the verification of inventory records in their stores. The system is essential since it provides for quick inventory checking and also helps in determining the availability of stock for customers.

Technology has revolutionized many sectors. In businesses, it has played a significant role in strengthening the value chain. The automated digital assistants, for instance, helps in keeping track of the status of the deliveries. Managers are, therefore, in a position to reach out for restocking from the distributors efficiently and promptly. And, as a result, ensure that customers’ needs are regularly taken care of. Technology also helps in creating a sense of security for the customer while getting products like gasoline because of innovations like Pump Shield.

 

Conclusion.

QuikTrip has employed many strategies to remain competitive. They have invested in their employees who are in a position to ensure quality delivery of services. However, customer experience and business operations may be affected by issues like poor quality delivery due to overburdened staff and even losses. Challenges faced by businesses liken QuikTrip, and their customers can be solved thanks to technological innovations like Pump Shield

Sources

Gorham, J. (1999). QuikTrip, quick profits: The convenience-store chain is the envy of an industry. FORBES, 163, 66-69.

Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2017). The balanced scorecard—measures that drive performance. Havard Bus Rev.

Ton, Z. (2012). Some companies are investing in their workers and reaping healthy profits. Harvard Business Review, 124-131.

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Suburban Homes Company art history essay help

                                               Suburban Homes Company

Organizational structures are frameworks that describe how an organization is put together or, more specifically, how members are admitted, how leaders are chosen, and the decision-making procedure. Organizations develop a structure to prove guidelines to the members and to bid the members together by giving identity and meaning when they join the group (Mathur & Nair, 2016). An organizational structure is the best match for the type of organization that is created, the kind of members who are in it, and what the organization does. Additionally, there are various types of organizational structures that exist, such as functional organizations, projectized organizations, and matrix organizations. Organizations select a structure according to nature and the roles played by the organization. For instance, construction companies such as Suburban Homes that acquire land to develop homes require a carefully planned structure that ensures the correct expert resources are available when required. Therefore, the Suburban Homes that require the project’s teams to decide on the technical parts of their work while making sure that the work is done within the project’s time and cost constraints a matrix organization structure would be more suitable.

The matrix organization is a combination of both the functional and projectized structures that is lead by both the head of the project and functional manager who share authority (Lukinaitė & Sondaitė, 2017). The main aim of obtaining a matrix structure is to obtain a high level of coordination that is not possible with the conventional structures. The functional structure in the matrix organization plays the role of retaining oversight authority for the general operation of other practical units. The functional sections help to create the upright chain of command in the organization. The project team creates the parallel chain of command, and the functional streak of authority interconnects the horizontal or product lines to form a matrix. Hence, this type of organization is suitable for the Suburban Homes Company since it gives focus to specific projects where the project manager is granted the power to oversee the completion of the project. For instance, when the company is building various homes at different locations, the matrix structure will help to focus attention on the specific projects. Additionally, the matrix structure helps to bring together diverse expert skills that are important in the completion of a complex project such as constructing a home. The matrix organization structure is flexible in nature, and it is applicable to all organizational projects extending from the small to large projects. In a company that deals with construction and the market conditions and technology keep changing, a matrix structure is able to respond to the changes efficiently. Furthermore, the people engaged in the project are motivated and utilize their skills and competences to make maximum contributions to execute the project. There is improved coordination and communication through the straight contact between the scheme manager and functional groups in a matrix organization (Sytch, Wohlgezogen & Zajac, 2018). However, matrix organization contravenes the rule of unity of command since the employees from the functional departments have two bosses. Nevertheless, companies such as the Suburban Homes need to consider a well laid out matrix structure as it reduces duplication of physical resources allocated for projects in different locations.

Therefore, since Suburban Homes is considering a define, measure, analyze, improve, and control model (DMAIC model) with a traditional life project life-cycle approach adopting the matrix structure would ease the process of project management. Using the matrix structure will ensure the development of personnel through frameworks for training to develop efficient and able managers. Under the traditional structure, the managers are subject to limited functional specialization, which is in line with the Suburban Homes organization culture. Hence, the company needs to consider the matrix structure to address the issues of training, mentoring, and collaborative learning to provide the best quality homes to the clients. The members of the company will be exposed to new and complex problems, which will increase their experiences, and the transfer of skills and knowledge will occur from one project to another 

References

Lukinaitė, E., & Sondaitė, J. (2017). Mindset of employees working in a matrix organizational structure. Business: Theory and Practice18, 144-151.

Mathur, P., & Nair, M. (2016). Organization structure a key to driver to competitive advantage. International Journal of Management and Commerce Innovations3(2), 348-356.

Sytch, M., Wohlgezogen, F., & Zajac, E. J. (2018). Collaborative by design? How matrix organizations see/do alliances. Organization Science29(6), 1130-1148.

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