In the book “The River Between” we find traditional values of the tribe challenged by tribal members who had converted to Christianity. The novel focuses on the struggle between two conflicting interests: First there was the interest to convert Africans to Christianity, and the second was the tribe trying to keep their traditional values in the midst of Christianity. The most contrasting characters in the story were Waiyaki and Joshua.
Waiyaki was a strong influence on the people of the land, and his father, Chege, was a man who had powerful visions of his son’s future: “Salvation shall come from the hills … Arise. Heed the prophecy” (Pg. 20). Waiyaki’s father put the burden of this prophecy on his son’s shoulders. The realization of his role in this prophecy happened to Waiyaki in the end of the novel: ” … the journey with his father, the ancient prophecy and his bewilderment at its meaning” (Pg. 138). “Now he knew what he would preach if he ever got another chance: Education for unity. Unity for political freedom” (Pg. 143). Chege told Waiyaki to learn from the white people, but not to become involved in their vices: “Learn all the wisdom and all the secrets of the white man. But do not follow his vices” (Pg. 20). Waiyaki began to learn that knowledge and learning was important in order for his people to become victorious over the invasion of the white man. Waiyaki also understood that the traditions of the tribe is what kept their people together, it was their roots: “Circumcision was an important ritual to the tribe. It kept people together, bound the tribe … End the custom and the spiritual basis of the tribes cohesion and integration would be no more” (Pg. 68). And even tho…
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…ormed, so the Western revolutions in both religion and government were gladly accepted by the Western cultures. But the Western invaders never realized how old these civilizations were that they were intruding upon, and they never realized that African, Chinese, or American Indian’s cultures were thousands of years old.
Western cultures have impacted many countries, such as India, for when the ancient invaders came to the land, such as the Aryans, eastern Indians accepted some of their beliefs, and they were even integrated into Indian society. But when modern Western cultures came into contact with India, particularly the British, they eventually took over the government and made the Indians second rate citizens. And until the 20th century India was under their control. So Western cultures have definitely had an influencing impact on other cultures.
Essay on Lust and Love in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 and Campion’s There is a Garden
Lust and Love in Shakespeare’s Sonnet 130 and Campion’s There is a Garden in Her Face
When a comparison is made between There is a Garden in Her Face by Thomas Campion and Sonnet 130 by William Shakespeare, the difference between lustful adoration and true love becomes evident. Both poems involve descriptions of a beloved lady seen through the eyes of the speaker, but the speaker in Campion’s poem discusses the woman’s beautiful perfections, while the speaker in Shakespeare’s poem shows that it is the woman’s faults which make her beautiful.
In There is a Garden in Her Face, the subject of the speaker’s affection is idolized beyond reality and is placed so high upon a pedestal that she is virtually unattainable. Campion uses metaphors and similes to compare the lady to the splendors of nature. Roses and cherries are repeatedly used to describe various parts of the lady, like her rosy cheeks and luscious lips. Her teeth are said to be made “[o]f orient pearl a double row” (line 8). The white of the pearl, the lilies and the snow build the image of a woman of purity and virtue. This notion of the lady as a divine creature is further emphasized by the many references to heaven. Her face is seen as “[a] heavenly paradise”(3), her eyes are “like angels”(13), and her lips are called “sacred cherries”(17). They are a forbidden fruit, similar to those of the garden of Eden, that no one may touch or even look at “[t]ill ‘Cherry ripe!’ themselves do cry” (5). The lady is viewed to be unapproachable unless she gives her permission to be approached. She seems cold and unfeeling when her brows are described as “bended bows” (14) ready to kill with “piercing frowns”(15), so it is likely that she does not give her permission easi…
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…uty which is impossible for any woman or man to match. Campion’s poem reflects this impossible ideal that society inflicts on us. This woman in There is a Garden in Her Face could never really live up to the image that the speaker has created of her. The image is false, and so is his love because he is only focusing on her outward appearance. The speaker in Shakespeare’s sonnet clearly is not in love with his mistress’ looks. Everything about her is contrary to society’s standards, but he understands the absurdity of these standards and rejects them. There is more to his mistress than meets the eye, and that is why he truly loves her.
Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York: Norton, 1993.
Campion, Thomas. “There is a Garden in Her Face.” Abrams 1044.
Shakespeare, William. “Sonnet 130.” Abrams 820.