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Street And Decent Families And Code Switching History Homework

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Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city university history essay help: university history essay help

Street and Decent Families and Code Switching

The Code of the Street by Elijah Anderson describes the peculiarities of life in the United States inner-city, depicting the mainstreams and the associated codes of these neighborhoods. Anderson attempts to define two primary camps: street and decent people, and illustrates the struggles faced by these camps on various layers. Anderson postulates that the primary cause of the emergence of the street code associated with inner-cities is poverty. Having individuals living in such challenging conditions, there is no hope for a better future. There are only obstacles and issues in the present; many individuals decide and choose which camp they should pertain to. Anderson offers a description of counterculture and a subculture exercised in the inner-cities neighborhoods in the United States. The code of streets mainly exemplifies the deviance, socialization, and norms of the countercultures and subcultures. 

Anderson defines families that attempt to succeed in the United States as decent families, and those families that adhere to given street codes are defined as street families.  The street codes entail different behavior models that create an image of a firm individual that may defend them and their families (Anderson, 2000).  It is revealed by The Code of the Street that the street code applies typically to both street and decent families because these two camps have to live in a similar neighborhood. Members of decent families must act to exercise their strength by defending themselves. Some of the values shown by the street families are typical to the rest of American society. 

Families play an exclusive role in establishing behavior models among youths. Based on the observations by Anderson, parents from decent families typically work hard to meet their needs, taking control of their kids and teaching their children about what is wrong and right. In most scenarios, kids from decent families are equipped with knowledge about the adverse implications caused by street life as they see them in their daily lives from the neighborhood. Children from decent families typically get inspired by examples from their parents, and they end up cherishing their parents’ hard work and care, which enable them to attain their goals. 

Contrary, most street families do not focus on the proper upbringing of their children and end up showing bad examples such as adhering to the set street code. Parents from street families show violence and involve their kids in violence, resulting in a new generation comprising of street individuals. Through the foundation of family, there is a particular role that Anderson associates manhood by looking at life in the inner-cities. He goes ahead, stressing that when a strong man evokes respect by becoming the head of the family, these kinds of families cannot be violated because everyone believes that the man in charge of a family has the power of defending their relatives (Anderson, 2000).  Manhood mainly plays a critical postulation of the street code and depicts the inner-cities as people in the society believe that men should display their commitment and strength to defend their relatives. 

The Code of the Street also reveals significant facts associated with the “Old Heads” of both the street and decent families. In many decent families, the youths are taught several alternatives to respond to significant conflict solutions. Anderson offers a description of counterculture and a subculture exercised in the inner-cities neighborhoods in the United States. The code of streets mainly exemplifies the deviance, socialization, and norms of the countercultures and subcultures. However, many people admit that it is necessary to reveal physical strength when handling conflict situations.

Anderson defines code-switching in different circumstances and ways. Code-switching is defined as the time when an individual can behave to a given established set of regulations relying on the present situation.  The black, decent, young males living in the impoverished inner-city are expected to learn ways of adapting to the situations they face in life.  The street individuals are surrounding the typical situations within the neighborhoods. For decent black women and men to reach the top position and acquire the middle class, they are expected to code-switch between street and decency in different staging regions. By living in the black neighborhood of the inner-city, there is fear developed by members of decent families as they see that they live in a threatening neighborhood which mainly deals with individuals using street code (Anderson, 2000).  The associated street culture has mainly evolved street codes that amount to various informal regulations governing public interpersonal behaviors, including violence. The regulations mainly prescribe proper comportments and proper ways of responding when challenged.  The observed street code entails a set of various informal regulations that dictate the use of violence and threats in significant public interactions, and the rules are prioritized as ways of attaining and maintaining respect among the youths.  Living by the street code means that individuals are expected to stand up for what they believe in. 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Anderson, E. (2000). Code of the Street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. WW Norton & Company.

 

Approaches to Behavior Analysis history assignment help

Approaches to Behavior Analysis

Behavioral learning theory was put forward by J.B Watson in his paper “Psychology as the Behaviorist view it.” The behavioral learning theory states that people learn through interaction with their environment (Basri, Hasan, et al., 2020). According to this theory, inherited factors do not influence a person’s behavior. Human behaviors are fully dependent on the immediate surrounding and similar factors. The fundamental concepts of the theory are classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a method whereby individuals learn by establishing an association between two events, one of which is neutral and the other which requires a response. The neutral event is of least significance when the other event is not considered.  Over time, the occurrence of one of the events will eventually lead to a given reaction. Operant conditioning refers to the learning process whereby the probability of a response occurring is increased or decreased. This can be done through reinforcement. Positive reinforcement always increases the probability of occurrence of a given response, while negative reinforcement decreases the probability of occurrence 

Albert Bandura proposed the social cognitive theory in 1986 as an alternative to the behavioral learning theory. In addition to classical conditioning and operant conditioning, Bandura adds another component of observational learning. (Beauchamp, Crawford & Jackson, 2019) The theory states that individuals learn by observing what others do. Individuals observe what those around them do; they then evaluate the consequences of these actions and decide whether to imitate or avoid them. The four steps involved are; attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. The steps follow each other as listed above. A person pays close attention to a given behavior, and then remembers it and purposes of performing it later. Reproduction is the phase where the person performs it as they observed from another. It’s a replication of the original stage or process. Motivation refers to punishments or rewards of a given action, which the person will consider before imitating the given behavior. 

The two theories vary because behavioral learning theory does not consider observation as a form in which people learn. According to the behavioral learning theory, only outward observable features affect behavior. The social cognitive theory, however, states that internal psychological processes also influence behavior. 

Learning theory of conditioning. us history essay help: us history essay help

                                                           Approaches to Behavior Analysis

Behavioral learning theory was put forward by J.B Watson in his paper “Psychology as the Behaviorist view it.” The behavioral learning theory states that people learn through interaction with their environment (Basri, Hasan, et al., 2020). According to this theory, inherited factors do not influence a person’s behavior. Human behaviors are fully dependent on the immediate surrounding and similar factors. The fundamental concepts of the theory are classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a method whereby individuals learn by establishing an association between two events, one of which is neutral and the other which requires a response. The neutral event is of least significance when the other event is not considered.  Over time, the occurrence of one of the events will eventually lead to a given reaction. Operant conditioning refers to the learning process whereby the probability of a response occurring is increased or decreased. This can be done through reinforcement. Positive reinforcement always increases the probability of occurrence of a given response, while negative reinforcement decreases the probability of occurrence 

Albert Bandura proposed the social cognitive theory in 1986 as an alternative to the behavioral learning theory. In addition to classical conditioning and operant conditioning, Bandura adds another component of observational learning. (Beauchamp, Crawford & Jackson, 2019) The theory states that individuals learn by observing what others do. Individuals observe what those around them do; they then evaluate the consequences of these actions and decide whether to imitate or avoid them. The four steps involved are; attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. The steps follow each other as listed above. A person pays close attention to a given behavior, and then remembers it and purposes of performing it later. Reproduction is the phase where the person performs it as they observed from another. It’s a replication of the original stage or process. Motivation refers to punishments or rewards of a given action, which the person will consider before imitating the given behavior. 

The two theories vary because behavioral learning theory does not consider observation as a form in which people learn. According to the behavioral learning theory, only outward observable features affect behavior. The social cognitive theory, however, states that internal psychological processes also influence behavior. 

The two theories can be used for daily personal interactions, especially in learning institutions. Behavioral learning theory can be applied by punishing students who fail to adhere to given standards or appraisal of those who follow the rules. The social cognitive theory can be used in various ways. Students imitate the actions of well-performing students. Students may imitate the actions of their teachers or parents. Students can also avoid the behavior of students known for unacceptable behavior. 

When applying these theories in research, certain cultural considerations should be put in mind. The various cultural factors include values, beliefs, language, learning preferences, and familiar patterns (Byars-Winston & Rogers, 2019). Learning preferences affect how individuals learn in that some prefer to read or listen to a description from another person. In contrast, others need concrete experience, e.g., actually seeing it for them to learn. One’s beliefs and values can also affect the learning process as it might prove difficult to convince someone to view things a certain way when they’re used to a different way. The language used by the model can also affect the learning of an individual. 

 

 

                                                       References 

Basri, H., Amin, S., Mirsa, U., Mukhlis, H., & Irviani, R. (2020). Learning theory of conditioning. Journal of Critical Reviews7(8).

Beauchamp, M. R., Crawford, K. L., & Jackson, B. (2019). Social cognitive theory and physical activity: Mechanisms of behavior change, critique, and legacy. Psychology of Sport and Exercise42, 110-117. 

Byars-Winston, A., & Rogers, J. G. (2019). Testing intersectionality of race/ethnicity× gender in a social–cognitive career theory model with science identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology66(1), 30.

 

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