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Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages. African History Assignment Help

BUSI 4940:Chapter one summary

The chapter is titled strategic management: creating competitive advantages. The chapter begins by posing a fundamental question in how much credit or blame does a leader deserve? The chapter focusses on answering the question. Two perspectives of leadership are highlighted in the chapter. The first one is the romantic view whereby the leader is the driving force behind an organization, for instance, steve jobs in apple and secondly, the external control perspective that cites external forces as determinants towards a company’s success, for instance, economic downturns. Leadership makes a difference in any company in that proactive ones constantly make changes in their companies strategies that give their companies an edge compared to other companies. Another aspect of a leader who makes a difference is one that understands the companies resources and capabilities. A thorough understanding of strategic management is also crucial to any leader.

Another concept discussed in the chapter is the definition of strategic management. Strategic management is classified into three levels: Analysis, formulation and the implementation of the same. To come up with a strategic plan, a companies leader should consider the competitive advantage that is both unique and valuable which cannot be copied by the competition. Also, key aspects in the company should be considered to ensure the success of a strategic plan such as the company’s goals, short term and long term perspectives as well as understanding what the company has to give up to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. However, the business environment is unpredictable in such a way that a company may make an intended strategy, but due to the business environment, they end up adopting an alternative approach.

Another concept introduced is a corporate governance and stakeholder management. Corporate governance is the relationship among the various participants who determine the direction in which a company move. Stakeholder management is viewed as zero-sum, where stakeholders compete for attention a symbiosis where stakeholders receive mutual benefits.

BUSI 4940:Chapter two summary

Chapter 2 is titled analyzing the external environment of a firm: creating competitive advantages. The main concept introduced in the chapter is the analysis of the external environment of a firm. A firm that does not keep up with its external environment finds itself losing a competitive advantage, therefore creating an environmentally aware organization is crucial. The process of doing so is first doing an environmental scan, then monitoring the environment and finally gathering competitive advantage. When Armed with these tools, a firm can be able to make forecasts of its external environment. Another way of keeping up with the external environment is the use of scenario analysis which involves the detailed assessment of the ways trends may affect an issue and lead development of alternative futures. In order to get a snapshot of how a company is doing, a SWOT analysis can is used. A SWOT analysis looks at the Strenght, Weakness, Opporti=unities and Threats. A company needs to be aware of its strengths and the opportunities available to it as well as observing the weakness the company has and the threats in the external environment.

Another concept is the external analysis. There are three steps to external analysis, the general environment, the industry and their competitors.

The external environment has factors that are difficult to control, for instance, the political and economic aspects. The industry and the competitive environment are relevant to a companies strategy. One of the aspects of an external environment is the threats of new entrants in the companies industry.

New entrants usually bring with them new ideas that are attractive to the customer base. For a company to be successful, they need to be aware of the threats and react accordingly to continue being competitive in its market segment. Other external factors that may affect the firm are the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitute products and services; the intensity of rivalry among competitors in the industry as well as how the internet and digital technologies affect competitive forces. The chapter concludes with ways in which a firm can do good industry analysis.

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CAN A FASTING DIET BE HARMFUL history assignment help book: history assignment help book


People fast for different reasons, some fast for a religious purpose, others for weight-loss reasons while some fast to detoxify their bodies. If you are fasting to detox your body, you should note that your body detoxes itself naturally. You may want to reconsider most, especially when you’re fasting to lose weight, as it may not last after you’re done fasting.

Fast diets are not the same since some cut calories severely but do not ban food altogether, and Some allow fluids like water while other fast every other day.

Why fasting for weight loss might not work?

When you eat lesser than your body needs and lose weight, this makes your body go into starvation mode. And for your body to save energy at this particular state, your metabolism will have to slow down. And when you finish fasting, and you go back to your regular diet plan, you may end up regaining the lost weight and even add more weight.

When fasting, your body changes by curbing your appetite, so you will feel less hungry at first. But when you stop fasting, your appetite revs back up. You’ll feel hungrier, and most likely, you’ll overeat and end up gaining weight again.

Fasting every other day helps you lose weight but not for a long time. A research study shows that peoples who fated every other day shed weight even when they ate all they wanted on days they were not fasting. However, the weight loss didn’t last for long.

How safe is fasting

Fasting for fewer days won’t hurt you, especially if you are in good health, provided you don’t dehydrated. However, fasting for more extended periods is harmful to your health. Your body needs minerals, vitamins, and nutrients from food to remain healthy. If they are inadequate or don’t get enough, you may have conditions such as constipation, dizziness, fatigue, dehydration, and not being able to endure cold temperatures.

Most importantly, if you have diabetes, do not fast at all, leading to harmful dips and spike in blood sugar. Also, pregnant and nursing women should not fast; elderly, children, and alike people with chronic ailments should not fast, even for a shorter period.

Fasting can disrupt your sleep, which is critical to your health. Fasting can lead to restless nights.lots of studies show that fasting can decrease REM sleep, which is known to improve mood, memory, and learning capacity.

Fasting can increase the level of cortisol, leading to stress. Some early research had shown that fasting might reduce the risks of cancer, heart disease, and type2 diabetes, but depriving yourself of food for some time can increase the levels of cortisol-the body stress hormone. High cortisol levels are mostly linked with fat storage, which isn’t perfect when trying to lose weight.

Fasting might lead to hair loss and missing periods. Fasting can cause some to go into a calorie deficit, resulting in hair loss and irregular periods. Also, people on a fast diet may feel colder than usual due to low blood sugar.

In conclusion, Our bodies need fuel to stay healthy, w should often listen to what our bodies need and not create hard and fast rules surrounding eating habits. Though fasting isn’t necessarily unhealthy, people with a family history of an eating disorder should steer clear of the diet. This also isn’t good for highly active individuals as they require more fuel, and food is fuel.

Before going into a new diet, especially one that involves fasting, it is advisable to consult a professional dietitian to show you a safe design of a healthy eating plan that suits your body.


A Defense of Abortion history assignment help online

A Defense of Abortion

Those who campaign against abortion argue that the fetus is a human from the time it is conceived. It is difficult to deny that from about ten weeks old, it begins to develop human both the internal and external organs of a human being. On the other hand, those who defend abortion challenge this notion saying that a fetus is not a person from the moment of conception. They may describe it as a fertilized ovum, a mere clump of cells. They argue that a fetus is a bit of tissue that will become a person at birth. Opponents of abortion are quick to say that the fetus is a person but find it hard to explain why abortion is not permitted. It is said that a person has a right to life and, is how their argument starts.

The right to life of the fetus outweighs the right of the mother to choose what happens to her body. Those who oppose abortion neither make an exception for pregnancy due to rape nor pregnancies, which, may shorten the life of the mother. In the case where the life of a mother is endangered, a woman can save her life if the unborn child puts her life at peril even if it involves killing it. In the case where the mother chooses to save the life of the unborn baby, it should be considered an act of kindness on her part and not something she owes the baby. Similarly, if a woman is pregnant due to rape aborts, she may be considered indecent, insensitive and self- centred but not unjust. In addition to this, a man and a woman do not have a special responsibility towards the unborn child just because of blood ties. Responsibilities are only assumed by the two to be parents if they decide to take the child home after its birth instead of putting it up for adoption.

Based on the above arguments, the thought that the fetus is already a person from conception but a very early abortion is undoubtedly not considered murder of the human. Defending abortion does not insinuate that it is right to kill an unborn child. Nobody should give the right to have an abortion a general yes or general no but instead give room for reason and closer examination.

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The picot questions history assignment help book: history assignment help book

Problem to be focused on

After a deep discussion with my mentor, we decided to focus on the problem facing many elderly patients in long-term care facilities. As noted by the Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality (AHRQ), facilities mapped out for long term residential care are at greater risk of exposing their patient to pressure ulcers as compared to home cares (Elkirami, 2017). The identified problem was the lack of a better practical solution or alternative evidence-based intervention for pressure injury elderly patients which would enable the facilities reduce the period of stay.


The project was meant to investigate different intervention measures at a Massachusetts elderly care facility and evaluate their success as compared to the common clinical measures. The care facility has an 800-bed capacity as well as a teaching facility for geriatric patients. The facility works with final years students for practical periods to help in caring and nursing the elderly patients within the hospital.

Description of the problem

Many geriatric hospitals taking care of elderly patients who are prone to pressure injuries only use nutrients and supplement as the intervention method for reducing the incidences. The method has not been such a success for most of the patients as it is not an effective preventive measure but a conditional measure. Therefore, the focus was to undertake an experimental comparison of a different intervention measure and its effects to the prevention of risk of aspressure injuries on the elderly. The intervention that was proposed was the use of relief cushion to help prevent the pressure points of the elderly form being exposed so much.

The picot questions

In elderly patients with risk of injuries, how does pressure relief cushions compared to nutrition and supplementation affect the risk of injuries over a six-month period of time.

Effect of the problem

Owusu-Ansah (2020) states that pressure injuries previously referred to as ulcers have been found to affect over 2.5 million individuals within the united states. The effects are more felt on the health cost where almost $11.6 billion dollars of the country’s finances is spend on the management of the health problem. Walia, et al., (2016) also indicates that pressure injuries lead to high rates of morbidity and deaths across several healthy facilities. As studies indicates about 3 to 4% of the patients who suffer pressure injuries (PI’s) develop them while still in the hospitalization. These numbers account for greater percentage of the of the 2.5 % of new cases which are estimated for every year. Estimates attribute 0.4 of the PI to 38% to originate from acute care, 2 to 24% of the case to occur in skilled nursing care health centers and 0 to17% to occur in home cares. Walia, et 2016 confirms that not all Pi’s can be prevented. Pressure injuries (PIs) create a significant burden in the health care system. According to Coyer & Tayyib (2017) over 49% patients in the critical care develop PIs which backs up what the empirical representation of how it is critical to find a better intervention method. It is therefore imperative to identify and know the possible risk factors to be able to provide strategic preventive measure to alleviate the risk. The aim of the project therefore is to find a way of reducing the pressure injuries to a 50 % rate at the facility in the next six months.


Significance of the topic and its implication for nursing practice

The need for prevention as well as control the occurrence of pressure injuries still Continues to be a concern across the health care sector (Norton, et al 2017). From a study funded by the Canada association of wound care (wound care showed a prevalence of 26% where about 70 % of the injuries leading to this wound was preventable (Norton, et al 2017).as highlighted by expert opinion, almost all pressure ulcers can be avoided through prevention. Such levels can be achieved through adopting bets practices like use of pressure relief cushions.


Proposed solution

As Ricci, Bayer & Orgill (2017) states that pressure injuries are as a result of unrelieved pressure on the soft tissues it is critical to take care of these areas to prevent further injuries. According to MRI studies by Brienza et al. (2018) the application of skin protection cushions for prevention of pressure injuries was shown to be effective as long as the choice of the cushion best fits the need. Mendes, et al (2019) also confirms that using appropriate cushions for elderly and patient suffering any type of spinal and back injury helps prevent further pressure injuries.


Big Data Management art history essay help

Big Data Management

Big data entail combinations of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured pieces of data obtained by an organization to aid in gathering information for users to make decisions. The healthcare industry has mainly adopted this into managing data, including patient information, research and development, and many other issues. Proponents and opponents of applying big data in the field have voiced their opinions about the matter. Though the application of big data can provide solutions to crucial issues and lead to remarkable breakthroughs in medicine, its use also poses a data security threat, and healthcare authorities and practitioners need to observe all conditions regarding data security to use it effectively.

Description of a published article

The article ‘Blood Pressure Randomized Methodology Study Comparing Automatic Oscillometric and Mercury Sphygmomanometer Devices: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010’ discusses the disparities observed in using big data as compared to the traditional methods in healthcare. It primarily compares the accuracy of blood pressure results derived from a mercury sphygmomanometer and those on an automated oscillometric BP device under similar conditions (Ostchega et al., 2012). The research used a sample of 6,460 participants who had their systolic measures taken and 6,338 who had their diastolic measurements taken. The results of the study showed that the automated device recorded lower readings than the standard mercury sphygmomanometer.

Position on the use of big data for healthcare

The analysis and use of big data in the healthcare industry can provide solutions to crucial issues and pave the way for outstanding innovation and breakthroughs. By monitoring health patterns in a community using big data, healthcare experts can now study disease patterns, significant causes, and treatment options (Leyens, Reumann, Malats & Brand, 2017). Hulsen et al., (2019) add that big data helps experts to monitor the effectiveness of particular experimental medication or therapy methods that are developed. By doing this, finding a solution for a specific issue gets easy. This evidence shows that big data acts as a guide for healthcare experts as they carry out their activities. They can make evidence-based decisions. For instance, the application of big data can be seen in the current management of COVID-19. Doctors are developing vaccines using data available to them. On the same note, the experts can analyze this data and develop strategies to avoid future pandemics. Therefore, big data helps in management of severity of different pandemics and illnesses.

Privacy and data security concerns

Though big data can help in addressing major issues in the healthcare sector, its use poses a problem in data security and privacy of information. Cyber criminals can apply data mining techniques to access crucial data in databases of institutions, and use them for criminal purposes (Abouelmehdi, Beni-Hessane & Khaloufi, 2018). Confidential patient data can also leak out to the public (Abouelmehdi, Beni-Hssane, Khaloufi & Saadi, 2017). It means that data can be compromised significantly. Criminals may change the information in the databases. They can also choose to clear important data, leading to loss. This could compromise the credibility of the entire process from data gathering to decision-making.

Application of secondary data sources in healthcare institutions

Healthcare authorities can use secondary data sources to create effective healthcare policies and support research by local healthcare experts while maintaining anonymity of the data. Secondary sources contain different kinds of data including patient information, distribution of healthcare trends, and significant healthcare issues that face members of the local population (Hellerstein, 2008). Management of this data may pose ethical concerns for the authorities. It is essential, therefore, to use this data to make decisions that affect entire populations. For instance, when the authorities collect primary data from patients that shows a majority of the members have a similar infection, they can use it to study the causes and ways to stop further infection. However, as they do this, they need to ensure anonymity and de-identification of the sampled patients.

To summarize this paper, though application of big data can provide solutions to crucial issues and lead to great breakthroughs in medicine, its use also possess a data security threat, and healthcare authorities need to use secondary data while maintaining anonymity. Big data can help institutions and experts to develop treatment options for various illnesses. However, cyber criminals may have access to crucial data and interfere with it. Healthcare authorities need to use secondary data in decision making as they observe privacy of participants.