History is consistently used in films as a technique to teach the values and morals of events that occurred. But what’s the point in teaching history through films when they are terribly fictional? In films, the director finds the best scheme to intrigue their audience only by changing the actual event to satisfy their interest. This is true for Stanley Kramer when he made the history of John Scopes and his “monkey trial” into a film called Inherit the Wind. Kramer knew the exact stereotypical “Hollywood history” his audience enjoyed. The trial itself had a series of conflicts, the main one being evolution vs. religion. Yet there was also a series of tensions throughout the movie, including the argument between individual vs. society. The same themes from Inherit the Wind can also be seen from the actual “monkey trial” event in Dayton, Tennessee. It is sometimes said that truth is stranger than fiction and according to this film, truth is also stronger than fiction. Inherit the Wind ignored the true dramatic moment, which is essential to the actual trial that happened in Dayton, Tennessee. Kramer even portrayed his own opinion of this trial in this film. The truth was so distorted in the film so now the argument is not individual vs. society or evolution vs. religion but history vs. fiction. Inherit the Wind is set in the little town of Hillsboro when Bertram Cates (played by), a biology teacher, was thrown into prison for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution. Two famous lawyers were behind this case, Henry Drummond (played by) as the defender and Mathew Harrison Brady (played by), as the prosecutor. Mathew Harrison Brady who was “voted 3 times for a presidential candidate” was sent to Hillsboro is carry out the job as a prosecutor for this trial. As for Cates, a journalist from Baltimore Herald by the name of E.K. Horrbeck willingly provided a lawyer named Henry Drummond for him. Horrbeck was interested in the Cates, expecting to make big bucks from this big “media” case. The two opposing lawyers, Drummond and Brady, were Kramer’s two main characters, both with different opinions on how humans arrived on earth. Drummond supported the evolution theory, while Brady, the creation theory. In this film, Kramer distorted the facts of the actual trial to make this film more of a drama than a history documentary.
The Mandala Archetype in Intertidal Life by Audrey Thomas
The Significance of the Mandala Archetype in Intertidal Life
Audrey Thomas’ novel Intertidal Life, is an account of a woman’s struggle for Emmersonian self-reliance and identity. The main character, Alice Hoyle, is forced by her husband to undertake a perilous, painful, and chaotic journey into her subconscious, in order to find her “self”. This struggle to obtain a new “self” identity and self-reliance is symbolized throughout the novel by the Jungian archetype of the Mandala; a circular image with a center that represents the: “wholeness of personality, [and] the center of the whole… It is the archetype of inner order; and it is always used in that sense, either to make arrangements of the many, many aspects of the universe-a world scheme-or to arrange the complicated aspects of our psyche into a scheme ” (Psych,86). Therefore, in Intertidal Life, the Mandala is an archetype arising “when there is a great disorder and chaos in a [woman’s] mind… It appears to bring order, showing the possibility of order and centeredness” (Psych,86)
Alice Hoyle first experiences chaos and despair when Peter admits to Alice that he no longer loves Alice, and he wants to seek out and find himself. She interprets that the move to the island was simply a tact to get Alice easily out of Peter’s life. As Alice says,”It’s so strange. I’ve felt so close to you these last few months. I saw the new room, the move over here as something wonderful, a new beginning to our marriage. I guess what I saw as a sunrise, you saw as a sunset” (20). Moreover, as Alice realizes that her husband, Peter is having an affair with Anne-Marie, and her worldly values and ambitions are tossed upside down, she encounters her first Mandala type dream:
one night, Alice had a dream of apples. She was holding Flora in her
arms and people were pelting at them both with fruit… She was calling
and calling for help (24).
In this dream, Alice is the focus of the center of attention, surrounded by people pelting her with apples. A schematic image is presented which is in the form of a Mandala.
Out of this dream, she comes to the realization for the first time, that “the other woman” in Peter’s life is Anne-Marie (24). Thus, this Mandala represents, that she is unwanted by Peter, must find away to protect herself from her emotions, and she must seek help, in redefining her life.