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Somatic Symptom Disorders Illness Anxiety Disorder (aka Hypochondria) Conversion Disorder Factitious Disorder (aka Munchausen Syndrome) There are so many Essay

Somatic Symptom Disorders
Illness Anxiety Disorder (aka Hypochondria)
Conversion Disorder
Factitious Disorder (aka Munchausen Syndrome)
There are so many Somatic Symptom Disorders! How can you tell the difference between them? One similarity that is shared between them is the difficulty that psychologists have in offering patients their diagnosis.

For this discussion board:

Explain the major differences in each of these disorders.
If you were a psychologist, how would be the best way to offer any of these diagnoses without putting the sufferer on the defensive, but also trying to break through the denial?

2 Competitive Advantage and Marketing Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Title Professor/Instructor


Competitive Advantage and Marketing

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Title



Competitive Advantage and Marketing


Competitive advantage is the superiority organizations, and industries gain due to their unique provision of services and products compared to their competitors in the same market (Kotabe & Kothari, 2016). For firms to maintain a competitive advantage, they have to pose key attributes, capabilities and competencies. Customers must see the company differently for it to obtain a competitive edge. Contextually, managers must strategically prepare and conquer all problems and concerns in the present market to get a competitive edge in the service business. When seeking a competitive advantage, it is necessary to do an internal study to understand the company’s capabilities and capacity. A market manager should also establish a brand by considering the company’s internal and external aspects.

As per Porter’s rationale, there are three methods to get a market edge: centralization, product differentiation and cost leadership (Eva et al., 2018). He contended that enterprises should consider how they will join a market and then build and maintain a good competitive position for themselves. There are two broad points of view to elaborate on a solid competitive position in an organization. The first position is based on the industrial organization theory, which Michel Porter popularized in the 1980s, and holds that gaining a competitive advantage is produced by environmental threats and opportunities (Eva et al., 2018). This viewpoint employs analytical methods such as gap analysis, competitive force analysis, PESTLE analysis, and SWOT analysis.

The second point of view is the resource-based theory, which contends that every organization develops its competencies and capabilities, which result in a competitive advantage. The primary focus is on the business’s long-term competitive advantage and strengths and weaknesses (Eva et al., 2018). The market entrance stage may be the initial critical step for creating a practical competitive advantage and remains significant throughout the entire life cycle.

Literature Review: Competitive Advantage and Marketing

Competitive Advantage: What is it?

Competitive advantage is defined as capabilities or circumstances that enable a firm to outperform its competition (Rothaermel, 2016).

According to Porter (1997), structural aspects of an organization like the threats of being replaced, bargaining power of suppliers, customer bargaining power, competition among rivals, and entry of new investors all play essential roles in the realization of a firm’s competitive advantages (Kabeyi, 2018). Using studies on competitive advantages in the food sector, Massa and Testa (2009) discovered that knowledge management is positively successful in achieving a competitive edge in the industry and facilitates centralization, cost-leadership and differentiation tactics (Shehabat, 2020).

Sheng and Chang (2012) investigated the impact of ICT on information sharing and gaining competitive advantages in Taiwan’s medical industry (Chuang, & Huang, 2018). The ambiguity of knowledge and Problems in an organization were obstacles to information sharing. Besides,  the data analysis results revealed that the company’s capabilities in the ICT area had a positive and substantial influence on information exchange and that the transfer boosted the development of obtaining innovation in terms of competitive advantage in the organization.

Fenget et al. (2010) also performed research in China between 2008 and 2009 and concluded that supplier and customer cooperation throughout achieving competitive advantages increases the industry’s competitive edge (Mostafa, 2015).

Internal and external analysis

Every organization consists of both internal and external operating environments. Active environmental scanning is critical for any company. Through this strategy, it becomes possible for the company to forecast and identify developments that are likely to influence the success of any organization. According to Bui et al. (2021), environmental scanning is the acquisition and use of information concerning events, trends, and linkages within an organization’s external and internal environments (Bui et al., 2021). It enables the managers of an organization to develop comprehensive strategic plans for the propulsion of the organization’s success in the future.

Internal analysis tools

Gap analysis

GAP analysis is an evaluation method that helps businesses detect performance inadequacies and internal vulnerabilities. It is a valuable and straightforward paradigm for comparing the present organizational state to the planned future state. Furthermore, it aids in identifying and comprehending the gaps that exist between the two states, making it simpler to devise a sequence of measures to bridge such gaps. GAP analysis assists management in determining whether or not their organization is functioning to its full potential, and if not, why not.

SWOT analysis

SWOT analysis is a well-known and widely utilized business analysis methodology (Ilhomovna, 2020). It is popular because of its ease of use and effectiveness in covering internal and external analyses. Its name is taken from the SWOT matrix’s four variables: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. SWOT analysis may help a corporation find a sustainable market niche and increase its market share. It enables firms to find external possibilities to capitalize on while also recognizing internal variables that contribute to deficiencies.

VRIO analysis

The VRIO framework examines a company’s internal resources and categorizes them based on the total value they provide to the organization. VRIO is a framework that assists in the creation of long-term competitive advantages. It allows a company to recognize its distinctive characteristics and develop them from short-term competitive advantages into long-term success factors.

External analysis tools

PESTLE analysis

PESTLE is a method used to identify all of the external variables that may influence an organization. The model is divided into five sections: political, economic, social, legal, and environmental. A PESTLE study assists a company in identifying the most significant external opportunities and risks in its industry.

Porter’s five forces

The first is the threat of entrance, which arises when new entrants compete for a market share within a sector, driving competition. The threat of entry is determined by the many obstacles to entry that exist within an industry. For instance, if existing enterprises have strong brand recognition and devoted consumers due to a lengthy history of advertising, new entrants will need to invest considerably to overcome these hurdles. The second force is rivalry among current rivals, i.e. the ongoing battle for market position. This considers factors such as pricing competition, the quality of customer service and warranties, product debuts, and advertising wars (Kabeyi, 2018). When one corporation moves in any of these areas, it may trigger counter-moves by other companies.

Third, there is competition from replacement items and products from other sectors competing for the same clients. Sugar companies, for instance, face competition from sugar substitutes such as high fructose corn syrup. The fourth force is buyer bargaining power. Buyers, in reality, compete directly with the industry by haggling for higher-quality services, driving down prices, and pitting rivals against one another (Kabeyi, 2018). Finally, there is the negotiating power of suppliers, who threaten to degrade the quality of goods and services or hike prices to squeeze more profit out of business. The combined efforts of these factors define the level of rivalry in an industry.

The Link Between Competitive Advantage and Marketing

Competitive advantage and marketing strategy are inextricably related concepts. Finding a primary and durable basis on which to compete is a competitive advantage. Finally, marketing strategy tries to provide this competitive edge in the market. Porter (1980) outlines three general tactics as critical sources of competitive advantage: differentiation, cost leadership, and focus (Eva et al., 2018). These, it may be said, serve as the foundation for all strategic activities and underlie the vast array of marketing tactics available to the firm. Furthermore, management must determine the firm’s competitive scope – whether it is targeting a small or large range of customers/industries.

Figure1. Strategy formulation (Borrero, Acosta, & Medina, 2020)

Competitive advantage

Cost leadership

Seeking total cost leadership within an industry is one possible source of competitive edge. In this case, the goal of strategic action is to preserve a low-cost structure. The intended design is attained via the active pursuit of economies of scale, cost management, and cost reduction in global sourcing of commodities, marketing, and experience effects. However, retaining cost leadership might be challenging. Success can entice larger, more resource-rich competitors. If a company’s market share declines, it becomes more challenging to attain fixed expenses and economies of scale.


The product given here is distinct and distinguishable from the competitors. Thus, the source of distinction must be based on the customer’s value (Eva et al., 2018). The product offering should be viewed as unique and, ideally, can charge a price premium. However, this technique has drawbacks, for it can be pricey, with the related expenses outweighing the advantages. Furthermore, rivals might replicate innovations and other endeavours.


The organization focuses on a smaller set of commercial operations. The goal is to become an expert in a given market area and get extensive consumer understanding. This approach can also result in differentiation or cost leadership within a specified market sector. For example, it may be feasible to achieve cost leadership within a particular market, or that segment may perceive a firm’s product offering as distinct.

What a Marketing Manager Should Do to Increase Competitive Advantage

Marketing managers should prioritize customer service. They should include plans for improving customer service, maintaining customer-pleasing results in both recurring business and the possibility of sending word-of-mouth endorsements to other potential consumers. Customer service may be used to gain a competitive edge by responding to their complaints swiftly, having someone available to speak with them, getting to know consumers as individuals and learning how the company can enhance its service offering (Chen, 2018). A small business’s techniques of being available and communicating with consumers can provide a significant edge over its larger competitors and their sometimes inattentive or impersonal attitude to service. Second, marketing managers should broaden their distribution channels. Making a company’s products more widely available is a great strategy to increase brand recognition, a critical component of competitive advantage. They should prioritize the most likely channels to reach their target demographic.

According to Marion, if a company’s purpose is to sell items to another company rather than a client, face-to-face selling and personal networking are the most successful strategies to enter the business to business (B2B) marketing industry (Chen, 2018). Furthermore, marketing executives might get a competitive edge by entering new markets. They are responsible for identifying developing markets due to changes in customer tastes, demographic shifts, or technology advancements that might be translated into new goods. Effective marketing planning necessitates the capacity to pick the possibly most profitable options from among the numerous accessible.


The investigation sought to identify the sources of a company’s competitive advantage. According to the studies reviewed, Porter’s three general tactics were essential in achieving competitive advantages. Furthermore, the findings revealed that a study of competitive advantages in marketing strategic management, IT knowledge management, marketing management, and theory was based on resources and human resource management.

Notably, the Porter (1980) perspective of generic strategy emphasizes the necessity for consistency of approach. The organization must implement a clear general strategy. Attempting to combine the strategies mentioned earlier within a specific marketplace may result in the firm failing to reach the potential benefits and becoming “stuck in the middle” of either low cost, focused or distinctive strategies. The findings of this work may be helpful for future research on competitive studies, assessment and aspects at the business level.


Borrero, S., Acosta, A., & Medina, A. F. (2020). Culture, strategy formulation, and firm performance: a meta-analysis. Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración.

Bui, T. D., Tsai, F. M., Tseng, M. L., Tan, R. R., Yu, K. D. S., & Lim, M. K. (2021). Sustainable supply chain management towards disruption and organizational ambidexterity: A data-driven analysis. Sustainable production and consumption, 26, 373-410.

Chen, C. J. (2018). Developing a model for supply chain agility and innovativeness to enhance firms’ competitive advantage. Management Decision.

Chuang, S. P., & Huang, S. J. (2018). The effect of environmental corporate social responsibility on environmental performance and business competitiveness: The mediation of green information technology capital. Journal of business ethics, 150(4), 991-1009.

Eva, N., Sendjaya, S., Prajogo, D., Cavanagh, A., & Robin, M. (2018). Creating strategic fit: Aligning servant leadership with organizational structure and strategy.  Personnel Review.

Ilhomovna, U. D. (2020, January 1). Using SWOT analysis in strategic planning of the Enterprise. European Journal of Research Development and Sustainability. Retrieved April 25, 2022, from

Kabeyi, M. J. B. (2018). Michael porter’s five competitive forces and generic strategies, market segmentation strategy and case study of competition in the global smartphone manufacturing industry. IJAR, 4(10), 39-45.

Kotabe, M., & Kothari, T. (2016). Emerging market multinational companies’ evolutionary paths to building a competitive advantage from emerging markets to developed countries. Journal of World Business, 51(5), 729-743.

Mostafa, R. B. (2015). Value co-creation in industrial cities: A strategic source of competitive advantages. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 24(2), 144–167.

Rothaermel, F. T. (2016). Competitive advantage in technology-intensive industries. In Technological innovation: Generating financial results. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Shehabat, I. (2020). The role of Knowledge Management in organizational performance and gain sustainable competitive advantage. Proceedings of the 2020 Asia Service Sciences and Software Engineering Conference.


Figure2. Internal analysis tools (Kenzhegaranova, Yermekbayeva, & Abayeva, 2021)

Figure 3. Gap analysis illustration (Kenzhegaranova, Yermekbayeva, & Abayeva, 2021


Somatic Symptom Disorders Illness Anxiety Disorder (aka Hypochondria) Conversion Disorder Factitious Disorder (aka Munchausen Syndrome) There are so many Essay Psychology Assignment Help WORK REDISIGNING 2

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The word “job enrichment” has for a while been a key area of discussion in management, and the general organizational behavior. From (Herzenberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) to (Hackman & Oldham, 1976), researchers have always been prompted to inquire more on factors that adds quality to a job and as a result bring forth a motivating effect. Another function or word closely related to “job enrichment” and which conspicuously appears in (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) research study is the term “work redesign”. Work redesign is simply a medium-term strategy through which organization pay more attention to the work processes and evaluate the key functions, products and services; whether they ought to be eliminated or not. Another important term that will define this study is “intrinsic job satisfaction.” Intrinsic job satisfaction comes from the intrinsic actors that an individual experiences at job. These are factor such self-directiveness, observed accomplishment which is related to feedback, responsibility or the assigned task and skill development (Kalleberg, 1977).

There is still so little information on why “enriched” work at times usually give positive result for organizations and their employed workers. The worst is that even less is known on the strategies that could be used effectively in the redesigning of works (Hackman.,1975). By looking at redesigning of work, this paper argues that the experience of an individual is positively affected to the extent that he gets new skills (learns) and personally perform (meaningful experience) on the assigned task. These core job dimensions that guide the study are: the skill variety, task identity, the significance of the task, autonomy and feedback or the knowledge from the actual results. These core dimensions affect the personal and work outcomes in an organization. Apart from arguing from the lenses of (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) job characteristic model, the paper is going to critically look at Herzenberg two-factor and activation theories in relation to work redesign. They are in short what (Herzenberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) refer to as “motivating factors”.

Main Arguments

Employee’s satisfaction is mainly defined by intrinsic factors such as: personal growth, achievement, responsibility, recognition and advancement. These factors are simply defined as “motivators” as they determine the motivation success of the employees (Herzenberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). While satisfaction is largely influenced by motivating factors, dissatisfaction on the other end is usually influenced by factors defined by (Herzenberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959) as “hygiene factors”. The hygiene factors are extrinsic to the work and include factors such as the: company’s policies, working conditions, management practices, pay plan among others. Even though changes in “hygiene” factors are good, work motivation and satisfaction will only be enhanced to the extent the key motivators are incorporated into the company. It however important to note that researchers later found out that intrinsic and extrinsic factors varied among different demographics such as the age groups and education levels (Schroer, 2008). Another study conducted in China found out that extrinsic factors have the power of overriding the intrinsic motivation factors and affecting the overall employees’ job satisfaction (Yang, 2011). The theory presented by Herzenberg also does not provide a specific measure that can quantify the absence or presence of the motivation factors in a given job (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). The studies show us that even though the intrinsic factors play a large role in determining the employees’ satisfaction, the extrinsic factors equally cannot be assumed or left unattended. It shows the large research gap that still exist in defining employees’ satisfaction and the key motivators to this satisfaction; factors which are essential in the overall work redesign.

Intrinsic satisfaction can be gained from activating or expressing an individual’s traits. The theory of activation stipulates that intrinsic satisfaction can be achieved when the work environment allows the employees to freely express their personality traits. The quality and significance of the job task plays an important role in the activation of such traits (Simonet & Tett, 2012). Only in such occasions will the activation produce an intrinsic reward or job satisfaction which results to increased job performance and subsequently also brings forth extrinsic rewards such as status and pay raise (Tett, Simonet, Walser, & Brown, 2013). Traits are essential as they provide a predictive pattern of behavior from the workforce (Caspi, Roberts, & Shiner, 2005). Among the five major traits, conscientiousness has always been ranked high in influencing job performance (John & Srivastava, 1999).

Even though activating of individual’s trait is important in enhancing intrinsic satisfaction, (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) gives a critical analysis on the loopholes found in this argument. First, they argue that the activation theory might be of “considerable use” in situations where the task is highly repetitive. Second, the theory has provided little information on overstimulating jobs. In their criticism, they further assert that the success of activation theory will be actualized when it addresses “two thorny problems.’ First is to provide a means through which it can measure the level of actualization of individuals in work environment. The second one is to address the ambiguities related to the “changing levels in stimulation.”

Intrinsic satisfaction is also largely determined by the job characteristics. The study by (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) was mainly driven by the quest of understanding this point. Their main hypothesis stipulates that “employees who work on jobs high on the core dimensions show high work motivation, satisfaction, performance, and attendance” (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Most of these job characteristics- which will critically analyze in the next chapters of this study are ingrained in the core dimensions that their research covered. Another study conducted by (Bhatti & Shaikh, 2012) found out that feedback and autonomy, which are key job characteristics increases the sense of belonging and ownership in employees as it allows them to have control or choose their most suitable working methods. Research conducted by (Hackman & Lawler, 1971) further compounds the argument as it establishes that the attitudes and general behavior of employees at work is largely determined by the job nature or characteristics. The study gives a suggestion of four dimensions; task identity, feedback, variety and autonomy, under which employees should react. They further propose that employees who highly regard the intrinsic satisfaction should consider job areas with such kind of characteristics (Hackman & Lawler, 1971).

Job Characteristic Model

To further refine our arguments, this study delves deeper into the core job dimensions and understand how they affect the intrinsic satisfaction in a work environment. The study by (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) looks at motivation by measuring core job dimensions from the three critical psychological states. This statement is reinstated by (Hackman & Lawler, 1971) in their argument that the experience of a worker is positively affected to the degree of his learning (which is the knowledge he manages to acquire) from his work experience (which is the experienced responsibility) and through which he is able to execute the significant tasks (which in the psychological states is what we refer to as the “experienced meaningfulness”). As a result, the individual forms what (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) refers to as “a self-perpetuating cycle of positive work motivation.” This cycle and effect; powered by the self-generated rewards (experienced in the psychological states) is what propels the motivated individuals to always work harder and increase in their performance.

The success of the psychological states described above is largely linked to the job characteristics or the core dimensions now in the given work environment. The psychological state of experienced meaningfulness is linked to three key job characteristics that include: the skill variety, the task identity and the significance of the task. Skill variety is the degree or the number of skills an individual needs to posses in order to tackle a given work. Human capital can be improved through avenues such as staff training or job rotation (Holtom, Terence, & Thomas, 2006). Task identity is now owning the outcome of the given task, which (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) define as the degree of which a job is finished from the start to the end. Lastly, the task significance is the impact that comes forth as a result of executing a given task.

The second psychological state which is the experienced responsibility is determined by the job characteristic of autonomy. Unlike the experienced meaningfulness which is determined by three job characteristics, experienced responsibility is determined by the independence or freedom an individual enjoys from their work (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). A longitudinal study on a sample of 20,000 employees over a period of two years, managed to establish that higher levels of autonomy had a positive effect on the job satisfaction in a workplace (Wheatley, 2017). Other important insights from the study were that the autonomy in the organizations measured differed between the gender and the occupations of the workers. The measurement used was the autonomy the employees had over their working hours. The highest levels of autonomy were reported among those in the managerial positions and it was lowest among those in the skilled bracket; the majority of whom entirely lacked autonomy over their working hours (Wheatley, 2017). It is important to note that the COVID-19 pandemic has however seen a significant rise in employee autonomy as most organizations restructured and allowed their employees to work from their homes (Fana., et al, 2020).

Lastly, the third psychological state which is the knowledge of results is determined by the job characteristic of feedback. Feedback is simply the clarity in information of the performance of a given task (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Feedback provides a sense of value and self-awareness in the employee (Anseel & Lievens, 2007). It also gives clarity on information especially on what is expected as the employees are able to learn from their mistake and strengths. The feedback also provides a parameter that help measure on the skill level of the employees and how the organization as a whole can improve on the other job characteristics in order to influence the workers intrinsic satisfaction and the overall extrinsic satisfaction that in turn will affect the company’s performance (Anseel & Lievens, 2007).


To measure the effectiveness and the validity of the job description model, (Hackman & Oldham, 1976) conducted an empirical study on a sample of 658 employees with heterogenous characteristics. Their study found no evidence in the assumption that individuals who had low growth needs had a negative reaction to enriched or complex kind of tasks. While the research agrees it is true that individuals with high growth needs have always showed a positive reaction to complex assignments or jobs, the same measure also showed a positive reaction among the employees who were categorized at the bottom-quartile in terms of growth needs. An interesting finding from the study was that need of change in an individual might largely be determined by the complexity of the given job or task (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). The complexity of the work creates in the individual the need to grow so as to effectively handle the given assignment.

The job characteristic model provides an efficient tool for measuring the job characteristics or core dimensions in relation to psychological states and the growth or satisfaction of the individual. The model provides a diagnosis tool for jobs that might be considered for redesigning. It looks at the core dimensions that an organization might urgently need in order to increase performance while at the same time addressing or measuring its employees’ responsiveness or readiness to the given work. The model also provides a framework under which organizations are able to monitor and evaluate improvements in the key areas of job dimensions.

The model is not fully dependable because of a number of limiting factors. First, the model fails to address the problem of repetitive tasks (Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Second limitation is that it fails to effectively address the situational, interpersonal and technical moderators. Lastly, the model has no capacity to measure team assignments as it only looks at individual kind of work. The structuring of a model that can measure group tasks will help in providing more reliable data on variables such as autonomy and feedback. The problem is in the process of structuring such kind of tasks in an organization.


Anseel, F., & Lievens, F. (2007). The long-term impact of the feedback environment on job satisfaction: A field study in a Belgian context. Applied Psychology, 56(2), 254-266. Retrieved 2022

Bhatti, S. N., & Shaikh, M. F. (2012). Job Satisfaction and motivation in banking industry in Pakistan. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 2(3), 54-62. Retrieved 2022

Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: stability and change. Annual Review Psychology, 56, 453-484. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913

Fana, M., Milasi, S., Naprierala, J., Fernandez-Macias, E., & Vázquez, G. I. (2020). Telework, work organisation and job quality during the COVID-19 Crisis: a qualitative study. JRC Working Papers Series on Labour, Education and Technology.

Hackman, J. R. (1975). On the coming demise of job enrichment. In E.L. Class and F.G. Zimmer (Eds), Man and work in society. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 250-279.

Hackman, R. J., & Lawler, E. E. (1971). Employee reactions to job characteristics. Journal of Applied Psychology Monograph, 55, 259-286. Retrieved 2022

Herzenberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The Motivation to Work. New York: John Wileye & Sons.

Holtom, B. C., Terence, M. R., & Thomas, L. W. (2006). Increasing human and social capital by applying job embeddedness theory. Organizational dynamics, 35(4), 316-331. Retrieved 2022

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five Trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. Handbook of personality: Theory and research, 102-138.

Kalleberg, A. L. (1977). Work values and job rewards: A theory of job satisfaction. American sociological review, 124-143.

Schroer, W. J. (2008). Generations X, Y, Z and the Others. The Journal of the Household Goods Forwarders Association of America, 9-11.

Simonet, D. V., & Tett, R. P. (2012). Five Perspectives on the Leadership–Management Relationship: A Competency-Based Evaluation and Integration. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 20(2), 199-213. Retrieved February 2022, from

Tett, R. P., Simonet, D. V., Walser, B., & Brown, C. (2013). Trait activation theory: Applications, developments, and implications for person-workplace fit. Handbook of personality at work, 71-100.

Wheatley, D. (2017, March 5). Autonomy in Paid Work and Employee Subjective Well-Being. Journal Work and Occupations, 44(3), 296-328. Retrieved February 2022, from

Yang, F. (2011). Work, Motivation and Personal Characteristics: An In-Depth Study of Six Organizations in Ningbo. Chinese Management Studies, 5(3), 272-297.

5 Reducing Carbon Footprint In Colleges Name Institution Course Date Reducing Carbon


Reducing Carbon Footprint In Colleges





Reducing Carbon Footprint In Colleges

Climate change has been a concern in the global arena for years now, and policymakers are implementing various measures to safeguard the future of the country. Generally, the natural causes of climate change include the sun’s proximity to Earth. However, researchers discovered that humans negatively impact the environment. But there are many things humans can control that have a big impact on climate, as listed below. People pollute the planet by burning fossil fuels like coal and oil. Fossil fuels are used to create electricity, transportation, heat, and goods.

After attending the webinar on climate change, I have learned that even small daily changes can make a big difference in someone’s life. Most of the webinars focused on how colleges and people are becoming more eco-friendly to achieve their goals. I have learned that college campuses are becoming hotbeds for new ideas and small changes that can make a big difference. Colleges and universities are being asked to reduce their carbon footprints from the top down. This has resulted in many environmental projects for college students.

One noticeable policy is smart housing. Smart housing is one of the ways colleges are looking to reduce their carbon footprints. On traditional college campuses, eco-friendly dorms and apartments are being built. Environmentally friendly projects like solar panels, passive lighting, and reclaimed wood change the landscape literally and figuratively. Green buildings are now part of some campus designs (Li et al., 2020). Infrastructure managers can rate a building’s eco-friendliness. A building’s environmental friendliness is determined by its LEED certification level. Online college students must be aware of this because it helps them make better decisions about where to live and how the building is currently maintained.

Many colleges are trying new ways to get around climate change by creating awareness programs. Many students may be unaware of how much waste transportation contributes to pollution due to gas emissions. Walking or cycling from A to B can significantly reduce emissions. Students can also take the school’s shuttle service to and from school. You can use shuttles or carpool to go to college, reducing pollution and the carbon footprint of each driver.

Colleges should encourage students to recycle and compost and monitor the school’s electricity usage moving forward. Globally, people are becoming more interested in recycling (Jay et al., 2019). Many wastes can be reused, such as food scraps that can be composted for gardens and farms.

A refill station in the college kitchen can also help students. For those who don’t want to use single-use plastic water bottles, inexpensive refillable bottles are available (Jay et al., 2019). If your campus lacks these items, you should ask the administration to provide more.

Money-back programs can also help universities and colleges. A waste reduction incentive program can help reduce waste. Some universities reward students who bring their cups and spoons.

Colleges can also adopt organic farming around the campuses. On campuses with lots of open space, you can start a farm. Students will be able to help grow their food, reducing future food costs and waste.

Additionally, colleges can reduce their electricity usage. Electricity contributes to air pollution. When leaving a room, turn off the lights and any unneeded electronics—saving money on electricity bills and saving a lot of electricity over time.


Jay, J. A., D’Auria, R., Nordby, J. C., Rice, D. A., Cleveland, D. A., Friscia, A., … & Wesel, E. (2019). Reduction of the carbon footprint of college freshman diets after a food-based environmental science course. Climatic Change, 154(3), 547-564.

Li, J., Sun, P., & Zhang, X. (2020, August). Research on Low-Carbon Campus Based on Carbon Footprint Model. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 558, No. 4, p. 042014). IOP Publishing.

1 Reflective Essay Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Course Date People find it


Reflective Essay

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



People find it hard to interact with people having mental or physical disabilities in the contemporary world. According to Guha (2010), most people look down on disabled people and mistreat them. However, it’s important to remember that disabled people should be treated in the same manner as everyone else, despite these legitimate reservations. Seeing an individual with a disability for who they are, rather than their impairment, is the most crucial component of connecting with that person. According to Goodley (2016), most people fail to appreciate and respect people with disabilities in modern society. In my line of duty, I encountered one man who gave me an account of his story, more specifically, the perspectives which society holds on disabled people in society.

Jerry, a father to three kids, is 53 years old single dad suffering from paraplegia. He’s self-dependent, owns a home, has created a family, and his grown children continue to turn to him for guidance. Jerry just resigned from his job as a lawyer in 2009, and he started participating in and coaching a variety of sports. Jerry got a chance to even participate in the Boston Marathon through sports and games, which he described as “a great experience.” Jerry has been disabled for more than 35 years. Jerry was knocked down by a drunk motorist on December 3, 1976 (International Persons with Disabilities Day). After the accident, he was left with partial paraplegia. Jerry decided that the incident would not define his life. He embraced positivity, and he is a successful businessman. Jerry lives his life in the same way as anybody else who does not have a disability would live.

According to Jerry, there are many things he can do, and there are other things he cannot do. He drives a car, and he is not poor, neither is he rich takes pleasure in being healthy and self-independent. Nevertheless, as a disabled person, Jerry has encountered several difficulties. During his recovery from recent surgery, his rehabilitation doctors could not look beyond his condition, which forced him to undergo tests and get extra therapy appointments that a person who is not disabled would not receive. While he was getting ready for the surgery, a nurse informed him that he did not need an epidural since he had paraplegia.

As a person who has lived with a handicap for more than 35 years, Jerry has experienced a lot of hardships. Many of the hurdles and attitudes against persons with disabilities that he has seen over the years have persisted. In the meanwhile, he has seen several beneficial developments in the effort to encourage individuals with disabilities to be physically active via leisure options such as golf, hiking, and even fishing. Nowadays, groups like Lakeshore Foundation – where Jerry volunteers his time instructing young basketball and track – are available to help disabled individuals involved in such leisure activities. From Jerry’s story, we can see how society looks down upon disabled people and the need to create awareness of the issue.


Guha, M. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human Development. Reference Reviews.

Goodley, D. (2016). Disability studies: An interdisciplinary introduction. Sage.

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I agree that health compliance is required to prevent wastage, fraudulent behavior and resource abuse in any healthcare organization. This ensures effectiveness and efficiency in healthcare delivery. Prioritizing patient care over specialist care has been obvious in recent years that it improves patient outcomes by expanding access to treatment, enhancing continuity of care between patients and clinicians, and reducing unnecessary deaths. Participating in quality improvement projects is crucial for attaining the three objectives of population health improvement, improved patient quality and outcomes, and decreased per capita cost of care, in addition to enhancing provider experience(Grahovac, 2021). The organization must create an ethical compliance environment, which will be supervised and implemented by a senior administrative manager appointed by the company. Clients must register, complete with full personal information, in order to be assessed for health and nutrition programs eligibility. With the involvement of HIPAA there is significant increase in healthcare efficiency, promote healthcare insurance portability, and safeguard the security of health information, patients’ and health plan members’ privacy must be respected, and patients must be notified of data breaches(Grahovac, 2021). Client registration and data gathering are required in order to provide services.


Grahovac, K. S. (2021). The Importance of Compliance with the Health Insurance Portability Act (HIPAA): Creating and Maintaining a HIPAA Compliance Program Does Not Have to Be a Daunting Task. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 23(1), 57–60.