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Sexual Harassment:Policy Elements History Assignment Example

The company’s Human Resource Department is responsible for sexual harassment and discrimination policy that aims to protect employees working in the company from unwanted sexual advances and discriminatory acts. The company has adopted the policy to ensure that mutual respect and collaboration in the workplace. Sexual harassment and discrimination are against these principles. The policy applies to every person working in the company, including employees, investors, customers, and contractors. The policy applies to every person in the company regardless of gender, seniority level, function, status, and sexual orientation.

Policy Elements

Sexual harassment

Sexual harassment is unwelcome conduct that is sexual and makes a person feel offended, intimidated, and humiliated.  Sexual harassment includes instances where employees are required to engage in sexual activity for employment. It also covers all situations that create a hostile, intimidating and humiliating environment. It further includes instances when someone mentions, demands or proposes sexual favours of any kind. Other acts that are considered by the policy sexual harassment include invading another person’s personal space by inappropriate touching. Stalking, coercing or threatening another person to engage in sexual acts. Pursuing or flirting with another person consistently without their willing participation will also be considered as sexual harassment.

Any person found guilty of sexual harassment will be terminated regardless of their position in the company. The company will also treat all reported instances of sexual harassment as legitimate until proven otherwise.  The company will listen to the victims of harassment and conduct follow up investigations to ascertain the truth in the allegations. Further, the company will ensure that employees who are victims of sexual harassment will not be victimized. The company will consider individuals who support or overlook sexual harassment as much at fault as the offenders themselves. The policy requires managers and senior officers to prevent acts of sexual harassment as per their powers.  Encouraging behaviour will bring about disciplinary actions.

On the other hand, discrimination is any negative attitude or action directed at someone because of their characteristics, such as gender and race. Employers should establish disciplinary actions for employees who discriminate against other employees. Employers should also demote or terminate other employees, depending on the severity of their actions. Employees should refrain from making discriminatory remarks and should report to the human resource in cases of discrimination.

Technology and Privacy

The company will not allow employees to use their work computers for personal purposes.  The company will be responsible for ensuring that the work computers will be used for proper purposes and not for unlawful conduct such as information theft. For this reason, the company will use monitoring software which will monitor emails and take screenshots in regards to what is on the screen.

The company expects the employees to use work computers responsibly. The company will take action on employees who use the workplace computer systems for information theft, harassment and similar unlawful acts.  Employees should note that all emails and computer files given by the business should be used for strictly business purposes.  All computer passwords and codes must be available to the company at all times.  No employee is permitted to add a pirated or unauthorized software and programs to the work computers.

Employees found using the work computers for personal use or unlawful conduct will be subjected to disciplinary action.  The consequences include termination of employment and possible criminal prosecution.

Employment policy on termination

The company expects its employees to lead to productivity and profitability. The progress of the employees will be evaluated by the reaching of specific milestones on individual goals and objectives. Profitability will be evaluated against the established budget for each activity, and the resource utilization will evaluate efficiency in the organizational unit. If an employee does not meet the expected work performance, the company will issue him/her with a warning letter informing him of the potential consequences and an extended period of evaluation. If the employee does not make significant changes within the given period, the company will consider termination.  In case of termination, the company will give the employee a notice of termination of employment three months before the termination is effected. The company anticipates that employees will give excuses unto why they do not meet the performance standards. The excuses will not be accepted unless a solid ground is established. Such excuses include personal problems and unrealistic expectations.


Part 2: Memorandum of Law

Sexual and verbal harassment and discrimination:

The law that governs sexual and verbal harassment is the Human Rights Act Chapter 214 of the Revised Statutes, 1989.  The law addresses the issue of sexual harassment and claims that every person has a right to live and work free from any form of sexual harassment. The Canadian Human Rights Commission is responsible for administering the Act.  Sexual harassment complaints should be directed to the commission. However, sexual harassment disputes can be handled internally in a given company through internal resolution processes, grievances processes and through the public service labour relations board, which also has the jurisdictions to apply the human rights act.

What Penalties Does The Law Mandate To Address Sexual Harassment?

The Act states that sexual harassment is an offence that is punishable on conviction. People guilty of sexual harassment are liable for an imprisonment of fewer than eighteen months for complainants under the age of sixteen years and imprisonment for a term of not less than two years for adults.

How Does The Law Address Discrimination?

Section 3 of the Canadian Humans Rights Act makes it illegal for employers to discriminate against people or unfairly treat them based on the grounds of race, colour, age, sex, national origin, marital status and disability. The Act further states that employers are responsible for any form of discrimination in the workplace. They are, therefore, responsible for taking the appropriate action against employees who discriminate against others. According to the Act, employers should come up with anti-discriminatory policies that should govern their workplaces. Employees are tasked with the mandate of ensuring that they treat each other equally without undue favours or indifferent attitudes towards people of a different race, sex, marital status, national origin or disability.

What are the weaknesses of the law?

The law requires that companies and employers come up with employment policies and to solve sexual harassment internally. Following this rule, some employers fail to develop policies on sexual harassment. The situation leaves the victims without a platform to air their grievances. The internal bodies responsible for solving the issue of sexual harassment and discrimination often favour the senior employees and the managing body of the company.  The recommended solution for the weakness is for the human rights act to incorporate a more straightforward process where junior employees can report sexual harassment cases without involving the internal working body.


Technology and Privacy

According to PIPEDA Legal requirements for privacy in the workplace

The Privacy Act protects individuals in a working environment with the right to collect and request their records and the right to change their records if they are not accurate, timely or relevant. On the other hand, PIPEDA governs how employers and private companies collect and disclose personal information relating to their employees. The Act gives a right for individuals to know the intention of why an organization collects, uses and discloses their personal information.  Further, the Act states that it’s a right for individuals to know the person in an organization who is responsible for collecting their personal information.  The PIPEDA requires organizations to obtain relevant consent from the individuals when they collect, disclose and use their information.

Legal Consequences for Violation of Privacy Laws

PIPEDA requires that individuals report to the office of privacy if their privacy rights are violated. The commissioner then investigates the complaint and come up with a conclusion.  Companies and employers who knowingly violate the privacy requirements face fines of up to $ 100, 000 per violation.  The legal requirements of the PIPEDA are administered by the federal commissioner who has the authority

What is the law of termination?

             The labour standards code is the law responsible for addressing the termination of employees in Canada. The law requires employers to tell the employees their intent to fire or lay them off through a written notice. The law further states that a given time before the letter and the actual day the employee leaves, the premises must be given. The labour standard codes further discuss condonation, progressive discipline, the right to end the employment without notice and the changes in the terms and conditions of the employment.

What are the weaknesses, in your opinion?

The law creates exceptions whereby employers can fire or lay off an employee without adequate notice. The exceptions provide a window where employers can comfortably lay off employees without following the given standards. The law can address the issue by writing off the given exceptions. It should require the employers to give a notice of termination off employment despite the period that the employee has worked for the organization.

Workers compensation

The labour standard code is the law responsible for workers’ compensation in Canada. The code discusses the minimum wage order. The code requires employers to pay employees at least $ 12.55 per hour. The code further discusses the overtime rates, call in, waiting for work, piecework, board and longing and deductions for uniform—the ActAct aims at ensuring that workers are adequately compensated for all the time spent at the workplace.

Gaps in the Workers Compensation Law

The law does not address the specific costs of overtime hours taken by the employees. Further, the code fails to discuss injuries compensation in the workplace. An employer, therefore, has to determine the costs of overtime hours worked. He further has to source information on law and injuries from other laws, which shows discontinuity. The solution to bridging the gaps should involve the addition of segments of information on injuries compensation to the code.

How the Assignment Helped Me

Developing an employment policy and writing a memorandum of law has opened my eyes to the practicability of employment policies in the workplace. I have realized that employment policies handle almost all the different challenges that may be experienced in the workplace. Some of the issues I have realized may be present in a workplace include sexual harassment and discrimination, termination of employment and workplace privacy. This paper has helped me realize the employment laws required to address the issues.

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The Symposium by Plato ap american history essay help: ap american history essay help

Reader Response #2: The Symposium

The Symposium by Plato is essential not only for its literary value but also for its philosophical value. The story gives useful insights into the conduct of Greek Symposia. The story gives useful insights into the social life of Athenians during ancient times. It is filled with remarkable interpretive remarks and provides figures and contexts on which people can reflect. More importantly, the most remarkable insight of the text is the ‘Theory of Forms’ and the different perspectives of love.  The text makes useful suggestions on the origin of philosophy and love. It also offers guidance on how people thought back then and why.

The major theme of the symposium has to do with    Plato’s perception of beauty and love. Plato notes in the text that true love cannot be obtained through physical pleasures but goes deeper to include the consumption of beauty and wisdom. In his argument, Plato noted that love rises from levels of closeness into the depths of wisdom. According to Plato, physical pleasures and desires were feelings that supplemented love. The modern society has, however, diverted from Plato’s theory. Love in the modern society is demonstrated through physical pleasures and mostly through engagement in sexual intercourse. Many people in search of love are mostly attracted to the physical appearance of other people, and the decision of whether to get involved with them lies with whether they can obtain physical pleasure from the given person.  The diversion from Plato’s theory in the text has led to significant consequences in modern society, such as increased divorce rates.

It’s in my thinking that Diotima gives the best interpretation of the term love. She claims that all human desires are not to be considered as love and that humans tend to associate the term with the desire that exists between two human beings. She notes that love is neither mortal nor immortal.  Instead, she claims that love is a spirit that falls in the middle of a god and a human being. Love is a spirit, and she explains it serves as an intermediary between God and humans. Diotima argues that love is not beautiful good, but neither is it ugly or wrong.  It is somewhere between the good and the bad.  Diotima supports her claim in that love cannot be a god by arguing that love lacks what gods always possess, the good and the beautiful. More insight into Diotimas statement is obtainable by learning about the origin of love. Claims are that love’s father is a resource while the mother is poverty.  Love, as a result, has numerous contrasting characteristics.  On the right side, love is brave and seeks after wisdom while on the other hand, it is unfortunate and homeless. The description of beauty, as demonstrated by Diotima, is interesting as it explains the immense variables and characteristics of love. For some, love is known to be excellent and beautiful, brings pleasures and joy while for others, love is ugly and causes them immense pain and heartbreaks.

In regards to beauty, Diotima notes that beauty is the only form that without perspective.  It is an intriguing view that if actual, would be instrumental in understanding the interest of human beings on the appearance of a person. Beauty has, in many instances, is associated with goodness.  Whatever is beautiful is considered to be good. Diotima agreed with Socrates that everyone wants what is right and happiness in their lives. The Platos theory is not applicable in modern society as the idea of beauty is always shifting. The modern world is experiencing an expansive where everybody is considered to be beautiful. Beauty in modern society lies in the eye of the beholder.

Plato’s definition of love revolves around consuming as much wisdom as possible.  The theory is interesting but would be hard to put across in the modern society.  As the current world becomes more materially advanced, material goods and their significance in love are becoming more critical and therefore downplay Plato’s theory. In my thinking, I feel like the current society is operated more through tangible material forms than abstract ideas.  The theory is, however, applicable in modern society because as people operate through tangible material forms, divorce rates are on the rise. The rise in divorce and separation rates in modern society implies that people are not seeking wisdom in love, and those material things cannot satisfy the deepest love desires in a person.

Ultimately, Platos concludes that the search for knowledge and wisdom is the most valuable journey in life. The text comes up with this conclusion through the character speeches which brings us closer to the truth and in the end, Platos combines the thoughts and brings together what he considers to be the definition of love. Plato considers love to rise through levels of closeness to the point of wisdom.  He further views true beauty to rise from carnal attraction to an attraction of souls and finally to the truth.

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A Comparative Assessment of Classical and Social Media Networks history essay help

A Comparative Assessment of Classical and Social Media Networks


Our communication and media habits are progressively advancing towards social media and digital domains (Wolfsfeld, Segev, & Sheafer 116). In the past, a promotion on the television was enough to convince one to make a purchase. Nevertheless, times have changed, and these days, consumers consider comparative assessments before making purchase decisions. The advent of the internet has expanded the scope of media by introducing novel platforms. Social media has gained constant traction over the past two decades and offers alternative access to entertainment or promotional content. The ensuing analysis concerns personal experiences interacting with both the classical and digital broadcasting platforms. Previous engagement with the TV and Facebook form the center of the reflections.

Classical Media Experience

Anderson and Nielsen (122) describe traditional media as “old media’ and one comprising the television, radio, newspapers, and magazine ads when related to marketing. The duo adds that the media refers to types of mass broadcasting that concentrate on delivering news to a targeted group or population. My experience engaging with these media for entertainment and information access has been since my childhood. They were the only ways individuals and marketing firms could get their messages out to the public. For the sake of this assessment, the focus is more on television content, which has been most prevalent.

Whenever I needed access to specialized content for various reasons, traditional media platforms became instrumental. For example, television programs, such as CNN, BBC, and Aljazeera, have been supportive in accessing breaking news in the USA, London, the Arab World, or across other parts of the world. Global news channels have a significant degree of credibility since groups of content experts, editors, and verifiers often review and approve the content (EBU (European Broadcasting Union 3). Besides, as I often found out, CNN and BBC have dedicated reporters with rapid access to different parts of the world, making their access to breaking news content faster, timely, and much livelier than the other channels. During the September 11 terrorist attacks by the group named Al-Qaeda, most of the world could access information via news channels. The coverage was extensive and highly informative.

Moreover, in seeking entertainment in times when relaxation is a priority, a variety of entertainment channels have been exceptional. An assortment of entertainment-based media is available, ranging from cartoons to films, songs, comedy, short programs, and so on. The varied content on television channels is broad and tailored to the tastes and preferences of different audiences (Anderson and Nielsen 125). For example, cartoon programs, such as Nickelodeon, target children and are indispensable if one has children aged between 1 and 8 years. Music, on the other hand, suits teenagers more than it does for adults. Consequently, depending on the visitors I had, I would select appropriate channels for entertainment consumption.

Similarly, I have sought the support of informative and educative channels at times. A variety of science-led television programs have been insightful, especially in schooling times. Sanderson (74), asserts that in a highly dynamic and competitive world, seeking information can set one apart from others in accessing limited opportunities. For example, I first understood the complicated Iron Ore Smelting Process from a demonstration on the Discovery channel. These media have tailor-made content that inspires learners or audiences seeking to expand their knowledge on matters regarding the natural world and complex mechanisms.

I have often resorted to the National Geographic channel in seeking clarifications of significant crises. After an introduction to topics on operations and risk management in my high school learning, I developed an interest in disaster management. The channel’s coverage of the 1977 Tenerife Airport Disaster, termed by Moonman (2011) as the worst in aviation history, helped me appreciate the complex process of managing flights.

Finally, on many occasions, I have relied on the television for spiritual nourishment. On Sundays, and in those times when I felt disillusioned, I have found refuge in virtual sermons. Television-based sermon services are relatively new and have picked pace across the world, as ministers of the gospel seek larger masses. In the past, delivering sermons would be through physically present audiences, or via magazines, and flyers, mostly on Sundays. These days, however, ministers prefer the TV or digital media, which have unlimited potential, and in which delivering sermons has no geographic or time limitations.

Social Media Interaction

According to Roy (1) of PRSA, active social media users are more than 3.8 billion, or more than half of the world’s population. Moreover, the number keeps increasing by 321,000,000 users annually. Social media popularity has proliferated since the inception of computers and the internet that happened three decades ago. My engagement on the platform began with Facebook but has since grown to encompass several other networking sites.

Unlike traditional media, social networking sites establish social connections (Peter 578). The social media companies have built reliable platforms with supportive directives that mimic physical association. For example, Facebook has the “Add Friend,” “Comment,” “Like,” “Share,” and many other features that make interaction livelier than ever. I can build social relationships with people of similar career or personal interests, backgrounds, activities, or real-life associations without first resorting to bridging the physical and geographical barriers. The range of friends I possess today is broad. I have virtual friends in parts of the world I have never visited, and yet we frequently engage like we have known each other for long. The potential of social media to an individual is significant.

Besides social bonding, Roy (1) adds that users have spontaneous access to all sorts of content, including breaking news, educative or academic content, scientific information, entertainment, amongst many others. Taking the example of Facebook, perusing across the “home” button leads one to a variety of news content posted by friends and family. Also, subscribing to a “group” exposes one to critical pieces of information suitable.

The sites also have a strong influence on purchasing behavior. Tejavibulya and Eiamkanchanalai (14) find that, on average, consumers are five times more influenced by family and friends than celebrities in determining what to buy. The emotional desire to keep pace with fashion trends, as promoted by trending friends, has driven some of my purchasing decisions. For example, my previous Apple iPhone 8 purchase decision on January 20, 2020, followed an emotional appeal from a friend who kept bragging how powerful the camera was. Indeed, the pictures taken on the smartphone were terrific and desirable.

 Analysis of the Benefits

Both classical broadcasting and social media have their sets of benefits and drawbacks. To some extent, they complement each other. The following assessment concerns the benefits I derived from employing the service of each media.

a) Advantages of the Television

Tailoring media content is possible. Anderson and Nielsen (124) concur that the channels often target specialized audiences with distinct tastes and preferences, which helps reinforce the message. I often find traditional media preferable when seeking an in-depth and analytical perspective of information content. For instance, the coverage offered by news channels is often intensive and extensive, meeting the audiences’ thirst for information.

I also agree with Saglik and Ozturk (76) perspective finding a television’s competitive advantage as being an ability to combine sight and sound. This ability supports promoters and markets in their quest to win the undivided attention of viewers. Marketers can push a product in personalized ways into millions of homes all over a region, illustrating how its faster, better, more reliable, longer-lasting, or higher. They can offer demonstrations right in front of the audience using exciting approaches, such as celebrities or animations.

The mechanism also offers empathy and emotion, which are influential in positively affecting purchase behavior. Innovative TV ads are more than talking, walking information content. Marketers can tailor content to appeal to an audiences’ emotions and empathy by creating urges to react, laugh, smile, or cry. The combination of motion pictures and audio content makes attaining this objective much easier.

b) Benefits of Social Media (Facebook)

I have learnt that the inclination to social aspects makes the approach highly engaging. Van der Bank (5) the importance of this function in tourism. The researcher asserts that the user-generated content, comprising the capability for photo, video, and comment sharing is a leading influence of tourists’ destination choices. Personally, visuals of friends commenting or taking pictures and videos on attractive venues make me want to visit these places.

Content is also timely and hence relevant in making emergency decisions. Unlike the highly moderated television content limited by content, time, and portability, social media content is accessible in real-time and almost anywhere.

Compared to television-led broadcasting, Facebook marketing is far less expensive. A promoter pays a fraction of the regular media price to reach the same size of the audience, or even more. According to Van der Bank (4), a Cost-Per-Thousand Impression (CPM) analysis conducted in 2018 by the Digital Media Metrics gave the following results. Social media cost the least at less than $3, the radio came in second at $10, and TV came in last at $28. The cost of television was mainly 7 times more expensive.

Lastly, cultivating trust is easier on social media when there is continued engagement. Unlike the command-driven impersonal promotions on television broadcasts, the approach is two-way and fosters an understanding between interacting parties. Buyers can pose queries to customer care agents and receive immediate clarifications, which builds confidence.

 Analysis of the Disadvantages

a) Drawbacks of Television

Unlike social media, this approach is top-down and forces opinions on buyers in the hope that repetition will result in desirable behavioral change. The absence of effective consultative platforms in which clients raise concerns and have questions addressed lessens the effectiveness of the mechanism as a medium of communication and promotion. Consequently, complementing this approach with direct telecommunications or social media access is essential.

Also, the process of preparing an advert consumes significant resources. At times, users need to enlist the services of celebrities and famous personalities to tap into an expanded market share. Moreover, users need to engage the services of a television company, competing with many other marketing agencies for limited spots, which makes them expensive.

Furthermore, the nature of TV ads is such that repetition is essential to impart the messages to viewers. The expensive nature of this requirement limits the usefulness of TV ads to many users who cannot afford the services. Unlike television broadcasts, social media platforms deal with the need to make an influence by creating an engaging atmosphere instead of being repetitive, which is cost-effective.

Besides, adjusting TV ads is a costly endeavor making the platform inflexible. The consequence is that the user misses out tailoring ads to suit emerging opportunities. In rapidly changing competitive markets, this inability can cost the company missed fortunes. Regarding this matter, it would be critical to pay the utmost attention to the ad preparation phases.

Finally, Users of the traditional media platforms also face limitations because of a lack of portability. Often the only time when can access television content is when a TV is within the vicinity, which is mostly at home. This inconvenience degrades the relevance of the television-led promotion campaign. Making television content available on dedicated smartphone apps, making it transportable in the process, helps address this issue.

b) The Negatives of Social Media (Facebook)

Some of the content might be unprofessional because of limited moderation. Often Facebook and Twitter try to control harmful content through various means. Unfortunately, the efforts are never as effective as desired because of the enormous scope of the networks. Consequently, harmful or unprofessional content quickly gets their way onto the public scene. For example, on Facebook, someone can tag a friend or a company on undesirable platforms, attracting rebuke from fans and followers in the process.

Also, social media platforms are time-consuming. An individual might have to commit much of his or her time managing a profile. This resource might be at the expense of investing time in something different and more valuable. For companies, expanding the customer care section and retraining individuals might be essential before engaging the medium. Users must find a balance between posting content, responding to comments, monitoring content, and conducting analytics to understand the market impact.

Moreover, it takes time for users to feel an impact when employing social media-based promotions. This consequence is unlike what most companies desire. Many firms want to see immediate results when committing marketing funds. They want to know that the strategies are practical and that what they have invested is bearing positive results. Such users need patience and to believe that the process starts by winning relations and trust first before yielding positive feedback in increased earnings and market share.




Overall, there is a tradeoff between traditional and modern media platforms. Social media platforms enjoy increasing significance and acceptance amongst the masses, which is gradually making some aspects of classical marketing irrelevant. Nevertheless, some areas of conventional media exist that still make it matter. The fact that it combines voice, video, and pictures and targets a highly attentive audience creates a compelling platform for convincing viewers. Similarly, the fact that social media creates a two-way interaction resulting in confidence-building makes it equally compelling. Consequently, users might optimize the impact they have on the audience by employing both approaches appropriately. The companies that will benefit in the future will be the ones that can strike the right balance between the two.

Works Cited

Van der Bank. C. M. The Impact of Social Media: Advantages or Disadvantages. African

Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, vol. 4, no. 2, 2015

Tejavibulya, Pongsiri., and Eiamkanchanalai, Somkiat. The Impacts of Opinion Leaders towards

Purchase Decision Engineering under Different Types of Product Involvement, Systems Engineering Procedia, vol 2, 2011: 12-22

Peter, Markus. News Vs. Entertainment: How Increasing Media Choice Widens Gaps in

Political Knowledge and Turnout. American Journal of Political Science vol. 49, no. 3, 2016: 577–92.

Moonman, Josh. The World’s Worst Air Disaster. A Case Study of the Tenerife Airport Disaster,

ER, 2011

Wolfsfeld, Geer., Segev, Earnest., & Sheafer, Tilier, Social media, and the Arab Spring: Politics

comes first. The International Journal of Press/Politics, vol. 18, no. 2, 2013: 115–137

Anderson, Ian., & Nielsen, Askerhave. E., Digital genres: a challenge to traditional genre theory.

Information Technology & People, vol. 18, no.2, 2014: 120–141.

EBU (European Broadcasting Union). Viewpoint: Media Freedom and Pluralism, [Accessed on 3/12/2013]

Sanderson, S. K. Macrosociology. An introduction to human societies. New York: Harper

Collins, 2016 (Third edition).

Roy, Bailey, Social vs. Traditional Media: Has the Battle Already Ended? PRSA, [Accessed on 3/12/2013]

Saglik, Mediha., & Ozturk, Serap. Television as an Educational Technology: Using Television at

Open Education Faculty, Anadolu University. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, vol 2. No. 1, 2001: 74-81

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Organizational Change & Leadership from a Systems Perspective history assignment help in canada: history assignment help in canada

Organizational Change & Leadership from a Systems Perspective

Leadership is consequential in effecting organizational changes and strategic orientation. Multinational corporations continually develop and nurture leadership approaches they deem relevant for competing in their industries. Walmart, like many other retailers having a global footprint, employs participative decision leadership. The retailer hires personnel strictly according to how suitable they are in complementing other team players as per the leadership model. Leaders also appreciate the significant contribution of different sub-systems that operate jointly to support the attainment of corporate objectives. Successful leaders must be competent in harnessing the immense untapped potential in their team members, strategic balance concerns, and ensure the different sub-systems operate flawlessly in support of corporate goals. This approach in leadership is productive and has enabled Walmart to adapt appropriately and compete in a dynamic and rapidly altering the global business environment.

Participative Leadership Model at Walmart

Yiing and Ahmad (2009) define participative leadership as a style of leadership in which all members work in tandem to arrive at inclusive organization change decisions. According to the Walmart Management Blog (2020), the corporation prioritizes participative leadership and has in place broad programs to ensure an overall organizational direction towards this model. The mechanism begins with its leadership. Sam Walton once uttered the famous words, “Listen to your associates …they are the best idea generators,” while encouraging collaboration amongst leaders and members. The approach is also visible in the flat organization structure. Regional units have considerable autonomy in making and executing decisions. A, in hiring, the retailer also looks for extroverts or individuals who appear affectionate and those who are full of energy, practical, social, informal, and actively engaged. This calibre of employees is often considerate and willing to accommodate diverse views, which sanctions a collaborated approach in making and executing decisions. Buoyed by an ‘open door” policy, the retailer has seen increases in employee morale, retention, and productivity despite making significant policy transitions, such as the work-from-home program during the COVID-19 period. Moreover, inclusivity in decision-making is a recipe for nurturing innovation.

Alternate Leadership Model

Adopting a strategic leadership is equally sufficient. Drucker (2015) identifies strategic direction as an evolved democratic style of leadership in which focus is at the intersection between growth opportunities and primary operations. Under this approach, the leader is the primary source of organizational growth prospects. Leaders ensure stable current working conditions for everyone, even as they accept the burden of strategic change interests. The mechanism can help Walmart enhance the rate of growth into new markets and regions. Adopting the model, however, would require essential changes. Firstly, Walmart needs to trade some of its innovation requirements with growth needs, especially in higher levels of management. That is, the retailer needs to empower executives more than their subordinates, such that, at times, they can make decisions even without proper participation to guarantee organizational agility. Experts argue that those firms that are fast inappropriately positioning themselves benefit during changes in the market environment.

Strategic leadership empowers strategic leaders to make rapid business transitions, often in the best interest of the organization, which supports organizational competitiveness, lowers costs, and results in higher profitability (Drucker, 2015). The fact that an organization wastes less time in extensive consultations before making crucial decisions means that decisions are faster and cost-effective. Also, managers can take into consideration the immediate and long-term growth needs of Walmart to ensure continued market penetration.

Nevertheless, as Arnold Arad, Rhoades, and Drasgow (2015) attest, a preoccupation with strategic thinking can diminish the culture of creativity and innovativeness. Inventing new services and sales mechanisms is crucial to surviving in competitive market landscapes. Hence, Walmart should consider complementing strategic and participative leadership for an enhanced level of structural and decision-making effectiveness.

The Leader in an Organizational Performance

The leader is an indispensable aspect of implementing an effective management policy. They bind and energize the different structural elements of an organization in ways that support the attaining of corporate objectives (Arnold, Arad, Rhoades, & Drasgow, 2015). At Walmart, leaders inspire trust, execute strategies, develop and nurture human service potential, and create the vision. Moreover, they align the different managerial components or sub-systems, ensuring they complement each other and laying a foundation for adequate stability and effective performance.  Each of these systems is self-regulating, although it becomes ineffective without proper coordination with other mechanisms to attain overall positive performance. They entail the people, goals, tasks, structural, technology, and external interface sub-systems that collectively form and support the operations of the entire organization system.

Assessing Structural Sub-systems

Representation of the Six Sub-systems

Clawson (2016) defines a system as a set of interrelated components encompassed in a boundary absorbing inputs from other networks and transforming them into outputs that empower other systems. From this perspective, Walmart is not only a system but also a sub-system of the society in which it locates its operations. The corporation also constitutes of six main sub-systems that collectively promote corporate operational stability and performance.

People sub-systems consist of the members of Walmart team, authority style, relevant associations, information communication structures, and authority style, amongst others. They are the most critical resource controlled by the retailer, and their performance mostly bases on how driven they are or on the quality of leadership. Goals sub-system, on the other hand, concern connected corporate, departmental, and individual objectives that work harmoniously to support Walmart’s intent “to save people money so they can live better” (Mission Statement Academy, 2019). Also, there is structural sub-system. It entails workflow structures, workflow authority systems, procedures for performance direction, career development, and communication models supporting Walmart’s daily operations.

Technology is the other essential aspect. It composes the machinery, technical capabilities, tools, software, and production know-how (Clawson, 2016). An example is the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that allows Walmart’s operations to function effectively and efficiently by sending and receiving real-time information to networks located geographically apart (Mission Statement Academy, 2019). Then, task sub-systems compose a subset of the organization’s mission and objectives and concern the subdivision of tasks amongst the organization’s members. Finally, the extensive environmental setting in which the firm exists constitutes the external interface component. It concerns matters of public image, reputation, relations, branding, and social bonding endeavours. For example, as part of its CSR engagements, the retailer aims to employ its strengths and collaborate with other entities to create shared values for its employees, customers, and society. It supports and promotes diversity, inclusion, and equity across its operations, which helps establish sustainable relations with communities.

The Management of Organizational Subsystems

Clawson (2016) states that a hierarchical organization operates optimally as a system when the different interdependent components work in tandem to accomplish everyday tasks. The leaders at Walmart create, nurture, and maintain appropriate procedures and platforms that support the performance of these sub-systems. They ensure the removal of potential impediments or complications through proper planning and risk management measures. The more capable a leader is in directing the organization, the more effective the sub-system become. Business executives understand the essentiality of these mechanisms in attaining operational, tactical, and strategic objectives. They can employ the resourcefulness of their organization to create cost interaction of sub-systems and systems such that there is a decrease in wastages. For instance, having an information system at Walmart is not enough unless the system integrates seamlessly with other systems, such that workers can make optimal use of what it presents. Similarly, this system will have to support the other sub-systems in profitable ways. Walmart’s leaders play a vital role in ensuring the compatibility of new and existing systems.

Overall, Walmart can benefit from augmenting participative and strategic leadership approaches to balance innovation and change or growth requirements. Also, having a leadership that understands, appreciates, and seeks to streamline structural systems and sub-systems in pursuit of operational, tactical, and long-term effectiveness is essential. These components are at the centre of stable and prosperous human service organizations. The mechanisms adopted have proved beneficial to Walmart, which has always exhibited exemplary performance. Other corporations, especially those in highly competitive markets, can benefit in their future engagements by adopting Walmart’s leadership models. Nonetheless, more studies are essential to understand that participative leaders can complement strategic leadership.




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