2. A critical reflection on the drivers behind competitive advantage and an analysis on the contribution of process design and supply chain configuration in providing cost advantages.
3. An evaluation of the benefits and drawbacks of the utilised IT, software, and information systems in the management of operations.
4. An analysis of the utilised methods to monitor and control quality, and a conclusive statement on the functionality of the organisation in regard to systems, information, and processes.
5. Innovative recommendations to improve the operations of the selected organisation. This includes recommendations to improve structural issues that cover facilities, capacity, process design and technology, and supply networks, as well as infrastructural issues that include planning and control and management of resources. Note: your answer needs to cover issues that need improvement only, not all of the listed issues.
In addition, your assignm ent should demonstrate the following qualities: A critical appreciation of relevant literature and its use to support your argument, substantiate calculations, and address other aspects of the assignment. Taking ownership of the content, being prepared to debate and argue a personal position, and providing evidence of evaluative skills. A submission made up of extracts from published sources which is descriiptive or simply theoretical regurgitation is not acceptable. Your submission must have interpretation and consideration of the challenges and issues of applying theory to practice. Logical flow of ideas and treatment; appropriate selection of real-world factors related to the companies under scrutiny. Evidence of additional personal research, and the ability to analyse material from a variety of appropriate, relevant perspectives. Presentation, structure, appropriateness of methodology, breaking into section headings/subheadings, tidiness.
1 1 Vulnerable Consumer Groups Student Name Institution Corse name Instructor Date
Vulnerable Consumer Groups
Vulnerable Consumer Groups
Vulnerable consumers are a group of marginalized customers whenever a firm does not act for the general good of all its stakeholders with the appropriate level of care. The vulnerability may occur due to personal characteristics or corresponding personal circumstances. When addressing the issue of selling to vulnerable consumers, governance plays a critical role, especially concerning consumer protection policies. Most exploitable selling points are physical impairment, age, basic skills, financial capabilities, or mental health problems. From these emotional impairments, it’s clear that there should be more excellent governance since consumers have different experience levels. Age is one particular factor that can draw this difference. Social and economic deprivation is another cause of inequalities among consumers, which can stand to be exploited by marketers. The objective of introducing governance in this regard would be to create a level of competitiveness that does not seclude others (Carr, 2018).
From a Christian view, work and marketing to the vulnerable can be viewed from the context of relationships, creation, dominion mandate, and the perspective of work concerning the fall of man. Business and marketing have inherited the evil part from a Christian perspective, especially when selling to vulnerable people. Marketing is viewed as a means to an end, and as such, marketers will exploit people until they reach their goal, which is to increase revenues. An example is the food delivery companies that market their products to unknowing customers. Usually, their effects can harm their body weight and, consequently, their health. This in itself is selling products to people that, at the core, they do not need. Deception is another tactic used by businesses to market to vulnerable consumers. When a product does not provide its promised value, many might see it as a deception tactic (Straker & Wrigley, 2016).
Furthermore, whenever numerous advertisements back the product, people may perceive this as a way of influencing people’s beliefs. This may result in broken relationships and discord as people consider it time and money wasted on products that do not deliver value. Businesses do far and wide marketing, eventually trying to fit the product use to almost every aspect of life. Products and companies conceal this nature by creating emotional connections with the buyers. One example is a particular incident where nestle infused children’s desserts with caffein to have them hooked to the product. Unknown to them is the market customer loyalty retention strategy used that promoted evil instead of upholding values (Cannon et al., 2013).
Cannon, D. M., Godwin, J. H., & Goldberg, S. R. (2013). Conquering complexity and how the Food Giants hooked us. Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance, 25(1), 69–71. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcaf.21910
Carr, J. (2018). Book review: Every good endeavor: Connecting your work to god’s work. Christian Education Journal: Research on Educational Ministry, 15(1), 138–140. https://doi.org/10.1177/0739891318757764g
Straker, K., & Wrigley, C. (2016). Designing an emotional strategy: Strengthening digital channel engagements. Business Horizons, 59(3), 339–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2016.01.010
2 Ethical Dilemma Student Institution Course Professor Date Ethical Dilemma Analysis Moral
Select a multinational organisation in which you can find information available online, for example, one of the Fortune 500 Writing Assignment Help 2
Moral Judgement: Report Inmates Bernard and Reynolds for Fighting and Possessing Weapons.
Moral judgment involves determining actions or inactions, situations, or motives of a person in relation to standards defining good or bad. One articulates moral judgment by concluding that a particular action is right or wrong. Judgment depends on an individual’s intuitions or capacity to make decisions by conscious reasoning. The decisions are based on whether particular actions promote or violate fundamental values or ideals. Regulations are always formulated as standards that should guide a person when confronted with complex situations that need moral reasoning (Zafrilla, 2021). The ethical system selected for this dilemmatic situation is ethical formalism. It is an ethical theory that argues that moral standards should be determined by the basic reasoning of right and wrong. Kant further states that the imperative principle that guides the theory is making decisions from formal, absolute rules.
Rules: One should always Follow and Comply with Rules.
The institution has defined rules that should guide all my professional conduct. The warden has further taken the responsibility to clarify the policies to the staff and the inmates. It is my duty to abide by the regulations as a subordinate staff who operates from instructions provided by my seniors. First, I should uphold my integrity by informing the lieutenant and the warden about the incident regardless of the consequence of my actions. I should draft the report, explain in detail the occurrence of that night and present it to the warden. If I fail to report, the inmates might normalize my silence and use it to violate the institutional regulations. Second, as a staff, I should not promote violence or conceal its occurrence since I can be rendered an accomplice of its outcomes. Besides, the inmates possess weapons that put the staff and other inmates at risk. I am likely to take responsibility or be blamed for violent incidents that lead to harm to any inmates or staff if I fail to report them. I could be charged with misconduct or fired for not following the regulations. Thirdly, it is my duty as a subordinate to ensure that rules are followed as it shows promoting the interests of my seniors.
The moral-ethical system emphasizes logical reasoning. It states that absolute laws are more essential than judging the actions or considering them based on humanitarian factors (Palayoor & Mavoothu, 2017). In general, the system insists on having a standard argument and rejects the notion that there are gray areas in making moral judgments. If another incident happens and I am charged for misconduct or fired, it is only morally right that the lieutenant who asked me not to report face similar consequences. The laws are standard, and he has to be a victim of the consequences even if he did not get involved directly. Ethical formalism ensures that one is not treated as a means to other selfish interests or for personal gains. It is recommended not to heed the lieutenant’s request to conceal the violations.
An infraction is wrong since it involves violating, breaking, or disobeying defined rules. Despite infraction being a least serious offense, it is wrong to disobey rules since it means going against particular values. None of the inmates got injured during the scuffle since they stopped the scuffle and returned to their designated areas upon realizing a request for backup was made. The behavior of Reynold and Bernard jeopardizes the security of the institutions since it involves weapons that can harm the staff and other inmates. The well-being of the prison is threatened by the continuation after noticing a staff since it means they can easily violate authority.
Palayoor, A. J., & Mavoothu, D. (2017). Ethical orientation: a solution for workplace monitoring and privacy issues. In Seventeenth AIMS international conference on management. http://www.aims-international.org/aims17/17ACD/PDF/A264-Final.pdf
Zafrilla, P. J. P. (2021). The dual process model of moral judgement. Pensamiento. Revista de Investigación e Información Filosófica, 77(Extra 295), 511-521. https://revistas.comillas.edu/index.php/pensamiento/article/view/17543
Surname 2 Name: Professor: Institution: Date: World War II After World War
World War II
After World War II, the European continent was greatly affected, and most of its cities were destroyed. The United States secretary-general then, George C. Marshal, developed a program to rehabilitate the destroyed cities and help to mitigate the effects of World War II on the European continent. The Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe was estimated to use approximately $1.5 billion to rehabilitate the European continent state. European economic and transport infrastructure directly influences the economic behaviour of the United States of America. During World War II, the road and railway networks of the European countries were adversely affected, cutting down the connection between major industrial and cultural cities (Markovits et al., vol12 pg4). The United States was the only significantly powerful country that participated in World War II that did not suffer from major infrastructural damage. Considering that the United States won over the Nazi government during the war meant that the United States could mitigate the effects of the war better than any other nation.
George C. Marshal developed the policy to rebuild Europe and argued that it aimed to eradicate poverty and desperation and not fight against any country, unlike the way the Europe adversaries first viewed it. In 1948, the president of the United States, then Harry Truman, approved the policies related to the Mashal plan to rebuild Europe. The approval of this decision made it possible to distribute Marshal’s aid to sixteen European countries (Markovits et al., vol12 pg4). However, the date between the policy formulation, approval and implementation was huge to the extent that as the Mashal plan was being executed, most of the countries that were to be assisted from the aid were on their way to full recovery.
When the Mashal plan to rebuild Europe was being formulated, west German had been exempted from the plan. Although German was affected by World War II, its western part was not greatly affected by the advancements of the war effects. The Mashal plan was to impact the resuscitation of eastern Germany, whose economic maturity boosts the growth of the United States’ income and economic growth. The marshal aid boosted the gross domestic income of the supported countries to better levels than they were before World War II. However, the aid contribution the aid made toward the economical stability of those countries; is the only key factor that could have led to the economical bargain of the previously affected countries. The policy had a positive impact on mitigating the after-war effects.
Although Mashal’s policies were viewed as the best stimulus partnership between the United States and European countries to overcome the war after effects, the policies were not properly implemented. Many researchers and critics argue that the fund was only enough to fund the citizens of the involved countries from starvation but not to recover from an economic breakdown. George Mashal invited the Soviet Union to be part of the Mashal plan to rebuild Europe, but they declined the offer and created a movement with equally weighty policies like the Mashal plan and tittle it the reverse Mashal plan (Markovits et al., vol12 pg4). The major aim of the reverse Mashal plan was to achieve economic resuscitation with the huge masses of population that had moved from the countries during World War II. The two concepts conflicted at some point and formed a perspective of the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union in that the two concepts had the same ideologies but different flows.
The Mashal plan was the correct decision to be made during that time. The European countries had suffered a huge blow from World War II and, without handling the effects of the war immediately, would have hugely destroyed the strength of the economies of the once super-strong economies. If the European economy were not renewed with immediate effect, it would pull down the economic progress of the United States of America. The American and European continents inter-rely a lot in terms of business, and the economic shutdown of the European economy would adversely affect the American economy. The Mashal plan approval decision would also relieve war survivors of the hunger burden and lower their starvation chances. Although the decision was appropriate, the approval and execution stages took much time, and its impact was not well spread as it should have been. The Mashal was supposed to create a complete economic turnaround, but it did not do that because it was influenced by the factors that occurred due to its delay and started economic stimulation in the wrong direction.
Markovits, Daniel et al. “Foreign Aid and The Status Quo: Evidence from Pre-Marshall Plan Aid”. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, vol 12, no. 4, 2019, pp. 585- 613. Oxford University Press (OUP), https://doi.org/10.1093/cjip/poz015. Accessed 25 Apr 2022.
6 Amanda`s Work Watergate Burglaries The Watergate burglaries were about the re-election
The Watergate burglaries were about the re-election campaigns of Richard Nixon, who was the sitting president at the time. The burglars who broke into the Democratic National Committee wanted to bug the offices and steal some important documents. The plumbers were the people involved in the Watergate burglaries. Their main aim was to find ways to steal documents that would boost President Nixon`s re-election in the coming elections. The plumbers were unsuccessful because the police arrested them as they attempted to break into the Democratic National Committee offices. Krogh (2022) states that the plumbers came together after the Pentagon leaked information that discredited Richard Nixon for re-election in the upcoming elections.
Deep throat was the anonymous name given to the whistleblower to help Washington post journalists expose President Nixon and lead to his resignation (Darnell, 2021). Mark Felt, the actual name of the whistleblower, revealed himself as the person who provided all the information regarding Nixon`s cover-ups of the Watergate scandal (Darnell, 2021). Deep throat was significant in the revelation of the Watergate scandal because, without his input, all of the corrupt activities in the government during that time would have been unexposed.
President Richard Nixon played a significant role in the cover-ups of the Watergate burglaries. His involvement is proven because he resigned from the office instead of finding ways to prove his innocence. His re-election was at stake, and he committed criminal activities to help him win the re-election. If Richard Nixon were innocent of the cover-up of the Watergate burglaries, he would have used his power to show American citizens that he was not involved in any of the burglaries.
The Watergate scandal was an important issue in America`s history because it helped uncover massive corruption in the government. Watergate enabled the United States government to become more transparent and ethical because it wanted to avoid another scandal.
Darnell, T. (2021). Mark Felt, known as ‘Deep Throat,’ reveals himself, 16 years ago. The Atlanta Journal. https://www.ajc.com/news/mark-felt-known-deep-throat-reveals-himself-years-ago/7lu1AChC1a8Dlcm6k8bYeK/
Krogh, E. M. (2022). The White House Plumbers: The Seven Weeks That Led to Watergate and Doomed Nixon’s Presidency. LJ. https://www.libraryjournal.com/review/the-white-house-plumbers-the-seven-weeks-that-led-to-watergate-and-doomed-nixons-presidency-2135600
5 Week 1 – Summative Assessment: Leadership Processes and Responsibilities in Teams
Week 1 – Summative Assessment: Leadership Processes and Responsibilities in Teams
Dr. Julie Overbey
The Dynamics of Group and Team Leadership
Week 1 – Summative Assessment: Leadership Processes and Responsibilities in Teams
Leadership is defined as a process, a sophisticated and dynamic exchange relationship developed through time between a leader and a group of followers who rely on one another to achieve a commonly intended objective (Fischer et al., 2017). Within a team setup, several leadership processes must be followed. First and foremost, roles must be clarified. Role clarification activity is intended to assist team members and the team leader in gaining an understanding of the team’s duties and obligations. Members also recognize the differences and inconsistencies and devise strategies to address them. The lack of role definition among team members and between the teams and the leaders is one of the most prevalent drivers of conflict and discontent in teams. This is an excellent team-building practice when the team is newly created. It may also assist current teams in determining whether a lack of role clarity is a problem for them; besides, it can also be seen as a helpful “spring cleaning” or evaluation exercise that teams should undertake regularly.
Secondly, goal setting. Setting goals for the team is a simple method to get tasks accomplished. This leadership process enables the team to work towards a common goal and encourages collaboration and inventiveness. Because the team cannot tell the leader’s thoughts, it is critical that the leader communicates honestly with them and demonstrates the goals, develops viable strategies to attain them, and establishes acceptable timeframes. Thirdly, creating a change strategy and tactics. Leaders inspire others to change and include them in the process. They instill a feeling of urgency and significance in the change and dedication and enthusiasm for the task at hand. They reward people who are active and performing well.
Desired effect or benefit of each process
Role clarification improves workplace productivity by increasing individual and team responsibility and ownership. Team effectiveness is improved when specific roles are defined clearly. It aids in the evaluation of each team member’s performance. It also increases job satisfaction and creates a more productive work environment. Individuals may progress from individual workers to more successful and synergistic teams by defining goals and controlling their job. Sharing shared goals is likely to keep everybody on the same page, allowing them to work together rather than competitively. It is critical to manage a team through a transition to help team members feel at ease, know the job they perform, and feel encouraged throughout times of transition. Expressing support may assist the leader and team in maintaining morale, teamwork, and trustworthiness.
Challenges that may arise when implementing each process
Lack of certainty over or regular modifications of duties and work standards and contradicting work activities, obligations, or expectations, for example, a team member being told one task is a responsibility. Still, another leader disagrees or adjusted objectives are all problems with role clarification. When setting high goals, team members may get discouraged since the conditions they encounter vary much from those predicted, so certain objectives may be impossible to achieve. When it comes to adopting changes, there is a lack of understanding about how work is being done. If the present style of functioning lacks obvious organization or consistency, change management will not be as rigorous or as seamless as possible.
How a leader addresses or prepares for these challenges.
When it comes to job clarity, a leader should ensure that the various criteria of distinct duties are compatible. A leader should consider two things: the whole range of situations that might occur and the ideal vision for the anticipated outcomes. Small steps must be taken – a leader must develop each step in achieving goals. Every goal becomes obvious in this manner. A leader must acquire the existing way to do things to resolve the challenge of a lack of clarity on how tasks are currently performed.
Role of communication in leadership
Excellent communication and good leadership are inextricably linked since communication is a basic leadership role. A good communicator is required of a good leader. Communication is essential for not just addressing leadership issues but also for developing team bonds. Leaders must interact with the team members and provide guidance when necessary. Team leaders must communicate with the team members regularly. Excellent communication skills aid in developing greater comprehension and beliefs among individuals, inspiring them to adhere to the concepts and ideals instilled in them by their leader (Bucata & Rizescu, 2017). Managing a successful team requires successfully understanding the difficulties of workplace communication. Therefore, a leader may ease relations and establish a more cohesive, effective work atmosphere by emphasizing conveying the message and listening intently to teams when they have something to say.
Strategies a leader should employ to promote clear communication
Leaders’ attention should be on consistency if they want to foster clear communication. The messaging should align with the organizational goal, strategy, and principles. A leader should also personalize their message. A leader must ensure that the message is relevant to the team members and that it answers the question, “What’s in it for me?” A leader should also select the most relevant media. It is a good idea to choose the correct medium for the communication a leader wants to convey. If a leader has to discuss the team’s performance, it is usually better to do so face-on-face; however, if a leader needs to add another item to a team member’s to-do list, it is usually best to send that individual a quick email.
The desired benefit of each strategy
Consistency fosters trust and fosters a strong team spirit. Tailoring messages offers the advantage of gaining team buy-in and empowering them to go forward with changes more readily (Luo et al., 2016). As a result, a leader fosters a sense of ownership among team members motivating them to join in and contribute to the larger good. Communication is usually conducted through a medium; various individuals reply to various types of messages and the medium they are conveyed. As a result, the selected medium influences how the receiver communicates, comprehends and interprets information.
Challenges that may arise in managing communication within a team
When it comes to managing communication within a team, miscommunications might happen. Miscommunications in a team can occur for a variety of reasons. With that being said, there may be language issues, or a modification to a requirement may be made but not successfully conveyed to the general team. As a result of such situations, timelines may be missed, and team members may get irritated. A lack of input is also a problem. Discussions will rapidly become useless if communication only travels in one way. In many aspects, feedback is critical. It not only reveals how well teams communicate with their leaders or management, but it also helps establish how successfully they have fulfilled their goals. Besides that, maintaining a positive mindset is a problem. If not managed effectively, an individual’s ego and attitude might stifle collaboration and other workplace endeavors. In discussions, for instance, one person may talk over another or fail to accept an issue when the other person is correct.
How a leader should address these challenges
A leader should address the issue of miscommunication by ensuring that team members communicate with one another frequently. Moreover, established protocols are in place to guarantee that everybody is informed of any modifications to project timeframes or specifications. A minimal project plan that is updated regularly can be communicated via email as an initial step. A leader must receive and act on feedback to address the challenge of feedback. If the results of surveys are disregarded, they are meaningless. The goal of gathering input should be to utilize it to make a significant difference. When it comes to tackling the issue of attitude, greater listening to those team members who are most impacted by it is required.
Leader’s role in maintaining communication
A leader must constantly communicate to order to maintain communication. A leader must be able to convey ideas, concepts, and insights in a variety of mediums accurately and regularly. A leader should maintain procedures open and honest and look for methods to make the team’s communication flow more smoothly. A leader should pay attention to what others have to say and inspire them to do so. When it comes to transformational leadership theory, a leader works with teams or devotees to pinpoint necessary changes, create a vision to support changes through impact, motivation, and execution in tandem with dedicated members of a team; this shift in self-interest enhances the team’s maturity level and ideologies, as well as their considerations for the success. A leader should emphasize the importance of team members, demonstrate empathy, and foster psychological safety so that individuals feel comfortable communicating. It will demonstrate to those who are being guided that the leader is concerned about them. Great leaders are aware of their people and employ the storytelling technique: Great leaders instinctively show respect for their staff and recognize the power of storytelling to connect with and engage them. The storytelling method can also aid in the development of empathy inside the organization, resulting in better communication.
According to Peralta et al. (2018), forming a good team with the right individuals is one of the most important aspects of developing a great team. A leader is aiming for a specific set of people. Commitment is another important aspect of forming a strong team. Every person on the team must believe in and devote themselves to the company’s objective and purposes. The team’s performance depends on commitment. Each team member must be prepared to put their ambitions aside to help the team. This ensures that everyone is on the same page and pursuing the same goal. A leader has fewer problems in the future if everyone commits to the mission and goal.
How these elements facilitate success and productivity
When the right individuals are in the correct jobs, it is one of the most crucial aspects of a successful team. It has to do with choosing individuals who share the leader’s ideas, vision, and purpose and those capable of doing the job. As a result, it translates to achievement and productivity. Consequently, team members’ dedication encourages success and productivity. Committing to the team’s aims keeps the team focused on success and outlines the actions required to achieve success (Woodcock, 2017). When team members see their work from the perspective of the team’s strategy, they become more devoted to the team’s performance and less concerned with short-term problems.
Bucata, G., & Rizescu, A. M. (2017). The role of communication in enhancing work effectiveness of an organization. Land Forces Academy Review, 22(1), 49. https://www.armyacademy.ro/reviste/rev1_2017/Bucata.pdf
Fischer, T., Dietz, J., & Antonakis, J. (2017). Leadership process models: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 43(6), 1726-1753. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0149206316682830
Luo, W., Song, L. J., Gebert, D. R., Zhang, K., & Feng, Y. (2016). How does leader communication style promote employees’ commitment at times of change?. Journal of Organizational Change Management. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JOCM-11-2014-0204/full/html
Peralta, C. F., Lourenço, P. R., Lopes, P. N., Baptista, C., & Pais, L. (2018). Team development: definition, measurement and relationships with team effectiveness. Human Performance, 31(2), 97-124. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08959285.2018.1455685
Woodcock, M. (2017). Team development manual. Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/mono/10.4324/9781315241715/team-development-manual-mike-woodcock