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A memo about writing memos gp essay help
Page 1 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
MEMORANDUM
TO: Students of BUS 497-A CSUN / Nazarian College of Business & Economics FROM: Blaine D. Pope, Ph.D. Lecturer, BUS 497-A SUBJECT: How to Write a Concise and Effective Memorandum (A memo about writing memos) DATE: 27 January 2018 OVERVIEW This paper concerns how to present ideas through the medium of a memorandum—a concise form of written business communication, designed to summarize information and highlight potential action items quickly. This means of communication can be found in a wide array of professional settings. In the body of the document you are reading here, the medium is also part of the message. Notice the structure of this document. Follow it, practice it, and you should have little problem in writing a clear and effective office memorandum over the course of your career. Memoranda can be on almost any topic but in each case the basic idea remains the same: to condense and simplify material for quick reading, and to facilitate organizational decision-making.1 Therefore, in this class, your memos should always contain suggested next steps (or action items) in the final section—“Conclusions” and/or “Recommendations.” IMPORTANT: The overall page length for your memos is a minimum of three (3) and a maximum of four (4) single-spaced pages. If you exceed the upper limit, I simply won’t read past the fourth page. DETAILS Memos should not usually be flowery or overly prosaic. When writing in memo format, it is okay (even encouraged) to use relatively dry language or wording. The idea here is to let the true power of your ideas (the underlying concepts the words should be conveying) speak for themselves. This can best be done by highlighting your ideas according to the following simple format—just like in you PowerPoint executive briefings
1 There is also an organizational historical dimension to memo writing. For further details, see the definition and origins of the Latin word, “Memorandum” in the Appendix section.
 

SRPATEL
Highlight

SRPATEL
Highlight

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
/ presentations. The same basic principles apply in each case—simplicity. Less can be more.
• Basic identifying information: name and titles (and possibly the work units) of individuals involved, plus date, subject or topic at the top of the first page (see above); and page numbers typically at the bottom of the page. This is especially important for historical purposes. People who have never met you may read your memos months—or even years—later. This basic identifying information can help set some of the organizational context for those readers.
• Come to the point, immediately: wording along the lines of “This is a paper on/about/concerning . . . “ should usually be your first sentence. But by all means, it must be somewhere in your first paragraph. This is not negotiable.
 
• Use “Overview-Details-Conclusions/Recommendations” format: in much the same way that we employ executive briefings via PowerPoint, give your readers the brief overview of the issue(s), followed by the details explaining the importance of the issue(s), followed by your conclusion and/or recommended next steps.
• Consider itemizing an array of solutions: it’s one thing to eloquently identify problems; but, from a supervisor’s or a chief executive’s perspective, the next thought is typically something like, “Oh, okay, so what do your recommend we do about this issue?” Supervisors also usually like choices: consider an array of three (3) options. – Option 1: a reasonable choice, but not necessarily the one you most favor. – Option 2: a choice you might not advocate or actually prefer – Option 3: the choice you are actually recommending; the action you are
suggesting Then, having noted your own recommendation or choice, briefly explain to your reader why you are recommending it.
• Consider using sub-headings, to highlight certain key ideas: again, the basic idea is ease of viewing / reading.
• Quotes: typically, any quote that would take up more than two full lines of text on a regular page should be indented (see appendix).
• Avoid run-on sentences like the plague: an example of a run-on sentence is a sentence that just seems to go on and on without any kind of pause or break because the writer just seems to have so much to say in that particular sentence so every idea that he or she thinks is important at that precise moment—just like a brand new beautiful pair of shoes that deep down inside you actually know are too small for your feet—must somehow come-Hell-or-
 

 
Page 3 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
high-water be crammed in to that space. [This is a run-on sentence. Simple rule of thumb, if you have to pause to take a breath, then you probably need a period at that point; or at least a semi-colon. Break your long and rambling thoughts into two or more sentences. You reader will appreciate that.]
 
• Use white space on the page wisely: same reason as above, ease of viewing for your readers. Just like with PowerPoint, too much text that appears crammed together on a page is not a good thing.
 
• Appendixes: for purposes of our class, anything you cannot fit into your 4-page, single-space page limit, you can put into an appendix. Remember that this is merely supporting material that can help to bolster your argument. For purposes of this class, this optional section has no page limits. This might also be a good place to include charts, graphs, or other forms imagery, which help support your basic points, and recommendations.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The “Conclusions” and/or “Recommendations” section should initially restate your introductory sentence (which states “This paper is about X,Y, Z”). But you should feel free to embellish it, slightly, based on the strong case you’ve hopefully presented to your readers. In many ways, you’re selling something here: you’re selling your ideas. So, feel free to be somewhat “forceful” in your conclusion section (but don’t go over the top with this idea!). You should be subtly forceful, here. Think of it as “soft power,” in your wording. The main idea of any good office memorandum should be to convey an array of ideas (even complex ideas) as simply as possible. But, when analyzing problems or challenges, it is also important to provide recommendations or solutions—even if they are only tentative. Present your readers with proposed options. This conveys to them the feeling of being the decision-makers; however, you retain the power to “guide” your decision-makers toward the recommendation(s) you would actually like to see implemented. Finally, please note: it’s not always the “best ideas” that get approved. Instead, it is those ideas which are most clearly conveyed in the minds of viewers, listeners, and readers. Ultimately—in business just like in politics—the “best ideas” end up being the ones that finally got approved and implemented. This memo writing assignment is an exercise conveying ideas clearly and effectively, so that your ideas will hopefully be the ones chosen for implementation. Follow these simple steps, and you should do well in your business writing, both in this class and elsewhere. Blaine Pope
 

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
 
APPENDIX (Use the appendix to supply what you think might be supplementary-but-helpful information to support your position(s). Remember, in writing memoranda, you are in the business of selling ideas. So try to avoid unnecessary material, even here!)
 

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
Please follow these general guidelines, using APA (American Psychological Association) format, when citing references. APA is a common format across a wide range of academic fields. It is not the only format, however. In general, when citing references, just try to remember the who-what-when-where format. Who published the material (author’s name)? What is the name of the material (the title of the book, article, book chapter, or URL)? When was it published? Where was it published (the name of the publisher, or web site, if relevant)? Image source: https://www.slideshare.net/sherfel/apa-citation-28207081
 
https://www.slideshare.net/sherfel/apa-citation-28207081

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
Memorandum Defined mem·o·ran·dum (from Latin) noun: memorandum; plural noun (Latin): memoranda; plural noun (English) : memorandums definition: a note or record made for future use. “the two countries signed a memorandum of understanding on economic cooperation” synonyms: message, communication, note, email, letter, missive, directive; more a written message, especially in business or diplomacy. “he told them of his decision in a memorandum” synonyms: message, communication, note, email, letter, missive, directive Law: a document recording the terms of a contract or other legal details. Origin late Middle English: originally from Latin, literally ‘something to be brought to mind,’ gerundive of memorare . The original use was as an adjective, placed at the head of a note of something to be remembered or of a record made for future reference. Adapted from: https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome- instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=memorandum
 
https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=memorandum
https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=memorandum

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
How MBA students should not approach business writing!
Source: http://navycaptain-therealnavy.blogspot.com/2012_12_01_archive.html
 
http://navycaptain-therealnavy.blogspot.com/2012_12_01_archive.html

 
Page 8 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
Proper use of Quotations Proper use of quotations is also very important. Again, bear in mind the underlying concept or principle: ease of viewing and/or reading. With that in mind, it is important to know when / how to offset quotes from other writers from your own writing. Brief quotes: For an example of a brief quote, I will actually quote myself, from page 2 of this memo, above: “typically, any quote that would take up more than two full lines of text on a regular page should be indented.” Since this quoted sentence was less than two full lines of regular text, there is no need to indent it. It appears in italics simply to highlight it, for your ease of viewing here. Don’t use italics if it’s not really necessary, however. Longer quotes (more than 2 lines of text): Longer quotes: indent two (2) tab spaces. The following extended quote comes from my own 2007 Ph.D. dissertation. I am discussing the theory behind something called “world-systems analysis” (which I shortened to “WSA,” in this section), put forward by the American sociologist, Immanuel Wallerstein. I was required to use the formatting style of the American Psychological Association (APA); a virtual industry standard in many (but not all) of the social sciences. Beginning of Excerpt
In this section on the approach to WSA, it is important to define our terms before proceeding further. According to Wallerstein (2000), WSA entails the following:
The argument of world-systems analysis is straightforward. The three presumed arenas of collective human action—the economic, the political, and the social or socio-cultural—are not autonomous arenas of social action. They do not have separate “logics.” More importantly, the intermeshing of constraints, options, decisions, norms, and “rationalities” is such that no useful research model can isolate “factors” according to the categories of economic, political, and social. . . . We are arguing that there is a single “set of rules” or a single “set of constraints” within which these various structures operate. (p. 134)
One of Andre Gunder Frank’s points of disagreement with Wallerstein
came to be—in addition to privileging Europe (as Eurocentrism)—privileging human-to-human structures (as “humanocentrism”) to the exclusion of non- human/ecological structures which also influence those same human structures in a dynamic fashion. End of Excerpt
 

 
Page 9 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
Working (& Communicating) in Teams:
Are you a “Thinker” or a “Doer?” Part of being an effective manager involves an element of introspection. Know thyself. Do you tend to be more of a “Thought Leader” or a “Do Leader?” One is not better than the other. Each requires an element of the other (thought versus action), in order to bring about success. Balance is the key. Thought without action soon rings hallow or pointless. Action without thought can prove to be costly—even outright dangerous. Ideally, organizations need diverse teams of people working on projects. In that diversity, hopefully, there will be a balance of “thinkers” and “doers.” Each group, in its own way, can serve as a kind of check-and-balance, with regard to the behavior of the other. Thinkers should not let the doers run away with things just because “We have to get something done!” By the same token, doers must remind the thinkers that, eventually, they must get something done. Where do you see yourself in the scheme of things, between thinkers and doers? Consider how this may (or may not) be reflected in your writing, speaking, and learning style. How does it reflect how you interact with colleagues? If you tend toward the “thinker” or “Thought Leader” side, for example, you might want to consider aligning with some “doers” or “Do Leaders,” to assist you in implementing your great ideas. If you tend toward the “doer” or “Do Leader” side, you might want to include people you know to have solid thinking, and who can sometimes ask tough questions of the group— before things go too far in the wrong direction. As you refine and complete your group papers in this class, consider your own personal style. Again, no one way is necessarily better than the other. It’s really an issue of what seems most appropriate (what seems to be the “best fit”) for a given assignment, task, or project.2 Look at the graphic image on the next page; then ask yourself where you believe you fit in, among the characteristics described there.
2 There are numerous, formal ways of objectively assessing your own personal style. One of these ways is the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, or MBTI. It is designed to measure psychological preferences. It does this by assessing how people perceive themselves, their environment, arrive at individual decisions, and under what conditions they can work and perform best in groups.
 

 
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B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
 
 

 
Page 11 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
 
Develop Your Unique Communication Style: Play to your strengths, but Be Aware of Your Weaknesses
Not all sound thinkers are good writers; and not all good writers are eloquent speakers. Consider where you fit in, among these three domains of communication. What are your strengths? Where could you improve? Know thyself. Ancient Rome: Caesar Augustus Below: a depiction of Caesar Augustus (reigned 27 BC to 14 AD) speaking before the Roman Senate. As the “chief executive” of the Roman Empire, his eloquent words could move armies, set domestic social welfare policy, as well as hopefully “appease the gods.” Most of important of all, he had to appease the Roman masses who had the power to determine if he either remained in power as Emperor, or met an early death. He would do this through a combination of thought, word, and deed.
Image Source: HBO Rome.
 
 

 
Page 12 of 12 A memo about writing memos
B. Pope, BUS 497-A
Ancient Rome: Caesar Claudius Below: a depiction of Caesar Claudius (reigned 41 to 54 AD), at his desk, writing his memoir. He had been a precocious youth, with two distinct physical handicaps. Despite his having both a stutter and a limp (and his family initially thinking his congenital condition was some form of mental retardation), Claudius went on to become a brilliant and effective emperor of Rome. Although he sometimes struggled with his own speech (particularly when under stress), he was an excellent writer and strategic thinker. He was also known to be a first rate historian. Moreover, he used his vast knowledge of Roman politics and the imperial palace to surround himself with a highly competent staff—people capable of implementing his many brilliant ideas.
Image source: The BBC’s “Masterpiece Theater” series, I, Claudius.

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Formalization of Business Strategy my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

3 pages 5-6 referances
Predicting the impact of cancelling the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on overall Business Strategy in the California agriculture industry
Key Themes
– Briefly discuss the development, purpose, and formalization of Business Strategy.
-Discuss the role of any relevant public policy and/or government legislation, and the possible impact on the evolution of Business Strategy, in California agriculture
-Discuss how the end of NAFTA might change the ways that Agri-business Strategy is developed and implemented in California, over the next 5 to 10 years
– Make specific business policy recommendations for the agriculture industry, over the next 5 to 10 years

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Research paper on Cuba assignment descriptive essay helpCuba:
Cuba is an archipelago whose borders are: North: Florida Peninsula (United States), separated by the Straits of Florida. South: Caribbean Islands, all bathed by the Caribbean Sea. East: Separated from the Spanish island by the Windward Passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. West: Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), separated by the Yucatan Channel.
Cuba has about 11 million inhabitants. The white population, which corresponds to the majority, is formed by the descendants of Spanish immigrants, although there is also a high level of miscegenation made up of whites, blacks and Chinese. Cuban culture is a combination of Spanish and African traditions. Popular music is the rumba and son, but also folk music like Guajiro point and tap dance and traditional African dances. The predominant religion in Cuba is the Roman Catholic Christianity, but they respect other such as Evangelicals, Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Methodists, Presbyterians, as well as Parallel Santeria or Regla de Ocha, that has been established and recognized as a religion. Cuba major exports are sugar, cigars, rum, coffee and nickel and imports are its main imports are oil refining, wheat, corn, poultry, concentrated milk. The name of the national currency is the Cuban Peso and the education is totally free.
Since the victory of the Cuban Revolution (1959), Cuba’s political system has been a popular democracy with a communist ideology. For nearly fifty years, the country was ruled by Fidel Castro, first as prime minister in 1959 and then as president of the State Council, the highest executive body, and the Council of Ministers in 1976, currently commanded by his brother Raul Castro. The Republic of Cuba is member of: ACP, ALBA, AOSIS, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO.
 
References
(n.d.). Retrieved April 01, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuba
 
Word count: 337

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India’s and The United States Economies college essay help: college essay helpRunning head: INDIA’S ECONOMY 1
INDIA’S ECONOMY 3
 
 
 
 
 
India’s and The United States Economies, Trade and Unemployment
 
Name of Student
 
Course
 
Tutor
 
Institution
 
Date
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unemployment rate
India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. As per December 2017, the unemployment rate was 3.6% which was an increase of 0.1% from the previous year. This increase in unemployment rate was due to a drop in the labor force participation rate. This data is according to a report by the World Bank. The United States on the other hand, has unemployment rate was 4.1% in December 2017. This is relatively higher than that of India, this means that India is better off compared to the United State.
Currency
India’s currency is the Indian Rupee. It was adopted as the national currency in 1947 after the country gained independence. The currency is denoted as INR. Its exchange rate with dollar is at 1.00 INR= 0.015434 US Dollar. The exchange rate is floating since the exchange rate is determined by foreign exchange market not the Reserve Bank of India. Since Rupee is the sole currency in India, the dollar is not used in India.
Trading partners
India has many trading partners. According to its ministry of Commerce and Industry, they include United States, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, China, United Kingdom, Singapore, Germany, Vietnam and Netherlands just to mention a few that tops the list. India participates in foreign investment. There exit trade surplus in India as it participates in exporting their goods and services to other countries. The percentage of India’s GDP is 19.2 % to exports.
 
 
Assessment of the country
From the data presented above, India is doing well in terms of the economy. It has a GDP growth of 7.1% which is even higher compared to the United State. Its unemployment rate is also low at 3.6 %. However its inflation rate is high at 4.8% attributed to increase in prices of goods. Their economy is a growing one and if the statistics will continue as they are, India will be one of the economic giants in the future.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reference
India’s Unemployment rate retrieved from: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/india/unemployment-rate
U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics
Das, G. (2006). The India Model. Foreign Affairs, 2-16.

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Imports, Exports and A Strong US Dollar academic essay help: academic essay helpExchange Rates: Part III
Imports, Exports and A “Strong” US Dollar

 
 

 
 

 
1

Strong Currency
Previously we have established that a strong currency is one that is issued by a country with a stable political system and a developed economy.
And that is certainly true.
But there is another aspect to a strong currency the we need to examine.
And that is how appreciation and depreciation impacts imports and exports.
Sometimes we confuse a currency that is a strong currency with one that is continuously appreciating. And that is not a correct view.
 

 
 

Strength Can Vary
For this discussion we’ll just examine the US Dollar.
The US Dollar is one of the world’s strongest currencies.
But it’s exchange rate changes over time.
Sometimes it appreciates – gains value
Sometimes it depreciates – loses value
Even with those changes it is still a strong currency.
But how do the changes in the strength of the US Dollar impact the US economy?

 
 

An Appreciating US Dollar
When the US Dollar appreciates relative to other currencies, especially with our major trading partners, it is called a strengthening or stronger dollar. Or sometimes just a strong dollar.
What does this mean for US economy?

 
 

Exports and Appreciation
For exports of US goods and services the impacts are pretty straight forward.
When the US Dollar appreciates, it takes more units of another currency to buy a US Dollar.
That makes the price of US goods and services higher when viewed in terms of another currency. For example:
A US product that costs $50 in the US, will cost 5,000 Yen (¥) in Japan if the exchange rate is 1 US$ = ¥100 (It takes 100¥ to buy 1 US$).
If the US Dollar appreciates relative to the Japanese Yen to, say, 1 US$ = ¥200, then the US product how costs ¥10,000 in Japan.
What do you think will happen to US exports of this product to Japan?
You are right, exports will decline.
So a stronger US Dollar actually works to reduce the sale of US goods and services to other countries. That reduces the amount of money flowing into the US economy from other countries.

 
 

 
5

Imports and Appreciation
How what happens to US imports when the US Dollar appreciates relative to other currencies?
A Japanese product that costs ¥20,000 in Japan will cost US $200 in America when the exchange rate is 1 US$ = ¥100
But if the US Dollar appreciates relative to the Japanese Yen to, say, 1 US$ = ¥200, what happens to the US price?
At the new exchange rate, the Japanese product now has a US price of US $100.
What do you think will happen to US sales of the Japanese product?
Yes, US sales will increase.
Thus, when the US Dollar appreciates, we import more from other countries, which means more money leaves the US economy.

 
 

 
6

A Depreciating US Dollar
When the US Dollar depreciates relative to other currencies, especially with our major trading partners, it is called a weakening or weaker dollar. Or sometimes just a weak dollar.
What does this mean for US economy?
 

 
 

 
7

Exports and Deprecation
For exports of US goods and services the impacts are, again, pretty straight forward.
When the US Dollar depreciates, it takes fewer units of another currency to buy a US Dollar.
That makes the price of US goods and services lower when viewed in terms of another currency. For example:
A US product that costs $50 in the US, will cost ¥5,000 in Japan if the exchange rate is 1 U $ = ¥100.
If the US Dollar depreciates relative to the Japanese Yen to, say, 1 US $ = ¥50, then the US product how costs ¥2,500 in Japan.
What do you think will happen to US exports of this product to Japan?
You are right, exports will increase.
So a weaker US Dollar actually works to increase the sale of US goods and services to other countries. That increases the amount of money flowing into the US economy from other countries.
 

 
 

Imports and Depreciation
How what happens to US imports when the US Dollar depreciates relative to other currencies?
A Japanese product that costs ¥20,000 in Japan will cost US $200 when the exchange rate is 1 US$ = ¥100
But if the US Dollar depreciates relative to the Japanese Yen to, say, 1 US$ = ¥50, what happens to the US price?
At the new exchange rate, the Japanese product now has a US price of US $400.
What do you think will happen to US sales of the Japanese product?
Yes, US sales will decrease.
Thus, when the US Dollar depreciates, we import less from other countries, which means less money leaves the US economy.
(Caution: this only applies with goods we don’t have to import or for goods for which we have a domestic substitute. We have to import coffee, for example, and coffee drinkers still buy regardless of the price.)

 
 

 
9

Summing It Up
To sum it all up:
 
 

US $
US Exports
US Imports
Money Flows

Appreciates
Decrease
Increase
Out of the country

Depreciates
Increase
Decrease
Into the country

 
However, what the net effect of any of these possible changes is depends on the starting position of the trade balance of the US. Thus, the tables shows the changes from some unspecified starting trade balance. It does not show the net final result.

 
 

 
10

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American imports from your country essay help for freeThis week we are going to look more globally and examine exchange rates.
An exchange rate is simply the price of one currency in terms of another currency. In other words, how many US Dollars does it take to buy one British Pound?  Remember that an exchange rate ALWAYS involves two currencies which means two countries. Review in detail, the three Exchange Rate presentations before you start your work on this week’s discussion assignment.
The Exchange Rates Part I presentation is below and can also downloaded as a Powerpoint presentation by clicking: Exchange Rates.
Then review the downloadable Exchange Rates Part II Powerpoint presentation by clicking: here. (Part III is linked later in the instructions.)
While they are conceptually simple, many economic factors go into the determination of exchange rates. And exchange rates influence many of the prices you pay in the store, they influence the number of jobs in the export sector of the economy and they even impact the price of a cup of coffee.
Many people believe that a “strong” US Dollar is critical to the strength of the US economy. A “strong” dollar means one that can buy a goodly amount of foreign goods.  But does a “strong” dollar really benefit the US economy? And if so, in what ways? And in what ways does it harm the US economy? Review the Powerpoint presentation: Exchange Rates Part III before continuing with the week’s discussion.
Now we are ready to examine how exchange rates are set and what the impacts on the US economy from a “strong” dollar versus a “weak” dollar actually are.
Assignment Summary:
1) Watch the above video and study the three Exchange Rate Powerpoint presentations; https://youtu.be/xwtgByffoUw
2) Read the article in the textbook: “Is a Strong Currency Always in a Nation’s Interest?”, page 692-693 (Week 4.pdf), the article is the same in both the 7th and the 8th editions, only the art work is different.;
3) Go to the X-Rates Web site (http://x-rates.com) and find the current:
a) exchange rate for the US Dollar (USD) and any other country’s currency that you wish to study – you can select the same country that you are using for your research project, unless your country is not listed at the website.
b) then from the icons below the currency selection boxes, select Graphs and then select 1 year;
c) based on the 12 months of data, which currency is appreciating (gaining value) and which is depreciating (losing value)?  Remember it can do both in a year.
d) Now go to the CIA World Factbook and find out what goods and products the country you chose exports.
4) Since most all of the goods that you buy are either imported or contain inputs from other countries, what do the trends in the exchange rates you examined tell you about the prices you can expect to pay for goods imported from the country you choose or for products that use inputs from that country (i.e., the exports of your country)?
In a global economy most products contain materials from other countries and that includes food.  If you had orange juice today, it may well have come from Brazil.  Your computer and your cell phone contain parts from America or Japan or Taiwan or Thailand or one of the European countries or from all of these places.  Thus, exchange rates directly impact the prices you pay for goods.  This is your chance to learn more about how that works.
5) On the discussion board, share your findings about whether the currency of the country you chose is appreciating or depreciating relative to the US Dollar.

What do you think this means for American imports from your country?
What do you think it means for American exports to your country?
Refer to at least two different concepts from this week’s Chapters. Your illustration of the concepts MUST include an explanation why you think they are relevant to the week’s topic using specific information from the articles, Powerpoint presentations, videos and other research that you have done.  Remember to include citations and references as needed.

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Discussion on Exchange Rates compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Discussion 2: “Exchange Rates.” Please respond to the following:

Explain how countries manipulate their foreign exchange rate against specific other currencies. In your opinion, is this an economically beneficial strategy for a government to follow? Should the United State pursue this type of strategy? Why or why not?
In a flexible-exchange-rate system, a country such as Brazil that has a persistently high inflation rate will experience regular depreciation of its nominal exchange rate with the U.S. dollar. Explain why this happens. Why might the Brazilian government like this system?

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Price Floors and Price Ceilings best essay help
Assignment 2: Price Floors and Price Ceilings
 
For your second assignment, you will be investigating a real life situation in which there is
government intervention through price ceilings or price floors. You should identify why the
government wanted to intervene (as in, wanted to help workers as with a minimum wage) as
well as discussing what the actual effect is in the market according to our model from class.
Finally you should think about a way (or two) in which people in the market have attempted to
circumvent the law. If you absolutely cannot think of a way, you may instead (or in addition to)
write about how the law in this market might affect another market. For instance:
Minimum wage
Stated Goal: Government wants to help workers.
Real effects: CS surplus goes down (hiring firms are worse off), PS is unknown (some gain higher wage,
some become unemployed)
Way around law: Employers may hire undocumented workers, employees may be required to pay for a
meal at the restaurant where they work each shift they work, etc.
Effect on other market: Minimum wage increase will cause price of Big Macs to go up due to higher
labor costs, etc.
You cannot use the minimum wage as your example. I have only outlined the basics of what I expect.
You should write your report up in normal prose, with paragraphs and full sentences.
Key points for the assignment:
 Find an example of a Price Floor/Ceiling, NOT A TAX
 Describe the STATED GOAL of the government, as best as you can
 Discuss the real effects, using CS, PS, and TS as we have in class
 Brainstorm a way around the law which people may use
Limit the length of the assignment to 2 pages, double spaced. You may find that you can complete the
assignment in a couple paragraphs and less than two pages. That’s totally fine, as long as you meet the
other criteria.
 
 
 
 

 
Rubric for Peer Evaluation:
10 points: The submitter describes a price ceiling or a price floor (and does not use the minimum wage or a tax).
They state a reasonable motivation for why the government implemented this policy. They accurately analyze
what the effects on consumer, producer and total surplus would be according to what we discussed in class. The
submitter offers at least one (actually possible) way that someone might attempt to work around the law or they
correctly discuss how the price ceiling may affect a related market.
9 points: The submitter describes a price ceiling or a price floor (and does not use the minimum wage or a tax).
They either: 1) forgot to include or incorrectly assessed the stated goal of the policy or 2) got a part of the analysis
of CS, PS &TS incorrect. The submitter offers at least one (actually possible) way that someone might attempt to
work around the law or they correctly discuss how the price ceiling may affect a related market.
8 points: The submitter describes a price ceiling or a price floor (and does not use the minimum wage or a tax).
They either: 1) forget to include or incorrectly assessed the stated goal of the policy and got a part of the analysis
of CS, PS &TS incorrect or 2) got the analysis of CS, PS & TS completely wrong or 3) offered an unrelated or wrong
method of working around the law or incorrectly stated the effect on a related market.
7 points: The submitter describes a price ceiling or a price floor (and does not use the minimum wage or a tax).
They either: 1) forget to include or incorrectly assessed the stated goal of the policy and got the analysis of CS, PS
& TS completely wrong or 2) did not include a method of working around the law or an effect on a related market.
6 points: It seems like the submitter attempted to answer the question, and at least identifies a price ceiling or
price floor, but the response otherwise is completely wrong or impossible to understand.
5 points: The submitter uses a Tax instead of a price ceiling/floor or uses the minimum wage as their example, but
otherwise does the assignment correctly.
0-4: The submitter did not make an attempt to answer the assignment. A 0 will represent no effort while a 4
represents effort but completely off topic or the analysis of a tax with some errors in the analysis.
10 pt. Model Response:
One example of a price floor is the minimum wage. It keeps the price of labor above the equilibrium
price. The stated goal of the minimum wage is to help workers, specifically to help them provide for
themselves and their families and afford the things they need to live.
From class, we know that a price floor will lower consumer surplus. In this case, firms are the
consumers, buying the labor from workers. We also know that a price floor will create a dead weight
loss, so total surplus will go down. However, without more information, we cannot say how producer
surplus (the surplus for the workers) will change. This is because while some of them will earn a higher
wage, which is good for them, others will no longer be employed, which is bad from the workers’
perspective.
On way firms might get around the minimum wage is to force workers to purchase a meal at the
company restaurant. This way, some of their paycheck is going right back to the firm and it’s as if they
get paid less.

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Discussion on Network Externalities writing essay helpNETWORK EXTERNALITIES
A good is subject to positive feedback when success breeds greater success and failure breeds failure.
 

The more popular Windows is, the more software is made for it and the more popular it becomes.

 
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36

 
For most pollutants, the socially efficient level of pollution is zero.
True
False
 

LEARN BY DOING: PRACTICE QUESTION
 
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37

 
ARE WE STILL FRIENDS? A TALE OF FACEBOOK, MYSPACE, AND FRIENDSTER
“When do you focus on growth, and when do you focus on money? We focused on money and Facebook focused on growing the user base and user experience.” Chris Wolfe, MySpace
Technical issues and clunky ads pushed users to Facebook… now some are moving to Snapchat, Instagram, Tumblr, Reddit and Twitter.
What’s your prediction?

 
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LEARN BY DOING: BUSINESS CASE

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38

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The Socially Optimal Amount of Farmland essay help writing: essay help writing
THE SOCIALLY OPTIMAL AMOUNT OF FARMLAND
 
 
 
Marginal social cost, marginal social benefit
Quantity of preserved farmland
QOPT
0
10,000
 
Marginal social cost of preserved farmland
O
 
 
Socially optimal quantity of preserved farmland
 
 
Socially optimal point
Marginal social benefit of preserved farmland
 
The market will preserve less than the socially optimal amount of farmland.
 
 
 
The market outcome (no preserved farmland) is inefficient: marginal social benefit of farmland preservation exceeds marginal social cost.
$20,000

 
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PIGOUVIAN SUBSIDY
A Pigouvian subsidy: a payment designed to encourage activities that yield external benefits.
 
 
 
 
The socially optimal quantity can be achieved by a Pigouvian subsidy equal to the marginal social benefit at the optimal quantity.
 
 

 
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32

With a partner, decide: Do car alarms do any good?
Since they frequently go off for no apparent reason, do they create any negative externalities? What are they?
Police argue that they can “shatter the sense of civility that makes a community safe.” As one of the “signs that no one cares,” car alarms “invite both further disorder and serious crime.”-Police Strategy No. 5, New York Police Department, 1994
Click here for a See blog post on the subject.

 
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LEARN BY DOING: DISCUSS

See the following article for more details and discussion: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/11/opinion/11FRED.html
All image credits courtesy of Morgue File and/or FreeImages.com unless otherwise specified
 
 
33

TECHNOLOGY SPILLOVERS
A technology spillover is an external benefit that results when knowledge spreads among individuals and firms.
Silicon valley: a giant technology spillover

 
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34

NETWORK EXTERNALITIES
A good is subject to a network externality when the value of the good to an individual is greater when a large number of other people also use the good.
Examples include:
communication systems, e.g., telephones, telegraphs, fax machines.
railway systems.
hub-and-spoke air travel.
 

 
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35

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External Benefits and Efficiency my essay help ukEXTERNAL BENEFITS AND EFFICIENCY
Sometimes a market includes benefits that bystanders receive.
External benefit: a benefit received by people other than the consumers or producers trading in the market.

Do motorcycle riders provide an external benefit to those waiting for an organ transplant?

 
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29

 
When the consumption of a good generates positive external benefits, the market tends to produce:
too much of the good, since there are positive external benefits from the consumption of the good.
too little of the good, since the market does not take into account the positive external benefits from the consumption of the good.
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Economic Growth and Greenhouse Gases free essay help online: free essay help onlineECONOMIC GROWTH AND GREENHOUSE GASES IN SIX COUNTRIES
Canada and the U.S. pollute more absolutely… bot not compared to their GDP

 
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23

TRADABLE EMISSIONS PERMITS
Since 1994, the United States has had an SO2 cap-and-trade system, and acid rain has been reduced by 50%— relatively cheaply.
The EU has a mandatory, comprehensive CO2 cap-and-trade scheme on track for 21% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020.

 
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Image © 2014 TerraPass, Inc.
24

CAP AND TRADE
The US caps (and then allows trade in) Sulfur Dioxide (responsible for acid rain) emissions
The EU caps and trades Carbon Dioxide (responsible for greenhouse gases)
The good:
Major pollution reduction at low cost
The bad:
Politicians often bow to industry pressure and create too many permits (eliminating the cap)
Doesn’t work for localized pollutants like mercury

ECONOMICS

IN ACTION
 
 
 
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Photo credit: AP Photo/Kin Cheung
25

 
Suppose a government decides to issue a limited number of tradable pollution permits.
Which of the following statements is true?
Firms that can easily and at low cost reduce their level of pollution will find it beneficial to purchase these tradable pollution permits.
When the government issues these tradable pollution permits, it effectively creates a market for the right to pollute.
Firms that sell their tradable pollution permits do not fully understand the costs they will incur when they try to reduce the level of pollution they create.
None of the statements is true.
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26

POSITIVE EXTERNALITIES
The marginal social benefit of a good or activity is equal to the marginal benefit that accrues to consumers plus its marginal external benefit.
Education creates benefits for students—and the society they live in.

 
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27

THE IMPECCABLE ECONOMIC LOGIC OF EARLY-CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION PROGRAMS
Breaking the cycle of poverty? Separate studies by The RAND Corporation, University of Pittsburgh and others find $4-17 benefit for each dollar spent.
 
 

ECONOMICS

IN ACTION
 
 
 
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Image fatihhoca/istockphoto/Getty Images
28

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Policies for Pollution Discussion essay help us: essay help usPOLICIES FOR POLLUTION
 
Environmental standards: rules that protect
the environment by
specifying actions
by producers and
consumers.
 

If the market won’t solve its own externality problems, then what?

 
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18

POLICIES FOR POLLUTION
An emissions tax: cost depends on the amount of pollution a firm produces.
Pigouvian taxes: taxes designed to reduce external costs. Example: an emissions tax designed to reduce coal production.
Tradable emissions permits: licenses to emit limited quantities of pollutants; the licenses can be bought and sold by polluters.

 
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19

POLICIES FOR POLLUTION
Which is the best?
Environmental standards?
Inflexible and don’t allow reductions in pollution to be achieved at minimum cost.
Emissions tax?
Emissions tax ensures that the marginal benefit of pollution is equal for all sources of pollution (unlike environmental standards).

 
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Private Solutions to Externality Problems writing an essay helpPRIVATE SOLUTIONS TO EXTERNALITY PROBLEMS
In certain situations the private sector can resolve externalities.
Solving problems requires time and effort.
Transaction costs: all of the costs to individuals of making a deal.

 
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13

PRIVATE SOLUTIONS TO EXTERNALITIES
In an influential 1960 article, the economist Ronald Coase pointed out that in an ideal world, the private sector could indeed deal with all externalities.
 
 
 
According to the Coase theorem, even in the presence of externalities an economy can always reach an efficient solution provided that the transaction costs are sufficiently low.

 
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14

PRIVATE SOLUTIONS TO EXTERNALITIES
Coase’s analysis argues that individuals have an incentive to find a way to make mutually beneficial deals that lead them to “internalize the externality”: take externalities into account when making decisions.
Example: a family agrees to stop playing loud music during their next-door neighbor child’s naptime in exchange for use of the lawnmower.
 

 
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15

Nobel prize–winner James Meade argued that the production of honey by beekeepers produced a positive externality for farmers in the form of pollination, and thus pollination would be underprovided in a free market.  It turns out, however, that pollination is a $15 billion industry in the United States and beekeepers regularly truck their colonies around the country to sell pollination services to farmers. Click here to watch. (5:55 minutes)
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=YZCoX9tsT1E
 

 
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LEARN BY DOING: APPLICATION VIDEO

16

 
In reality, the Coase theorem is unlikely to work because:
most people don’t care if they are affected by an external cost.
externalities are rare and difficult to identify.
transaction costs are often high, making negotiations difficult.
prices will increase as a result of ending the externality.
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Why a market economy produces too much pollution essay help 123: essay help 123
WHY A MARKET ECONOMY PRODUCES TOO MUCH POLLUTION
 
 
 
 
QMKT
QH
QOPT
0
$400
300
200
100
O
 
 
 
 
Marginal social benefit at QMKT
 
 
 
 
 
Market-determined quantity of pollution
 
 
Marginal social cost of pollution
 
The market outcome is inefficient: marginal social cost of pollution exceeds marginal social benefit.
Marginal social cost, marginal social benefit
Quantity of pollution emissions (tons)
Marginal social cost at QMKT
Marginal social benefit of pollution
 
In a market economy without government intervention, those who benefit from pollution—like the owners of power companies—decide how much pollution occurs.
 
 
 
 
Socially optimal quantity of pollution

 
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The socially Optimal Quantity of Pollution essay help from professional writers
THE SOCIALLY OPTIMAL QUANTITY OF POLLUTION
 
 
 
Marginal social cost, marginal social benefit
Quantity of pollution
emissions (tons)
QOPT
0
$200
 
Marginal social cost of pollution
O
 
 
Socially optimal quantity of pollution
 
Socially optimal point
Marginal social benefit of pollution
 
The socially optimal amount of pollution is not zero.

 
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How to measure the marginal social cost of Pollution grad school essay help
SO HOW DO YOU MEASURE THE MARGINAL SOCIAL COST OF POLLUTION?
It’s the sum of the willingness to pay among all members of society to avoid that unit of pollution.
It may be hard to estimate, so society often underestimates it.

 
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Costs and Benefits of Pollution college admission essay help: college admission essay help
COSTS AND BENEFITS OF POLLUTION
The marginal social cost of pollution is the additional cost imposed on society as a whole by an additional unit of pollution.
Acid rain, smog, contaminated water, etc.
The marginal social benefit of pollution is the additional gain to society as a whole from an additional unit of pollution.
Goods and services, jobs, etc.
 
The socially optimal quantity of pollution is the quantity society would choose if all costs and benefits were fully accounted for.

 
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Whether the Market is always Efficient narrative essay help
IS THE MARKET ALWAYS EFFICIENT?
Market failure: free-market equilibrium not providing the socially optimal amount of a good.
Left to itself, a market economy will typically generate too much pollution because polluters have no incentive to take into account the costs they impose on others.

 
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6

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Inefficiency and government intervention narrative essay help: narrative essay help
What externalities are and why they can lead to inefficiency and government intervention in the market
The difference among negative, positive , and network externalities
The importance of the Coase theorem, which explains how private individuals can sometimes remedy externalities
Why some government policies to deal with externalities, like emissions taxes, tradable emissions permits, or Pigouvian subsidies, are efficient, and others, like environmental standards, are not
What makes network externalities an important feature of high–tech industries
To Video
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What you will learn in this chapter
 

 
1

EXTERNALITIES
Externalities (spillovers): the impact on third parties of a transaction between others.
 
 
 
 
 
If fracking pollutes drinking water sources, it is an external cost (“negative externality”).

 
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2
Image credit: Associated Press, MCT via Getty Images

 
The extra safety your neighbor might have because everyone else in the area has purchased burglar alarms is a(n):
private cost.
external cost.
private benefit.
external benefit.
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3

EXTERNALITIES
Examples of external costs:
air and water pollution
texting while driving
chemical runoff that affects fish stocks
 
Examples of external benefits:
education
beehives next to almond orchards
preserved farmland

 
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4

FOR INQUIRING MINDS: TEXTING
1 in 4 accidents (250,000 per year) are caused by cell phone use (National Safety Council, 2012)
43 states have banned it… because of the negative (fatal) externalities.

 
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Image: Steve Debenport/Getty Images

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The functions of the Fed assignment scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Which of the following is NOT a function of the Fed?
Regulating the money supply
Holding reserves for depository institutions
Lending funds to credit-worthy private firms
Supervising member banks
32. Refer to the above figure. If the MPC is unchanged and level of autonomous consumption increases, what occurs?
Line ABC will drop down.
Line EBD rotates and becomes steeper.
Line ABC shifts up.
Line EBD will shift up.
33. When a nation’s currency suddenly loses value, the ________ may step in to buy the afflicted currency.
World Bank
United Nations
Federal Reserve Bank
International Monetary Fund
34. A checking account is
an asset to a commercial bank.
a liability to a commercial bank.
an asset for the Federal Reserve System.
a liability to the household or firm that has the account.
35. A decrease in aggregate demand will cause
aggregate supply to fall according to classical economists, and prices to fall according to Keynes.
prices to fall and unemployment to increase according to both classical economists and Keynes.
aggregate supply to fall according to Keynes, and unemployment to increase according to classical economists.
prices to fall according to classical economists, and unemployment to increase according to Keynes.
36. The classical model uses the assumption that
all wages and prices are flexible.
monopoly is widespread in the economy.
interest rates are not flexible.
economic markets are fragile and have no tendency to move towards an equilibrium.
37. Investment includes spending on
capital goods, consumer durable goods, and changes in business inventories.
capital goods, buildings, and consumer durable goods.
capital goods, buildings, and changes in business savings.
capital goods, buildings, and changes in business inventories.
38. The multinational organization that aims to promote world economic growth by fostering financial stability is the
International Monetary Fund.
World Trade Organization.
United Nations.
World Bank.
39. When the U.S. dollar appreciates,
foreign residents demand fewer of U.S. goods, and U.S. residents desire to purchase fewer foreign goods.
foreign residents demand fewer of U.S. goods, and U.S. residents desire to purchase more foreign goods.
foreign residents demand more of U.S. goods, and U.S. residents desire to purchase fewer foreign goods.
foreign residents demand more of U.S. goods, and U.S. residents desire to purchase more foreign goods.
40. The international unit of accounting used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is called
the IMF dollar.
special drawing rights.
the Eurodollar.
the quota subscription.

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Fractional reserve banking description university essay helpFractional reserve banking can be thought of as a bank
withholding a portion of its total deposits that are not loaned out.
holding deposits equal to its net worth.
paying a fraction of its profit to depositors.
loaning out all of its reserves
22. Suppose that a new customer opens a checking account and a saving account, placing $50,000 in each. Later, the bank makes a loan of $100,000 to a business firm. For this bank,
assets remained unchanged but liabilities increased by $100,000 because of the loan.
assets increased by $100,000 because the checking and saving accounts are assets, and liabilities
increased by $100,000 because the loan is a liability.
assets increased by $100,000 because the loan is an asset, and liabilities increased by $100,000 because the checking and saving accounts are liabilities.
assets increased by $50,000 because the saving account is an asset, while liabilities increased by $50,000 because the checking account is a liability.
23. Consider the above figure. At a price level of 150,
inventories of unsold goods decline.
total planned real expenditures exceed total planned real production.
the price level would rise.
total planned production exceeds total planned real expenditures.
24. Europe and Asia both fall into deep economic recessions. What impact will this have on U.S. aggregate demand?
The U.S. aggregate demand curve will shift to the right.
U.S. aggregate demand will remain unchanged.
None. A nation’s aggregate demand is only affected by its own economic conditions.
U.S. aggregate demand will decrease.
25. How does the Fed increase the level of reserves in the banking system?
by raising interest rates
by selling bonds
by buying bonds
by lowering interest rates
26. Involuntary unemployment
will increase as the wage rate falls.
exists when there is a shortage of labor.
exists when there is an excess quantity of labor supplied.
occurs when the wage rate is below the equilibrium wage rate.
27. At a level of real disposable income of $0, suppose consumption is $2,000. Given this information, we know with certainty that saving equals
-$2,000.
-$1,000.
$0.
$2,000.
28. Suppose that when disposable income decreases by $2,000, consumption spending increases by $1500. Given this information, we know that the marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is
1/.25 = 4.
$1,000/$750 = 1.33.
.75.
.25.
29. In the Keynesian model, an aggregate demand shock
will cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, leading to a change in the price level but not real GDP.
will cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, leading to a change in the price level and real GDP.
will cause the aggregate demand curve to shift, leading to a change in real GDP but not the price level.
will not lead to a shift of the aggregate demand curve.
30. The planned investment function will shift downward if
the existing stock of capital decreases.
business expectations become more pessimistic.
the interest rate falls.
real disposable income increases.

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An increase in the money supply a level english language essay help: a level english language essay helpAn increase in the money supply will
decrease aggregate demand.
increase aggregate demand.
increase aggregate supply.
decrease aggregate supply.
12. According to the quantity theory of money, an excess quantity of money supplied will lead to
a higher price level.
a reduced level of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
a reduction in spending and higher interest rates.
a higher level of employment.
13. Adverse selection is a barrier to financing global growth because
of the differences between financing using loans, portfolio investment and foreign direct investment.
there is the possibility that the funds are used for riskier behavior than the lender agreed to.
firms sometimes have trouble determining whether they need funds or not.
if investors have trouble identifying high-risk firms they may be unwilling to lend funds to creditworthy firms.
14. An increase in the money supply will cause which of the following to occur?
a rightward shift of the aggregate supply curve
a leftward shift of the aggregate demand curve
a leftward shift of the aggregate supply curve
a rightward shift of the aggregate demand curve
15. In the above figure, when disposable income is greater than 600,
saving is positive.
the MPS is negative.
the MPC is greater than 1.
saving is negative.
16. Which of the following is true about the World Bank?
It is a U.N. sponsored agency that specializes in development loans.
It is a multinational agency that specializes in development loans.
It is a U.S. agency that specializes in development loans.
It is made up of all central banks in the world
17. A higher domestic price level should
A. decrease net exports.
B. increase desired investment.
C. increase real wealth and consumption.
D. none of these.
18. Moral hazard is a barrier to financing global growth because
if investors have trouble identifying high-risk firms they may be unwilling to give money to creditworthy firms.
firms sometimes have trouble determining whether they need funds or not.
there is the possibility that the funds are used for riskier behavior than the lender agreed to.
of the differences between financing using loans, portfolio investment and foreign direct investment.
19. In the Keynesian model, whenever planned investment is greater than planned saving,
the amount of planned investment will decrease, and real GDP will decrease.
there will be an unplanned inventory decrease, and GDP will eventually increase.
the amount of planned investment will decrease, and real GDP will remain unchanged.
there will be an unplanned inventory increase, and GDP will eventually decrease
20. Country X has experienced GDP growth of 6 percent and a population growth of 4 percent. What is this country’s growth of per capita real GDP?
10 percent
-2 percent
6 percent
2 percent

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Disposable income, consumption and saving english essay help online1. Which of the following represents the relationship between Disposable income (DI), consumption (C), and saving (S)?
DI + C = S
DI = C * S
DI = C – S
DI = C + S
2. Which of the following is NOT a method for promoting global Economic growth?
Count on the world’s governments to develop policies that promote economic growth in developing nations.
Reliance on private markets to direct capital goods toward their best use.
Encourage population growth so that developing nations’ labor supply increases.
Market based approach.
3. In the classical model, an increase in aggregate demand will cause
a decrease in price level.
an increase in actual output, or Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
an increase in price level.
a decrease in actual output, or Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
4. Of the relationships below, which is the least stable?
Consumption
Net exports
Investment
Saving
5. When investment occurs in developing nations
investors hope to gain significant returns on their investment and residents gain higher rates of economic growth.
Significant levels of pollution usually occur.
Government politicians usually benefit from the illegal payments made to secure the investment.
higher rates of economic growth are usually not achieved.
6. A multinational agency that specializes solely in making loans to promote long-term development and growth in developing countries is the
Federal Reserve System.
International Monetary Fund.
International World Fund.
World Bank.
7. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is
composed of seven members who are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate.
elected by the general public.
composed of 12 members of the Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.
composed of representatives from the country’s 12 largest commercial banks.
8. Supply-side inflation is caused by
an increase in aggregate demand and no change in aggregate supply.
a decrease in aggregate supply and no change in aggregate demand.
an increase in aggregate supply and no change in aggregate demand.
a decrease in aggregate demand and no change in aggregate supply.
9. Keynesian theory is based on the concept that
planned savings equal planned investment only at full employment.
full employment is automatically attained in any economy.
saving and consumption are influenced primarily by real current disposable income.
saving is influenced primarily by the interest rate.
10. When the Fed conducts open market operations, it
also raises taxes at the same time.
shifts the demand for money curve.
Purchases or sells government bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury.
is engaging in fiscal policy.

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Supply, demand and equilibrium price essay help websites

a) Clearly explain the distinction between supply, demand and equilibrium price.
b) State and briefly explain any four main factors that may cause a fall in the supply of a good in the
market.

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Changing current labor market to future labor market summary and response essay help: summary and response essay helpChanging current labor market to future labor market in the South Korea
 
government is trying to extend labor market for reducing un-employees and improve labor market. Also, the government increased minimum wages for making energy in the market. People think, the South Korea market will improve by the government. However, there are many problems in the current labor market. Market divides into two main markets which are service market and manufacturing business market. The South Korea have problems which are fixed recognition about service market and reducing productivity because of excessive labor. These make market to depress, so people try to find a method for ways of current market problems. I think, future labor market will cover the current labor market. For example, improvement the labor bill for labor, deregulation of the service market, and increasing global competitiveness. Furthermore, the government will present direction to the people in the labor market with regulations. Summing up, changing the South Korea labor market changed a lot than the past, but still have many problems. Therefore, I mentioned that the conclusion is about alternative measure of current labor market.

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The problem of late industrialization popular mba argumentative essay helpResponse Paper#3
 
What is the problem of late industrialization? What lessons can be drawn from East Asia’s postwar experience (particularly South Korea) about the roles of the market and the state in economic development? Does East Asian experience vindicate neoliberal development strategies?

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Latest quarterly estimate of nominal GDP personal essay help: personal essay helpChapter 1
1.  Go to www.bea.gov to find the latest quarterly report on GDP to answer these questions:
a.  What is the latest quarterly estimate of nominal GDP? Of real GDP?  Explain why nominal and real differ.
b.  What was the rate of economic growth in the most recent quarter (compared to the previous quarter, compared to  year ago)?
c.  Using nominal and real GDP data, show how you can calculate the rate of inflation in the most recent quarter.
2.  Using the most recent quarterly GDP data from bea.gov, find Nominal GDP (Y), Consumption (C), Gross Investment (I), Government spending (G), and Net Exports (NX).
a.  Find C/Y, I/Y, G/Y and NX/Y.  Compare these percentages to those in Table 1.1.  Which ones have risen?  Which ones have declined?  Which ones are about the same?
Chapter 2
1.  Do at least 6 of the questions from the textbook at the end of chapter 2.
2.  In the great recession of 2008-09, US output fell about$ 0.9 trillion below full employment output.
a.  The government spending multiplier has been estimated to be 2.  What change in government spending would restore full employment?
b.  If the simple multiplier is 2, how large is the implied MPC?
c.  In fact, the MPC is probably closer to 0.8 even though the multiplier is 2 (not 5).  How can we explain this?
1. Over the business cycle, real GDP tends to increase during the expansion and decrease during the con- traction. Can you name some other macro variables that fluctuate over the business cycle like GDP does? Can you name some macro variables that do not fluctuate like GDP?
2. In the long run, real GDP tends to grow over time. Can you name some other macro variables that also tend to grow over time? Can you name some macro variables that do not grow over time?
3. What is meant by the term stock variable? Give at least 3 examples of economic stocks. What is meant by the term flow variable? Give at least 3 examples of economic flows. Explain how stocks and flows are related to each other, and give at least one specific example.
4. How would it be possible for GDP to exceed GNP this year, and then for GNP to exceed GDP next year? 5. What are two basic methods or approaches for counting GDP? Why they should get the same answer? 6. How does a macroeconomist define “investment”? When you buy stocks or bonds, people often say you
5. What are two basic methods or approaches for counting GDP? Why they should get the same answer?
6. How does a macroeconomist define “investment”? When you buy stocks or bonds, people often say you
made an investment. Would a macroeconomist agree? If not, what are you doing when you buy stocks and bonds?
Chapter 3
1.  One friend tells you the IS curve represents (Y, r) points where current production balances with current spending.
A second friend tells you the IS curve represents (Y, r) points where total saving balances with total investment.
Which friend of yours is right?  Explain why.
2.  Show how to derive the IS curve (that is, show where it comes from) using all underlying graphs.
3.  Show how to derive the LM curve using all underlying graphs.
4.  Using any and all relevant graphs, explain what happens to the LM curve when the money supply is reduced.
5.  Using any and all relevant graphs, explain what happens to the IS curve when there is a tax increase.
6. Given the following information, find the economy’s IS curve and graph it.
C = 150 + .75(Y – T) I = 200 – 40r G = T = 200
10. Given the following information, find the economy’s LM curve and graph it.
Ms = 130 and Md = 100 + .1Y – 10r 11.
11. Using the information in questions 5 and 10, find the economy’s equilibrium output and interest rate.
 
Chapter 4
2.  Using IS – LM curves, show graphically what will happen to output (Y) and interest rates (r) if:
a.  FED increases money supply and Congress cuts spending.
b.  Both government spending and the money supply increase.
c.  The FED cuts the money supply and taxes are increased.
8. Verify that equilibrium output will be 800 (Y = 800) and the interest rate 5 percent (r = 5).
9. Suppose government spending increases by 65 (from 200 to 265) financed by running a budget deficit. What will happen to output and the interest rate?
10. Suppose the government raises taxes by 65. What happens to output and the interest rate? 11. Supposegovernmentspendingincreasesby65financedbyataxincreaseof65.Whathappenstooutput
and the interest rate?
12. Suppose the money supply increases by 65 (from 130 to 195). What happens to output and the interest rate?
13. Suppose government spending increases by 65 and this is financed by an equal increase in the money supply. What happens to output and the interest rate?
 
Chapter 5
1.  Suppose investment is not very sensitive to interest rates.  Would you rather use fiscal or monetary policy to stimulate an economy that is in a recession.  Explain in pictures and words.
2.  Suppose that money demand is extremely sensitive to interest rates.  Would you use fiscal or monetary policy to stimulate an increase in GDP?  Explain in words and pictures.
3.  What is meant by quantitative easing?  When would the FED use it?  Explain what it is meant to do and how it would work.
4.  What does the LM curve look like in the liquidity trap?  How effective is monetary policy?  Fiscal policy?

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Money and Monetary Policy and Inflation cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

DUE 5 HOURS
1-2 PARAGRAPH
.“Money and Monetary Policy and Inflation” Please respond to the following:
Hyperinflation in Germany 1923 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WI1i5yhwOz8
Zimbabwe Hyperinflation in current modern era  
WOW!!!!! look at this video!!   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPKGZreusoQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPKGZreusoQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGELzZRzRaw and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=78-BlZXm7wA
Why governments inflate– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6A_WpUY2LI
 Controversies on Federal Reserve System- Monetary Policy  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ed0lfNi0ciw
Class, let me addVenezuelawas experiencing hyperinflation..the government is printing money like crazy. Then they compound it with price controls which of course makes the product scarce. Look at the awful effects. Check out this video! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfkSm1-hVIM

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Describes a Credit Default Swap college essay help onlineFind a link that describes a “Credit Default Swap” and briefly summarize your understanding of it.  Here are a few links that I found helpful:
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-01-30/credit-default-swap-market-shrinks-by-half
http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1723152,00.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHVnEBw93EA
Find a link that describes a “Collateral Debt Obligation” and briefly summarize your understanding of it.  Here are a few links that I found helpful:
http://useconomy.about.com/od/glossary/g/CDOs.htm
http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=Collateralised-debt-obligation-CD
http://www.khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/core-finance/derivative-securities/CDO-tutorial/v/collateralized-debt-obligation–cdo
Find a link that describes the results of the Great Recession and briefly summarize your understanding of it.  Here are a few links that I found helpful:
http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/what-was-the-great-recession-timeline-facts-causes-effects.html#lesson
https://webspace.princeton.edu/users/pkrugman/gr0203.pdf
http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/2013/0908/Timeline-on-the-Great-Recession
Develop a summary paragraph which includes credit default swaps, collateralized debt obligations, and consequences of the Great Recession.  Include some policy tools that were used to try and deal with these circumstances.

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Equal distribution of wealth discussion get essay help: get essay helpWealth distribution has to be as equitable as possible to embrace regional balance in the country. Equal distribution of wealth starts with ensuring equal opportunities politically, socially and economically to all people in the society regardless of their socioeconomic status, gender, or disabilities among other discriminative factors. In this regard, the even distribution of wealth also ensures equal growth and development of a country because of the uniform improvement of the citizens’ living standards across the nation. Irrespective of all these advantages, there are still many gaps in the distribution of opportunities; hence, affluence in America and across the world at large.
 
There are various ways of determining the wealth of people. Nonetheless, in the US, the main method focuses on the wages or salaries and the total possessions of the people (Domhoff, 2005). In this respect, many factors affect salaries and wages, as well as personal properties of the people, which in turn, affect the distribution of wealth of the citizens in the nation. Meanwhile, salaries and wages (incomes) are among the major factors that influence wealth distribution of people across the world.
 
Peoples’ income influences wealth distribution because it dictates the property’s acquisition potential of individuals. Citizens with high incomes can purchase expensive things and as much as they want; hence, they are rich, as opposed to the low earning people. In most societies, the rich reside in high standard states and towns with slams and other low standard residences left for the poor (Domhoff, 2005). It is in this regard that the high standard residences are growing and developing with improved services and goods at the expense of the rest of the region. If we have to develop the other regions as well, we will have to better the incomes of their residents through better economic opportunities. The wealth of people within a country can change depending on the changes occurring in the levels of their income regardless of where they are living (Domhoff, 2005).
 
Government policies also dictate wealth and its distribution. Good examples are the money-related policies. The US government, for example, controls the supply of cash to guarantee its currency value strength (Krugman, 2014). Effective policies encourage a country’s financial development and security and lower the joblessness not in some parts of the country but all of them. Furthermore, when a nation is able to keep the value of its currency high and strong, it presents an equal platform for all of its citizens—men and women, old and young and other groups— to earn well and raise their living standard so that they are all capable of accumulating wealth.
 
Age is another factor that affects wealth distribution in the US. There is a huge gap in terms of wealth between the young adults and the elderly. Stats show that the vast of the riches in the US belongs to the retired citizens with the number soaring significantly from the 1980 era. As such, today, individuals beyond 65 years hold the most—around 66% —of aggregate family unit riches in the US (Krugman, 2014). The fact that the majority of these people are retired implies that their wealth resulted from their good wages or salaries. Looking at the situation of the young adults today, on the other hand, more than 50% are jobless and therefore, it is apparent they are poor. Based on this, the present society should offer the youths opportunities today to earn and acquire riches. Otherwise, in the future, our economy is going to collapse because of the unequal distribution of wealth between the young and the old, for instance, for reasons that: Comment by Joseph Conlin: You are ignoring investments in capital. Comment by Joseph Conlin: Comment by Joseph Conlin: You need a source for this as I wrote in your first draft. Comment by Joseph Conlin: Do not use going to for future tense. …economy will collapse because. .. Comment by Joseph Conlin: You are not dealing with the information available. The old in the top 20% have far more money than the young who have not had time to accumulate their wealth.
 
1) Because the richest people now are the poor but because they are old retired, they will rely on their riches—their reserves, which will eventually reduce and get finished by the time they die and, Comment by Joseph Conlin: delete Comment by Joseph Conlin: AS I wrote previously. You have nothing to support this claim. This is true for the middle class. Not for the top 1%. They have billions of dollars.
 
2) Since the youths are jobless now, they will not be able to accumulate any wealth, which would even serve them during their old ages as the current elderlies. Comment by Joseph Conlin: This does not make sense as written.
 
Economic markets, as well, influence wealth distribution. Our society comprises of majorly farmers and business people. Farmers have life’s essential products like food but lack money. Business people, on the other hand, have money but lack food and other commodities. In whichever way, there is an uneven distribution of resources; hence, wealth, as an equal distribution means that all of these people have the life’s essential products and cash. Economic markets steps in at this point. Economic markets are places or situations that bring farmers and traders together to exchange their surpluses for what they do not have. In this respect, they help to strike a balance in the distribution of resources, and so wealth (Domhoff, 2005). Comment by Joseph Conlin: Comment by Joseph Conlin: Farmers are a very small minority of the business people and owrkers.
 
From this analysis, it is apparent that we are miles away from the equal distribution of wealth. The socioeconomic class division is one of the prime characteristics of our society today where slams and other low-status residences are associated with the poor and the high-class places with all sorts of improved and better-quality services with the rich (Domhoff, 2005). All these emanate from the uneven distribution of wealth. If all people were rich, there is a high probability that slams, and other low-status residences would not be in existence. The rationale is that everyone around the country would be in demand for high-quality goods and services. As such, with this kind of better living standards, no one would be struggling and the whole country would grow and develop. Comment by Joseph Conlin: As I wrote previously, if everyone is rich, then no one is rich. Rich is a comparative term. Comment by Joseph Conlin: Comment by Joseph Conlin: slums
 
Nonetheless, it is totally the opposite with the rich living in presumably a land full of “honey and milk” while the poor are struggling in the “deserts.” Among the many factors that emanate from this uneven distribution of wealth are crimes. What do you do when you are jobless and do not have a single sense, yet you have to pay bills and eat, and on the other side, there are people enjoying life with surplus food and cash? Some con, others steal and even robe. The gap also fuels corruption according to Krugman (2014). Money is very powerful. Because of it, many civil servants have bent the low in favor of the rich. In this regard, I argue suppose that the only best way of curbing the current socioeconomic problems is by striking the right balance between the rich and the poor, and that means ensuring an even distribution in wealth.
 
 

 
References
Domhoff, W. (2005). Wealth, Income, and Power. Who Rules America: Wealth, Income, and Power. Retrieved from www2.ucsc.edu/whorulesamerica/power/wealth.html.
Krugman, P. (2014). Why Were in a New Gilded Age: Capital in the 21st Century. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from www.nybooks.com/articles/2014/05/08/thomas-piketty-new-gilded-age/.
 
 
 
You are still using too much defining and first/second person. You are making statements that require support and you do not provide it. Grade C. Final grade for the assignment: C

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Mobile computing and its business implications homework essay help

Research at least two articles on the topic of mobile computing and its business implications. Write a brief synthesis and summary of the two articles. How are the topics of the two articles related? What information was relevant and why?

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