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Role Of Tourism On Economic Sustainability A Level History Essay Help

role of tourism on economic sustainability in Japan

General Economic Overview of Japan

With a gross domestic product of $4,290 billion, Japan is currently the fourth largest economy of the globe, after the European Union, the United States and China (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008). The economic growth has been basically sustained by the reproduction activities, basically materialized in “childbirth, education and socialization, along with the everyday revitalization of the labour force” (Hiroko, 2004). The state officials made increased efforts to sustain the industrial development and invested impressive sums of money into technological innovations. Japan still outperforms the United States in terms of total factor productivity growth. Japan also registers higher shares of investment in the gross domestic product than the average of most countries (Balassa and Noland, 1988).

Japan used to base its economy on agricultural activities, but they are now turning to incomes from services. Agriculture is declining and it is now among the highest subsidized activities in Japan, and among the highest subsidized agricultural activities within the world. Japan is generally self sufficient in producing rice, but they import about 55% of the food supplies. Economic growth has been at an average of 10% for the 1960, 5% in the 1970 and 4% in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the growth had declined to an average of 1.7%, generally due to over privatization and over investments and the price bubble. More recently, the economy of Japan has been negatively impacted by the economic slowdown in the United States, Europe and other Asian countries. The country is fighting to strengthen its position and still remains a reliable player. “Nevertheless, Japan’s huge government debt, which totals 182% of GDP, and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. Some fear that a rise in taxes could endanger the current economic recovery. Debate also continues on the role of and effects of reform in restructuring the economy, particularly with respect to increasing income disparities” (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008).

The primary issue with Japan’s economic growth and sustainability is that of an increasing inflation. The country has registered years of deflation, but the negative phenomenon has returned in 2008. Another issue is that of an increased federal debt. To control it, the state officials must limit the government expenditures and achieve fiscal consolidation. Another issue at hand is that of developing tax reforms to enhance the economic growth and fiscal sustainability. Also, since the largest contribution to the GDP comes from the service sector, its productivity has to be increased in the future. Finally, the labor market has to be restructured and reformed as to best cope with the increasing dualism and the aging of the population (Economy Watch).

2. General Overview of Tourism in Japan

It is only in the past recent decades that Japan increased its efforts to sustain tourism. Up until the 1980s, the country failed to see tourism as a means of attracting foreign incomes. Starting with the 1990s however, the officials in Japan took “a more active role in promoting inbound tourism. Japan has a well organized tourist industry. The government is involved with both domestic and international tourism, with offices in many cities of the world outside of Japan. The government has also established a number of programs and offices to develop a broad variety of tourist attractions in Japan while maintaining the quality of its natural environmental settings” (Hudman, Jackson and Essa, 2002).

Most of the tourists in Japan come from China, Taiwan and Korea. Since 2004 for instance, the primary destination of the citizens in Hong Kong has been Japan (Cochrane, 2008). In the period January – July 2007, Japan had received a total of 3,944,194 visitors, a 12% increase as compared to the same period of the previous year. In the period July – December, the number of tourists had reached 4,402,775, a 15.5% increase as compared to the same period of 2006. Overall, the increase in tourists in 2007 as compared to 2006 has been of 13.8%. In contrast however, the number of Japanese people travelling abroad is decreasing with every year. The average of January – December 2007 was of 17,294,935, a 1.4 decrease as compared to January – December of 2006 (Japan National Tourist Organization, 2008).

About 16.2% of the total tourists come from the United States. There are three primary reasons why Japan finds it difficult to attract tourists from North America and Europe. They materialize in the following:

the main attractions in Japan are related to culture, traditions, history and customs, which only appeal to a narrow palette of consumers the cultural barrier, most often materialized in the language barriers, often prevents people from visiting, and the costs are quite high, therefore tourists are hesitating (Hudman, Jackson and Essa, 2002)

The touristy industry has played an important role in the increase of gross domestic product and has sustained the economic growth of Japan. But even so, there are voices that militate against it, as they believe it damages the cultural features. Japan is a mystical land of traditions and long standing history and excessively opening it to the western civilizations in order to register more income may result in the objectification of the Japanese ways (Hiroyuki, 2003).

The top destinations include Tokyo (for both the Japanese culture, but also for hosting the Disneyland), Kyoto, Osaka, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Kamakura or Takayama (Japan Guide, 2008)

3. Definition and Types of Sustainability

Several economists and sociologists have attempted to define the concept of sustainability and have generally come up with various definitions. All these however have in common the idea of actions and practices to support the development of a community, an organization or even a country. A magazine article in the Public Management (2008) says that “sustainability is a familiar concept for local government professionals, many of whom trace its roots to the values and considerations inherent in the practice of community planning. They are familiar with approaches to development that weigh long-term impacts as well as near-term benefits. But city and county managers also know that the definition of sustainability goes well beyond planning and development. For local governments, it is not only about preparing for growth or trying to redevelop a vacant industrial property. It encompasses everything that a local government does – from long-term stewardship of the community to the smallest day-to-day tasks.”

Michael Willis (2006) identifies two core characteristics of sustainability. They refer to:

Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, (and)

Improving the quality of life while living within the carrying capacity of the supporting environment.”

Depending on the final objective followed by the individuals and organizations developing and implementing the sustainability projects, these can be divided into the following:

sustained participation – implying the full involvement of communities sustained outcomes – referring to both long and short-term outcomes sustained community capacity sustained project activities sustained project ideas (Rogers, 2006) energy and water; buildings and grounds; food and drink; global dimensions; inclusion and participation; local well-being; purchasing and waste; travel and traffic (Queen Elizabeth School)

In more recent approaches, the concept of sustainability is used in the context of tourism. In “Tourism and Sustainability: Development and Tourism in the Third World,” authors Martin Mowforth and Ian Munt argue that the increase in tourism activities and the consequent revenues generated by the touristy industry are due to the globalization factor. With the opening of borders, the corporations and individuals got wealthier and afforded to travel and consume more, as a result, tourism is directly linked to consumerism, and to sustain as such tourism, consumerism must be sustained. “Sustainability is perceived and described as an essential part of the ideology of the New World Order and all the trends and tendencies that are associated with it. These tendencies, almost movements, include a ‘new’ consumerism, whose semantic ally is sustainability. The two notions have developed hand in hand to give mass consumption a more acceptable justification to the new middle classes who can afford to consider sustainability” (Mowforth and Munt, 2003).

4. Economic Impacts of Tourism in Japan

Starting with the 1990s, when Japan promoted its values and cultures as a means of attracting foreign visitors, the proportion of revenues from touristy activities in the gross domestic product increased significantly. The main specification relative to the impact of tourism upon the overall Japanese economy could be succinctly presented as follows:

in 2000, the touristy industry generated incomes of approximately $180 billion; the sum was estimated to generate 1.97 million direct employment, 2.9% of the total employment

The sum of direct and triggered production effect concerning the above tourism consumption was estimated to be 53.8 trillion yen (430 billion yen, equivalent to 5.7% of total domestic production), which was estimated to generate 4.22 million employment (corresponds to 6.3% of total domestic employment)” (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002) in 2001, the travel balance revealed a deficit as the Japanese travellers were spending more abroad than the foreign visitors were spending in Japan; in 2007 the balance revealed a surplus as the number of visitors increased and the number of Japanese spending their vacations abroad decreased the remote islands of Japan also attract large numbers of tourist, but the studies conducted along the years revealed that the income from touristy operations in these regions does not have a statistically significant impact (Ishikawa and Fukushige, 2006)

In 2000, the touristy industry accounted for 2.2% of the total GDP and 2.9 in the employment; the proportions are expected to increase and are still considered relatively low in comparison to other countries, generally due to the tardy response of the Japanese authorities. “As the tourism market continues to grow steadily, tourism industry is expected to become the leading industry of Japan throughout the 21st century” (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002).

References

Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics

Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books

Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of Reproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, Routledge

Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23

Hudman, L., Jackson, R., Essa, E., 2002, Geography of Travel and Tourism, 4th Edition, Cengage Delmar Learning

Ishikawa, N., Fukushige, M., 2006, Impacts of Tourism and Fiscal Expenditure on Remote Islands in Japan: A Panel Data Analysis, Osaka University, Discussion in Economics and Business, Number 06-21

Mowforth, M., Munt, I., 2003, Tourism and Sustainability: Development and Tourism in the Third World, Routledge

Rogers, P., 2006, Sustainability, Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, Retrieved at http://www.aracy.org.au/AM/Common/pdf/TopicalPapers/Sustainability.pdfon August 4, 2008

Willis, M., 2006, Sustainability: The Issue of Our Age, and a Concept for Local Government, Public Management, Volume 88

2002, National Tourism Policy Review of Japan, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/43/48/33649824.pdfon August 4, 2008

2008, the World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.htmllast accessed on August 4, 2008

2008, Sustainability, Public Management, Volume 90

2008, 2007 Foreign Visitors and Japanese Departures, Japan National Tourist Organization, Retrieved at http://www.jnto.go.jp/eng/ttp/sta/PDF/E2007.pdfon August 4, 2008

2008, Japan Travel Guide, Japan Guide, http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e623.htmllast accessed on August 4, 2008

Japan’s Economy, Economy Watch, http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/japan/last accessed on August 4, 2008

Types of Sustainability, Queen Elizabeth School, http://www.qesustainabilitygroup.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=26last accessed on August 4, 2008

Impact of the arrival of Neoliberalism in Southeast Europe. do my history assignment: do my history assignment

Critically assess the social impact of the arrival of Neoliberalism in Southeast Europe.

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Neoliberalism is an economic and political model that seeks to transfer the control of economic factors from the public to the private sector. Many policies in Neoliberalism are made to enhance the working of free-market capitalism, and the policies attempt to place limits on the spending of the government, public ownership, and government regulations. Neoliberalism is associated with the prime minister of the U.K, Margret thatcher. Other individuals associated with Neoliberalism are Ronald Reagan and the leader of the Conservative party between 1975 and 1990. In recent days Neoliberalism has been associated with attempts to cut the spending of the government on social programs. Sometimes, Neoliberalism is confused with libertarianism. However, neoliberals advocate for government intervention in the society and economy at large than libertarianism. While neoliberals favor progressive taxation, libertarians look at this favor from the point of schemes like flat tax rates for every individual who pays tax. In the Neoliberal world, Southeast Europe has not been left out. This discussion critically assesses the social impact of the arrival of Neoliberalism in Southeast Europe.
Neoliberalism in Southeast Europe
When the central plan that had been planned for southeast Europe was destructed, the new government that followed in power tried to come up with a new institution that would adapt and serve the needs of the new era and meet the neoliberal economy demands. The financial aid during the takeover of a new government was dependent on international organizations that were funding the newly founded societies (Bieber and Brentin,2018). Most countries in southeastern Europe had to leave the single-party system of administration, whereby the communist party dominated. Those countries were therefore forced to implement conditions of civil democracy that are pluralist.
The dramatic changes in so many ways have affected the social conditions of southeast Europe. Some of these social conditions, such as unemployment, were previously hidden. Other conditions include an increased inflation rate, which at the beginning did not have so often changes, and decreased standards of living that were already low.
Countries in Southeast Europe, include; Albania, Vatican City, Spain, Turkey, Greece, Malta, Italy, Kosovo, Andorra, San Marino, Cyprus, Croatia, and Bosnia among others started experiencing neoliberal changes (Markou,2017). The government ended its aid to households and things became worse. The major striking element was the deacon pinpoint which occurred in 1992 (Drako, Fiket, and Vasiljevi, 2020). The government regulated price changes using decrees. At the same time, the government gave a substantial the population a compensation for consequences created by an increase in prices. The transition from the old mechanism regulated the new era of southeast Europe societies into the market economy.
Social impact of the arrival of Neoliberalism in Southeast Europe
Reduced access to social security
In Southeast Europe, the arrival of Neoliberalism led to reduced access to security. The government intervention in security matters reduced significantly. Social inequality also increased among citizens and other institutions of government (Popovi and Koulaouzides,2017). It is argued that inequality is not an unintended result, inequality is a very key feature in neoliberal politics. It is supposed to serve as a mechanism through which productivity and competition are increased. Due to lower levels of social cohesion, and low trust levels in southeastern Europe countries, there have been many cases of inequality rising.
Increased poverty
According to Hartmann, Neoliberalism involves minimal government intervention, individualism, and laissez-faire market policies. Neoliberalism has contributed to the privatization and individualization of institutions in southeastern Europe (Drachkovich and Drachkovich,2017). Most health care was privatized, and this resulted in health inequalities. The government also privatized healthcare, electricity, water, and education. Neoliberals argued that private institutions are more capable of providing efficient and effective services in their areas of specialization. Due to privatizing many institutions, the poverty level in southeast Europe countries increased a great deal. Many households are living in poverty. They are not able to pay for services in the private instructions. The few government instructions which are left cannot handle all cases and requirements of the ever-growing population. The circulation of money in the economy is controlled by a few powerful individuals and hence poverty. Free-market capitalism has made the richer and the poor poorer. The governments failure to spend on the public through rhetorical choices of freedom has resulted in a harmful impact on peoples wellbeing and healthy.
Increased Foreign investments as opposed to Local investments
After the arrival of neoliberals, southeast Europe adopted the ideology of language of freedom and choice, open market and foreign investment. The potential investors from outside southeastern Europe had an opportunity to establish their own firms in the region. The revenue earned from the foreign investments is sent back to the original countries of the investors (Zavirek and Rajgelj, 2019). This has resulted in poor economic growth in southeast Europe despite having many multinational companies and organizations.
The foreign investments have created a stiff competition to the upcoming local manufacturing industries. Small entrepreneurs are not able to penetrate the market due to stiff competition from foreign investors. The neoliberal policies have allowed more private companies in the region and in most cases they are monopolistic. There are therefore fewer chances of social-economic growth in the region. Government collects taxes which are used to develop social amenities, however the policies put in place favor private companies who pay taxes but do not reinvest their revenue in this region, rather they send revenues to their home countries.
Unemployment
Government is responsible for job creation for their employed citizens. Delegating firms and other income-generating sectors to individual personnel meant that they were under control of them. Normally private sectors do not carry out mass recruitment of new employees, unlike the government (Vangeli,2017). There is also a possibility of employing for those people who know the management at a personal level. The common people in society have suffered this action. It has become hard for people to secure employment in southeast Europe. The number of unemployed youths is increasing exponentially areas the population increases.
While the government focuses on reducing the unemployment rate, private firms focus on profit maximization. Private firms employ few people to ensure they reduce the cost of labor (Murillo, Buckland and Val,2017). Private sectors do not provide job security to their employees, unlike the government. Being employed by the government provides a chance for employees to develop themselves with loans and other benefits from the government due to the long-term nature of the job. Loans can be used to open other investment and develop ones own life. Unlike the government jobs, private sectors jobs have no security and hence no room for personal growth and development due to many uncertainties.
Deterioration of income distribution
The income distribution in the Southeast Europe region deteriorated with the arrival of Neoliberalism. The economy is said to be good when money distribution flows from the top to bottom and from bottom to up. The common citizens are able to carry out income-generating activities, however small it is, their efforts are met by those of strong investors and owners of the company, and everybody in the society is doing something. The arrival of Neoliberalism contributed to detererioted income distribution(ni,2019). With the privatization of economic activities, most people are not privileged to have money. Money rotates between financial firms and private organizations. There is no room for growth for low-income earners. Money and resources only rotate between those who have and can afford them. This has resulted in low standards of living for most families in the southeast Europe region.
Poor healthcare facilitation
Many hospitals and healthcare facilities in southeast Europe are private. Following the challenges of unemployment, unequal distribution of income, and poverty, most people are not able to access good healthcare. Following the adjustments made by the world bank and the international monetary Fund (IMF), most countries in southeast Europe reduced their healthcare budgets. According to Hartmann, this resulted in wide-scale privatization of healthcare services, insurance, and delivery that eventually led to fragmentation and segmentation of healthcare services (Dolenec, Doolan and Tomaevi,2017). The structural adjustment programs (SAP) have a negative impact on southeast Europes economy. However, it is not limited to pressures of inflationary, reduction in employment, and poor distribution of health benefits.
In many countries of the Southeast Europe region, outside of an emergency, patients are required to produce proof of payment before medical services are available to them. Initially, government health care facilities are slowly being converted into private hospitals. One wing is public and the other wing is a private facility. Patients from the public wing get referred to the private wing regularly and they end up incurring the high cost of treatments. Due to channeling funds to narrow medical interest, structural adjustments policies resulted in an uneven medical landscape (Stubbs, and LendvaiBainton, 2020). Clinicians, in most cases, tailor their treatment decision to limited technology, available resources, and medicine.
Due to increased private healthcare organizations in the region, followed by a reduction in the role of the government in the provision of healthcare services, there are so many evidenced outcomes on the cost, effectiveness, access, and quality of healthcare systems and services. Peoples lives have been severely affected. Privatization has made healthcare less available to the population, and more unaffordable to the population of people who need it most. Life expectancy has fallen as a result and the mortality rate from diseases that infectious rises day by day (Berberoglu, 2020). The politics of healthcare that come through neoliberal are termed as individual Issues other than societal issues. The neoliberal approach in the health sector has diminished the right of the people to health care and in southeast Europe, healthcare is no longer a universal human right.
There are other positive social impacts that came with the arrival of Neoliberalism in southeast Europe.
Free trade
One of the central features of Neoliberalism is support for free trade and other policies that promotes free trade. Neoliberalism argues that free trade promotes social-economic empowerment and reduces poverty. Some countries in the region like Turkey have benefitted from free trade. A significant part of the Turkish economy has resulted from free trade (Loong, 2019) Investors have the freedom to lower the prices of the commodities, they have the right to maximize consumer choice. The government the of neoliberal believes that trade agreements between two parties should be allowed. The neoliberal in the region has an atmosphere where investors can innovate, and start different industries of their choice according to the legal requirement.
Globalization
Neoliberalism allows the interaction of people from all walks of life. Private investors are major foreigners. Southeast Europe has been able to connect with other countries as a result of Neoliberalism. Private investors have brought their home knowledge to the region and impacted the residents with new ideas for investments, development, and other positive decision making (Tas, 2018). Technology has also been made effective as foreign investors keep communicating home, sending money through technology, resourcing some of the materials among other activities that promote the use of technology.
Conclusion
Neoliberalism has impacted the southeast Europe region a great deal. The arrival of Neoliberalism meant that the government privatized most firms and institutions a delegated their services and funding to individual personnel. This affected the social welfare of people in a very negative way. Due to the privatization of institution, there has been increased levels of poverty, unemployment, unequal distribution of resources, and poor health facilitation among other challenges to citizens of this region. Even if Neoliberalism promoted globalization and the free market, it has greatly resulted in social challenges in many spheres of life as discussed in the context above.

Reference:
Berberoglu, B. ed., 2020. The global rise of authoritarianism in the 21st Century: Crisis of neoliberal globalization and the nationalist response. Routledge.
Bieber, F. and Brentin, D. eds., 2018. Social movements in the Balkans: rebellion and protest from Maribor to Taksim. Routledge.
Drachkovich, M.V. and Drachkovich, V.D., 2017. Social institutional factors of slow-down: the case of Southeast European countries development. Sociological Studies, 4(4), pp.107-115.
Drako, G.P., Fiket, I. and Vasiljevi, J., 2020. Big dreams and small steps: comparative perspectives on the social movement struggle for democracy in Serbia and North Macedonia. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 20(1), pp.199-219.
Dolenec, D., Doolan, K. and Tomaevi, T., 2017. Contesting Neoliberal Urbanism on the European Semi-periphery: the right to the city movement in Croatia. Europe-Asia studies, 69(9), pp.1401-1429.
Loong, S., 2019. The neoliberal borderscape: Neoliberalism’s effects on the social worlds of migrants along the Thai-Myanmar border. Political Geography, 74, p.102035.
Markou, G., 2017. The rise of inclusionary populism in Europe: The case of SYRIZA. Contemporary Southeastern Europe, 4(1), pp.54-71.
Murillo, D., Buckland, H. and Val, E., 2017. When the sharing economy becomes Neoliberalism on steroids: Unravelling the controversies. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 125, pp.66-76.
ni, Z., 2019. Turkey under the challenge of state capitalism: The political economy of the late AKP era. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 19(2), pp.201-225.
Stubbs, P. and LendvaiBainton, N., 2020. Authoritarian Neoliberalism, radical conservatism and social policy within the European Union: Croatia, Hungary and Poland. Development and Change, 51(2), pp.540-560.
Popovi, K. and Koulaouzides, G.A., 2017. Critical thinking, empowerment & lifelong learning policy. In Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Southeastern Europe (pp. 1-15). Brill Sense.
Ta, H., 2018. The 15 July abortive coup and post-truth politics in Turkey. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 18(1), pp.1-19.
Vangeli, A., 2017. China’s engagement with the sixteen countries of Central, East and Southeast Europe under the belt and road initiative. China & World Economy, 25(5), pp.101-124.
Zavirek, D. and Rajgelj, B., 2019. anti-refugee sentiment without refugees: Human rights violations and social work in post-socialist countries of Southeastern Europe in their social contexts. Journal of Human Rights and Social Work, 4(1), pp.5-16.

 

Changes brought about by World War I do my history assignment

Changes brought about by World War I was the structure of the European map. Major empires crumbled with hundreds and thousands of casualties left behind. The toll of the war was as much emotional as anything else. Chodorow maintains, “The tense and tumultuous atmosphere of past-war Europe, however, was not conducive to the peaceful consolidation of democracy. The chaos left behind war and revolution soon proved too much for inexperienced parliamentary governments. In their place there emerged new dictatorial and totalitarian regimes, better suited to cope with a world in crisis” (Chodorow 886). One of the first regimes to emerge after World War I was in Russia in the twenties. “The victory of communism in that potentially powerful country introduced an entirely new and disturbing element into international affairs” (Chodorow 886). Political changes in Germany, Austria, and Hungary were closely associated with military defeat and “democracy in these countries carried a blemish that only time and success could erase” (Chodorow 886). It is not wonder that with so many countries in financial and emotional demise that recovery would be slow and painful. Other significant milestones that emerged from the war were the position of women and the infamous lost generation. Women and their place in society experienced an extreme change – they became valuable during the war in that they were instrumental in the labor movement. Work in general experienced a surge and “the wartime spur to industrialization produced a large increase in the industrial labor force all over Europe, and a good deal of labor unrest accompanied the transition to peacetime” (Noble 1033). In addition, post-war America experienced a boom that many refer to as the jazz age. The jazz age is often associated with lavish lifestyles in America. Additionally, the world was becoming smaller. Thomas Noble adds, “Mass consumption was the reverse side of the mass production that made possible the new prosperity of the 1920s. As it became possible to mass-produce the products of the second industrial revolution, more people could afford automobiles, electrical products like the radio and phonograph, and clothing of synthetic fabrics, made possible by the innovations in chemistry” (Noble 1033). The war literally touched all and while it might have been over, it was far from forgotten.

World War I ended with a series of treaties, the most important being the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty forced Germany to disarm and provide reparations, including “civil damages” (Craig 933). While Germany did attack first, it was virtually impossible for Germany to pay for all of the damage that occurred as a result of the war. Additionally, Germany “had not deliberately planned and instigated World War I” (933). I agree with this notion because the ramifications of the treaty were too overwhelming for any country to overcome. The debt that was placed upon Germany was too great to bear and only contributed to the economical burdens across the globe. It is also important to realize that the emotional strain of how the treaty was “signed” left much to be desired in Germany.

As noted, “The economic results of the war were even more serious than its political aftermath. The territorial losses by themselves caused a major economic shock among the defeated powers” (Chodorow 890). Realignment was not as easy as it sounded and it was slow going. The financial strain turned out to b one that Europe could not handle and the result was a severe economic crisis. Things only became worse when “no major Western European country of the United States provided strong, responsible economic leadership” (Craig 947). While the end of the war was a relief, picking up the pieces would prove to be a difficult task as well. Additional burdens placed upon Germany only compounded the situation.

By far, the most devastating of the effect of the war was the signing of Treaty of Versailles. Chodorow claims, “Within one decade, Europe had thus come full cycle from despair through hope and back to despair” (Chodorow 892). This statement emphasizes the repercussions of what happened. What we learn from this is that no mistake can be erased from history just as no reparations can completely repair damage done. Germany’s inability to carry her own weight during this time of trouble only prolonged the world economy, which was badly bruised and desperately needing to be healed.

2. Democracy became the word that was whispered across the globe during the twenties and thirties. The promise of democracy proved to be easier than the act of democracy. “Democracy seemed divisive and ineffective, so one country after another adopted a more authoritarian alternative during the twenties and early thirties” (Noble 1034). However, it is impossible to squash the human sprit that longs to be free. Noble asserts, “Democracy proved hard to manage in east-central Europe party because of special economic difficulties resulting from the breakup of the Habsberg system” (Noble 1035). In addition, he notes, “The countries of east-central Europe remained overwhelmingly agrarian, and this, too, proved unconducive to democracy” (1035). Growth and expansion work best under a democracy and the European communist were beginning to understand this.

There is no doubt communism was the result of governments looking for answers. Noble explains, “Communism and fascism were new and no one knew what they would mean to the nations or peoples that embraced them. But these two movements expanded political options and this made the political framework in Europe more complex and unstable during the 1930s” (1035-56). The appeal of communism was infectious and Noble claims, “From its founding in March 1919 until the spring of 1920, as a wave of leftist political agitation and labor unrest spread throughout Europe, the Comintern actively promoted the wider revolution that Lenin and his colleagues had anticipated when they took power in 1917” (1039). The Soviet bloc experienced rapid growth and “cut through all the revolutionary romanticism and rhetoric to show the others what the Leninist strategy, or communism, meant” (1040). The need for some type of leadership brought on the greatest wave of communism. The timing was right and most of the countries affected were still reeling from the war.

3. Communism, although it remained one of the most popular movements in Europe, was loosing its grasp by the 1970s. After Yugoslavia’s break in 1948, the movement lost momentum. This second break became “public and seemingly permanent” (Chambers 1086) and smaller groups in Western Europe followed the Yugoslavian model with criticism.

The “Polish example suggested to anticommunists all over the Soviet bloc that the communist system was open to challenge. As a result, anticommunism spread through east-central Europe by means of the domino effect that had preoccupied the soviets from the start, ultimately toppling the Soviet satellite system” (Chambers Noble 1200). Smaller countries were simply emulating Poland’s model, seeking to negotiate a transfer of power from the communist leadership. While many transitions to a more relaxed government were peaceful, a “marked increase in illegal emigration from East Germany to the West had been one manifestation that discontent was reaching the breaking point” (Noble 1201). In November of 1989, the “regime of East Germany did what had been long seemed unthinkable: It opened the Berlin Wall, which was promptly dismantled altogether” (1201). This liberalization “proved too late, however; events outraced the control of even the most innovative and flexible of the East German communists. East Germans no longer aimed simply at reforming the communist system but at ending it altogether. As it even became possible to contemplate German reunification, the communist system in the East quickly dissolved” (Noble 1201). Reformers in the former Soviet bloc wanted “individual freedom, political democracy, and free-market capitalism” (Noble 1201). With the economic system crumbling, communism was in jeopardy. Events like the nuclear explosion at Chernobyl forced individuals to think beyond communism. Citizens were considering “unthinkable possibilities like privatization and a market economy” (Noble 1202).

Works Cited

Chamber, Mortimer, et al. The Western Experience. New York: Alfred a. Knopf. 1979.

Chodorow, Stanley. A History of the World. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers. 1986.

Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.

Disadvantages of Minor and Major Parties history homework help: history homework help

Minor and Major Parties
Minor parties are defined as splinter or single-issued parties and are disadvantaged compared to major parties that address several challenges. This paper explains the disadvantages of these parties and how the major parties are better than them.
Minor parties are at a disadvantage compared to the major parties because the minor parties do not have the major parties’ power, hence having little money to support their candidate during campaigns(Paletz, Owen,&Cook,2013). Luck of enough funds, among the members of smaller parties, unlike those of the major parties, attain status and access to the ballot on a single case basis. Minor parties cannot nominate candidates to the offices for which they don’t have influence and status. Major candidates, in this case, have the power to nominate candidates to any district or municipal office, or a state. Minor parties are also disadvantaged because they cannot win over a wide range of the population because of their narrow focus on their ideologies compared to the major parties focused on various doctrines that make up a society. For example, some minor parties are ideological-based parties with certain beliefs. An example of such minor parties includes socialist labor and the Liberian parties.
In conclusion, the minor parties are always disadvantaged because of their focus on single issues in the community, which makes the parties irrelevant once such problems are solved. These parties are known to last for a short period; for example, the Free Soil Party was formed to oppose slavery in the mid-1800s (Paletz et al.,.2013). The Party lost its values after the end of slavery. The modern examples include the parties opposing Abortion, such as the Rights to life Party. Major parties address several issues such as foreign policies, human rights, and economic problems, making them relevant in the long run.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference
Paletz, D. L., Owen, D. M., & Cook, T. E. (2013). American government and politics in the information age. Flat World Knowledge.

Introduction on Major Depressive Disorder ap world history homework help

Introduction
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a disease that tends to be characterized by at least one major depressive episode that lasts for at least two weeks and usually involves clear-cut changes in one’s pleasure, interests and mood (Lloyd et al., 2020). There are also changes in cognition and the vegetative symptoms of the individual in question. The illness can limit the psychosocial functioning of an individual and tends to diminish the quality of life. The condition has been ranked as hard to deal with as it creates issues due to the different courses it might take and variance in the prognosis of the disease.
Symptoms of MDD
MDD has several symptoms. According to Kennedy (2022), a person may feel sad, empty, and hopeless. There is also a loss of interest in various activities such as sports, sex, or hobbies. Individuals with MDD may also suffer from sleep disturbances that may occur as insomnia or too much sleep (Lloyd et al., 2020). Another symptom of MDD is a person feeling tired or lacking energy in small tasks. There is also the issue of reduced appetite that may lead to weight loss or increased appetite that comes with weight gain. Kennedy (2022) also shows that anxiety and agitation are also common symptoms of MDD among individuals. Cognitive dysfunction was also found by Shields et al. (2021) to be an indication that a person has MDD. In some instances, a person may also feel worthlessness or guilt for what he or she has done in the past. Shields et al. (2021) also report that a person suffering from MDD may also have trouble thinking, concentrating, and making decisions about their lives. Frequent thoughts of death and suicide attempts may also indicate that a person is suffering from MDD.
Biological Causes of MDD
There is a strong correlation between MDD and the body’s biological elements. The first biological cause of MDD is the physical health conditions of the individual. Research has shown that a physical health condition can lead to an increased risk of depression. This creates the need to undertake a psychological evaluation of those individuals who are physically sick, especially with chronic illnesses. The other biological cause of MDD is genetics. Studies have found some associations between genetic factors and the concept of depression. For instance, research shows a strong correlation between the brain-deprived neurotropic factor and MDD. Having a family history of depression has also increased one’s risk. However, depression is a complex trait, and different genes exert s minor effects, which means it is not a single gene that increases the risk of the disease. Certain variations of genes called polymorphism tend to increase the risk of depression and may predispose a person to MDD in several ways. For example, genes that influence the metabolism of serotonin usually moderate the impact of stress on an individual. It has been established that structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients who use major depressive disorders are typically associated with reduced levels in an individual’s brain-derived neurotropic factor coupled with an abnormality in the function of the hypothalamic axis. It is the abnormalities that are related to the occurrence of recurrent episodes of MDD.
Psychological Causes of MDD
There are several psychological factors that may indicate the occurrence of depression and increase the risk of one getting depression. The first factor is related to thinking patterns. For example, overstressing an individual’s negative thoughts may indicate that they are at a higher risk of getting depression. In some instances, an individual may only take advantage of the sinister events and not the good events in their lives. There is also the issue of having flexible rules about how an individual should behave.
In some cases, thinking about what others are thinking and assuming that they are feeling wrong about you can also increase the risk of getting depression. Another psychological factor is the issue of loss. There are times when a person experiences loss and is at a higher risk of getting depression. Some cases include the death of a loved one, loss of a job, loss of friendship, and feeling that those around them do not support one.
The other psychological factor that may cause depression is the sense of failure. In most cases, people tend to state their fulfillment and happiness in attaining specific goals in life, such as passing board exams, getting a particular job, or profiting from a business. Being unable to achieve such goals may lead to failure in an individual, which may increase their level of depression due to the elevated levels of stress. It has been found that the accumulation of stressful life events may also increase the rates of depression among individuals. Situations in a person’s life, such as unemployment, financial worries, and severe difficulties in one’s personal life, including divorces, physical illnesses, and other issues with spouses, can increase an individual’s risk of getting MDD.
Studies seem to support the argument that rumination is related to depression in several ways. For instance, the risk of depression due to rumination appears to be mediated by various variables that include limited-problem solving abilities and insufficient social support for the individual (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). Self-esteem issues, having a negative self-image, and having a history of mental illness can also increase an individual’s risk of depression. Feeling shame and having low self-esteem among individuals may affect the well-being of an individual and, in the process, increase the risk of getting depression. Self-concept, negative emotionality, and a person’s sensitivity to rejection are also attributed to an increase in the risk of depression.
Social Causes of MDD
Social determinants of MDD are conditions found in the environment where individuals are born, live, play, and work, and that impact the mental health of individuals (Fu, Brouwer, Kennis, Williams, Cuijpers, & Bockting, 2021). Many social determinants are associated with depression and include social support, adverse experiences as a child, and other sociodemographics. Most of the causes can occur at the individual level, the community, or the societal level.
At a personal level, issues such as abuse and marital stress can increase the risk of an individual developing depression. Facing abuse as a child has increased the risk of a person getting depression. Consequently, children of distressed parents are also at a higher risk of getting depression than children in families with healthy relationships (Fu, Brouwer, Kennis, Williams, Cuijpers, & Bockting, 2021). The quality of relationships that individuals form as adults depends on their experiences as children. Marital distress, mainly when it is attributed to abuse, can affect both children and parents in equal measure.
Gender is the other important social factor when it comes to dealing with MDD. Women have been found to be about twice as likely to have depression as compared to men (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). However, studies show that the high number is because women are more likely than their male counterparts to seek the necessary treatment for the condition as men. Some studies believe that depression may be caused by individuals having hormonal changes in their life. Women are more vulnerable to depression when they are pregnant, immediately after childbirth, and when they face menopause due to the changes in hormones in their bodies. Lack of social support in an individual’s life is the other major issue when dealing with the problem of depression (Fu, Brouwer, Kennis, Williams, Cuijpers, & Bockting, 2021). For example, prolonged social isolation coupled with having few friends or lacking any supportive relationships can be a common source of depression. Individuals who feel excluded or lonely are also more likely to experience depression when other triggers are involved, such as significant life events (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). A depressed individual may end up hurting their social setting by showing low self-esteem, becoming sensitive to what others think of themselves, and becoming less active. Such individuals end up not wanting to go out and may isolate themselves from the rest of society.
Research has also shown a subtle relationship between social class and the issue of depression (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). For example, low-income individuals are attributed to having more cases of depression due to the struggles they have to go through to take care of their families. Having meaningful relationships between the parents and their children has been found to positively impact reducing the risk of depression (Lloyd et al., 2020). The same case applies to the issue of social support in that when individuals lack help from friends, those close to them may lead to an increase in depression and other adverse effects. Families tend to have a lot of impact on individuals and their ability to deal with stressful events.
Treatment of MDD
MDD can be treated through therapies and treatments. However, treatment is more effective if it is commenced early enough. Depression can be treated through the use of medications and psychotherapies (Canady, 2020). The two approaches can also be used together. Patients are treated with antidepressants, and they help in improving the way that the brain uses certain chemicals, especially those that deal with stress (Remes, Mendes, & Templeton, 2021). In some cases, a medical practitioner may have to try a number of antidepressants to determine the one that can manage the side effects. Patients may also require psychotherapies and counseling to aid in managing depression. For instance, studies on psychotherapies’ effectiveness have found that cognitive-behavioral therapy is highly effective in dealing with major depression (Canady, 2020). A combination of medication therapies and counseling through psychotherapies has been found to be effective in the management of depression and the subsequent handling of its effects on the well-being of the individual.

References
Canady, V. A. (2020). FDA approves esketamine treatment for MDD, suicidal ideation. Mental Health Weekly, 30(31), 6-7.
Fu, Z., Brouwer, M., Kennis, M., Williams, A., Cuijpers, P., & Bockting, C. (2021). Psychological factors for the onset of depression: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ open, 11(7), e050129.
Lloyd, C. E., Sartorius, N., Ahmed, H. U., Alvarez, A., Bahendeka, S., Bobrov, A. E., … & Wlwer, W. (2020). Factors associated with the onset of major depressive Disorder in adults with type 2 diabetes living in 12 different countries: results from the INTERPRET-DD prospective study. Epidemiology and psychiatric sciences, 29.
Kennedy, S. H. (2022) Core symptoms of major depressive Disorder: relevance to diagnosis and treatment, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 10:3, 271-277, DOI: 10.31887/DCNS.2008.10.3/shkennedy
Remes, O., Mendes, J. F., & Templeton, P. (2021). Biological, psychological, and social determinants of depression: a review of recent literature. Brain sciences, 11(12), 1633.
Shields, M., Tonmyr, L., Gonzalez, A., Weeks, M., Park, S. B., Robert, A. M., … & MacMillan, H. L. (2021). Symptoms of major depressive Disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a representative sample of the Canadian population. Health Promotion & Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy & Practice, 41(11).