Resistance to change is a common phenomenon among human beings. According to Forsell & Astrom (2012), resistance to change is a process that develops in human beings during early childhood. This is mainly due to the psychological capability of the human mind to adapt to routines. As such, organizations cannot avoid resistance to change among employees during change management. However, the can come up with ways to help employees overcome resistance to change.
This research aims at establishing some of the methods that organizations can adopt to overcome change resistance. The research is mainly based on practical observations as the main source of primary data and existing works of literature as the main source of secondary data. The theories of resistance to change will be discussed in order to form a theoretical framework upon which the methods of overcoming change resistance in diverse workforces in an organization
Keywords: Change resistance, workforce diversity, change resistance theories, overcoming change resistance
As technology continues to evolve and the world moves towards a globally unified community, change has been experienced in almost all aspects of life. Especially in the world of business, change is currently the only constant thing as businesses continue to progressively advance in terms of operations, services, products, and technology in order to meet the changing customer demand and approaches to businesses. Despite knowing that change is inevitable and the benefits that will be leaped by implementing a particular change successfully, it is our nature as humans to resist change. Therefore, it is necessary for managers to be prepared to face resistance to change within an organization and come up with methods of solving this resistance.
Reasons for Topic Selection
Understanding the dynamics of the human mind and how regular practices and norms can be altered in order to achieve better results has always been a major topic of interest for me. By studying on the methods for overcoming resistance to change, I will be at a position of understanding on why we as human beings get wired to particular behaviors and how such behaviors can be effectively changed in order to improve the overall wellbeing of humankind.
Secondly, overcoming resistance to change is a subsystem of a major whole; change management, a topic that particularly fascinates me especially in the context of public policies. While conducting this research, I will not limit myself only to the aspect of how to overcome resistance to change but I will also focus on the epistemology and metaphysics of change management as a whole in order to establish the reasons behind resistance to change and how this resistance can be solved.
Thirdly, I see myself getting employed at some point in my life especially during the early years of my career. I feel as though this topic will be helpful in enabling me to effectively deal with the changes that might be implemented within my organization. This is mainly because this topic will help me understand why change has to be done and how I can deal with a negative attitude towards change both within myself and my fellow employees.
Moreover, as a management student, my vision is to run a successful business in the future. Effective management will be key in ensuring the success of my career in both the early and advanced stages. This topic offers me a chance to overlook some of the challenges that I will have to deal with as a manager in terms of implementing change and the solutions to this challenge.
A Problem Related to Organizational Behavior That will be Explored
The main problem related to organizational behavior that will be studied in methods for overcoming change is the managerial challenge of adopting a system model of organizational behavior in an environment that is currently being dictated by diversity.
Currently, managers often find themselves facing challenges on how to implement changes in an organizational environment that is majorly characterized by diversity in terms of factors such as race and demographics. Implementing changes that are favorable to all employees within an organization has become more complex due to employees’ diversity in various forms; age, whereby the current organizations have both old and young employees due to the growing number of young people in the job market. The gender factor whereby more women have joined professional careers, diversity as a result of dual career couples whereby managers have to put into consideration the need for work-family balance before implementing changes and diversity in terms of gender whereby managers have to consider the gender of all employees that is; male; female or homosexual before implementing changes that may negatively impact or be unfavorable to individuals of a particular sexual identity.
The growing workforce diversity in organizations has increased the rate of resistance to change in organizations due to the multiple variables involved. Additionally, workforce diversity makes the issue of managing resistance to change more challenging for managers as they have to come up with models for solving this resistance that encompasses all the employees in an organization.
Introduction to Methods of Overcoming Resistance to Change
Aljohani, (2016) describes resistance to change as a collection of actions adopted by individuals to oppose changes which they view as a threat to their routine functions. Resistance to change by an employee can affect the successful implementation of change within an organization since an employee is an important part of the change process (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018). Therefore, it is necessary for the management to come up with methods for overcoming change. These methods include a series of procedures that can be implemented by leaders to ensure smoother transitions within organizations.
Why do people resist change?
How can the organization deal with resistance for change?
A Brief Overview of Resistance to Change
Reasons Why People Resist Change
In order to understand the methods that can be used to overcome resistance to change, it is crucial to briefly understand change resistance. There are various reasons as to why people resist change. These factors can either be behavioral or psychological in nature. Psychological factors that cause resistance to change among employees is mainly due to the attachment to status and low levels of confidence in the change. There are various factors that can be used to identify psychological resistance to change. They include; denial, job insecurity, low morale, focus on the cost of change, not the benefits of change and low tolerance to change (Forsell & Astrom, 2012).
On the other hand, behavioral resistance to change is as a result of fear of breaking of habits. Humans are beings of routines and often find it hard to break away from organizational routines which have been deemed to be no longer competent (Bovey & Hede, 2001). Consequently, they adopt behaviors such as acting-out, disinterest, denial, and projection which often result in organizational conflicts.
Impacts of Change Resistance on Organizations
According to Zafar & Naveed (2014), resistance to change is often likely resulting in low productivity within the organizations. This is mainly because employees are not motivated to work diligently under the new system. Moreover, change resistance often results in conflicts. This is mainly because different employees adapt to different ways of handling the change process (Yi , Gu , & Wei, 2017). While some employees will exhibit signs of being withdrawn from other people others may act –out or project their feelings on other people hence resulting in conflict.
The Dynamics of Workforce Diversity and how it affects resistance to change at an Individual, Group and Organizational Level
Workforce diversity can be defined as the comparisons and contrasts among employees in terms of cultural background, gender, religion, race, sexual orientation and physical abilities and disabilities (Shaban , 2016). Workforce diversity affects how individuals respond to change at an individual or group level. This affects the overall impacts of change in an organization.
Some changes that are implemented may not be favorable to specific individuals within an organization (Shaban , 2016). For example, the management can introduce a change that does not cover an employee who identifies themselves as a transgender. This kind of change can affect how an employee fulfills his or her day-to-day tasks hence, developing resistance to the change. The method adopted to overcome such resistance should mainly aim at convincing such individuals why this change is necessary and how their concerns will be addressed.
Secondly, workforce diversity within groups can affect how groups perceive change hence, resulting to change resistance. For example, a group that consists of very young and old employees may experience challenges when implementing changes on how to conduct group meetings. An introduction of digital techniques such as face timing to conduct group meeting may meet resistance from old people. The method adopted to overcome such resistance should mainly aim at educating the affected groups how the change will be beneficial to them.
Moreover, workforce diversity makes the overall process of change management within organizations more complex (Patrick & Kumar , 2012). This is mainly because managers have to put all the groups represented within an organization into consideration before implementing a change. High levels of workforce diversity within an organization also means that there will be higher levels of resistance to change hence more diverse methods of overcoming change have to be developed so as to meet the needs of all the employees in the organization. Therefore, the methods developed to overcome change resistance should focus on informing the people on how these changes are necessary both at an individual and organizational level.
Overcoming Resistance to Change
Methods of overcoming resistance to change include all the tactics employed by an organization to aid their employees to accept and adapt to changes meritoriously, therefore, enabling a smooth transition (Yi , Gu , & Wei, 2017).
The Theories on Methods of overcoming Resistance to Change
There are three main theories that can be used to explain methods that can be used to overcome resistance to change.
Frames to Overcome symbolic and political obstacles to change
In their research, Bolman and Deal developed four angles or ‘frames’ which should be addressed in the process of change including; structural, human resource, political and symbolic frame (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018). The structural frame deals with the structure of an organization and how it can be reorganized in order to overcome resistance to change.
Secondly, the human resource frame involves how individuals interact to meet each other’s needs. In cases of resistance to change, managers can use this frame to interact with employees in order to help them understand why the change is essential hence enabling them to overcome resistance (Yi , Gu , & Wei, 2017).
The other frame discussed by Bolman and Deal was the political frame. This frame involves viewing the organization from a position of power and conflict. By applying the right power to handle conflicts that arise as a result of resistance to change, managers can help employees get into terms with changes (Aljohani, 2016).
The last frame is the symbolic frame. It comprises of organizational culture and how meaning is made within an organization. By understanding an organization’s culture clearly, an individual can be able to establish methods that help employees to overcome resistance to change (Forsell & Astrom, 2012).
This was a theory developed by Crozier in 1979 on methods of overcoming resistance to change in service design. According to this theory, once a change has been introduced, new organizational regulations ought to be created and areas that are dominated by uncertainty be redistributed (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018). This is more likely to cause resistance to change among individuals who are insecure about losing their power. The theory, therefore, suggests that allowing people to understand the implications of the change to their power can overcome resistance to change consequently, eliminating resistance as a result of the fear of the unknown.
This theory was developed by Latour and focuses on the social relations that are introduced during the process of change. According to Latour, change has an effect on organizational networks including; people, machines and the environment. The changes caused on these networks affect the people that control hence, causing resistance (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018) . Therefore, before implementing changes on resources, considerations have to be made about all the individuals affected by the change and suitable methods should be established to help them deal with the changes.
Methods of Overcoming Resistance to Change
Education and Effective Communication
Managers should seek to educate employees on the need for change before and after its implementation and communicate effectively on any changes that will be implemented (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018). Once they understand why the change is necessary, employees are more likely to embrace the change. Additionally, effective communication makes sure that a manager understands the implications of changes in the diverse workforce and come up with other alternatives to support them.
Goal Setting and Motivation
By setting short term goals and celebrating small successes, employees will be motivated to work harder towards perfecting their skills under the new system (Bovey & Hede, 2001). Consequently, this significantly overcomes their resistance to change.
Structuring Effective Teams to Maximize Potential
Employees may resist particular changes due to lack of knowledge about how the new system operates (Al-Ali , 2017). Grouping them into effective teams helps them to learn from each other. This enables them to understand changes hence, maximizing potential.
Empowering Innovation and Creativity
Change involves the introduction of new, usually better approaches to achieving organizational objectives. By encouraging innovation and creativity in the organizations’ day to day activities, employees master the act of flexibility (Stouten & Rousseau , 2018). Consequently, they do not usually exhibit high levels of resistance in scenarios of change management.
Implementing Change in Stages
Change often involves a wide range of interrelated activities. Implementing such activities at a go can be overwhelming for employees hence, resulting in resistance (Aljohani, 2016). Implementing changes in stages give employees a time to learn and synthesize changes more quickly hence, overcoming change resistance.
Negotiation and Agreement
Managers should be ready to engage and listen to their employee’s concerns regarding changes. Tradeoffs can be done through negotiations and agreements in order to ensure that both parties are contented hence, overcoming resistance to change (Lonescu & Dragomiroiu , 2014).
Explicit and implicit coercion
Managers can resolve to explicit and implicit coercion to overcome resistance to change if the intended change has a high priority or as the last resort if the other methods do not work (Aljohani, 2016). This approach involves the use of drastic consequences such as job dismissal, lack of promotions or employee transfer.
Manipulation and Co-optation
This approach is used when the other methods of overcoming change resistance are not effective or are too expensive. In this approach, the leader uses their role to influence employees (Lonescu & Dragomiroiu , 2014).
Conclusions and Recommendations to Organizations
Conclusively, resistance to change in organizations is inevitable due to human nature. Therefore, it is not possible to eliminate it but it is possible to develop approaches which enable employees to overcome resistance to change. Some of the methods that can be used to achieve this include; teamwork, goal setting and motivation, coercion, manipulation, negotiation, education, and communication in addition to others.
Most managers are currently facing challenges on how to develop effective methods of overcoming resistance to change as a result of workforce diversity. In order to solve this challenge, it is recommended that managers involve all the employees in change management.
Al-Ali , A. A. (2017). Change Management through leadership: The Mediating role of organizational Culture. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 25(4), 723-739.
Aljohani, M. R. (2016). Change Management. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 5(6).
Bovey , W. H., & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to Organizational change: The role of defense Mechanisms. . Journal of Managerial Psychology, 16(7), .534-548.
Forsell, L. M., & Astrom, J. A. (2012). An Analysis of resistance to chnage exposed in individual’s thoughts and behaviors. Journal of Comprehensive Psychology, https://doi.org/10.2466/09.02.10.CP.1.17.
Lonescu, E. L., & Dragomiroiu , R. ( 2014). Role of Managers in Management of Change. Procedia Economics and Finance; 16 (3),, 293-298.
Patrick , H. A., & Kumar , V. R. (2012). Managing Workplace diversity: Issues and Challenges. Sage Open Journal., Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244012444615.
Shaban , A. (2016). Managing and Leading a Diverse Workforce: One of the main challenges in Management. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences; 230(4), 76-84.
Stouten , J., & Rousseau , D. M. (2018). Successful Organizational Change: integrating the Management Practice and Scholarly Literatures. The Academy of Management Annals, 12(2).
Yi , Y., Gu , M., & Wei, Z. (2017). Bottom-up learning, strategic flexibility and strategic change. Journal of Organizational Change Management; 30(2),, 161-183.
Zafar , F., & Naveed , K. (2014). Organizational Change and dealing with Employees Resistance. International Journal of Management Excellence, 2(3), 237-246.
Behavioral Mental Health: A Plan for Social Change history assignment help company: history assignment help company
A Plan for Social Change
Impact on the Role of Nurses
Behavioral Mental Health nurses have an integral role to play in advocating for the incorporation of a global health perspective in nursing practice. Primarily, nurses can use evidence-based knowledge regarding various global health issues such as mental illness to help their colleagues and patients to understand and navigate the complex medical system as well as translating medical terms to help other medical professionals and patients to make informed care decisions. The American Nurses Association (2018) further reveals that nurses can advocate for global perspective integration into practice by growing one leadership competencies and understanding how the system works to influence other health professionals to take an active role in leading through policy change regarding the global mental health issue.
Impact on Nurse Leader Role
Having a global perspective may influence my role as a nurse leader in behavioral mental health practice by broadening my responsibility from just being a patient advocate to taking a key role in policy development. As a health professional who is constantly working with the cost-quality limitations constituted in mental health service delivery, having a global perspective put me in a strategic position to provide meaningful advice on policies geared towards improving the costs and quality of care for health mental health patients (Leffers, Levy, Nicholas & Sweeney, 2017).
Impact on Social Change
The incorporation of a global perspective in behavioral mental health represents and contributes to social change through ensuring that nurse leaders are aware of their own values, biases as well as societal privileges. As a result, it compels them to determine the health care issues and gaps in healthcare that can be addressed through collaboration and commitment to influence the change and development of health policy (Redmond, 2017). For instance, with the incorporation of a global perspective, behavioral mental health nurses can effectively determine the challenges faced by psychiatric patients subjected to restraints and seclusion measures and work together in influencing the development of policy that protects psychiatric patients from the adverse effects of such measures.
American Nurses Association (2018). Advocacy. Retrieved from: https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/advocacy/
Leffers, J., Levy, R. M., Nicholas, P. K., & Sweeney, C. F. (2017). Mandate for the nursing profession to address climate change through nursing education. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 49(6), 679-687.
Redmond, B. (2017). Reflection in action: Developing reflective practice in health and social services. Routledge.
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Obama: A Rhetorical Analysis of “The perfect union” african history assignment help: african history assignment help
A Rhetorical Analysis of “The perfect union” Barrack Obama
The first black president of America was known for his rhetorical strategies in his speech during his political life. Obama’s speeches used points and views that were always logically delivered using pathos, logos, and ethos (Dunn, 7). The perfect union was a speech he delivered back in 2008, that elicited argumentized reactions and debates among the audience. In his speeches, Obama addressed the audience with rhetorical statements on sensitive topics. Obama addresses issues of racial discrimination with intelligence without showing favoritism to any race. Being a black American president, he was cautious of the way he handled the issue of racism without showing any signs of discrimination, to ensure that he does not cause more drift between the two races.
However, the president was not shy to speak up his mind and stand on his ground as he spoke to the public. In his speech, he noted that there is a common feeling of rage and anger that exists between the two races, as the whites also assume that black people had better services (Burke, 15). He dispensed his wealth of knowledge by carefully selecting his words while discussing the issues that affected the American people. There is a clear indication that the president knew his audience well and that explains the reason why sensitive topics soothed the audience rather than creating conflict and aggressive reactions.
As he opened up his speech, “A more perfect union,” Obama quotes a phrase from the constitution of the United States, stating that,” We the people, to create a perfect union” (Dunn, 7). In his speech, he employs three strategies that represent emotional, logical and ethical fallacies. The quote from the constitution is a major statement that worked to bring the audience together by denoting the importance of the message. He continues to shower praise to the constitution, and assured the Americans to seek solutions to their problems from the constitution. He openly criticizes slavery that stained the American’s old way of life that was founded on the underlying rule of inequity.
Throughout his speech, Obama utilizes body language, gestures, and tonal variations to move the audience and draw them closer as he speaks facts about American cultural, intellectual and biological life. The language was politically evidenced by the use of political terminologies mainly to convince his supporters. Obama also employed repetition in his speech to persuade the Americans on not succumbing to racial discrimination as it is the enemy to the society’s union. During his speech, the word race is continuously repeated to plead with the audience to give attention to the issue. He states,” race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now” (Obama para. 26). He further adds in paragraph 45 and says “We can tackle race only as spectacle” (Burke, 15). These statements express the president’s disapproval of racism in the American community.
Along with his speech, he expresses disapproval towards slavery and the unfinished document. He uses a sad and sympathetic tone as he discusses the negative outcomes of slavery towards the nations’ economy and well-being. He uses irony to further drive this message home by stating that the burden of many years of slavery was left for the generations to come (Burke, 15). This statement deeply penetrates the mind of the listeners as they try to visualize how they are secretly paying for the sins committed by the generation of their forefathers. It, therefore, pushes the American to finally decide to disagree with all types of slavery for the sake of their children and grandchildren generations to come.
The use of direct speech is also evident in his statements where he says, “I believe deeply we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them together” (Fengjie, Li, Ren Jia, and Zhang Yingying, 146). Through this and other direct speeches, the president shows his dedication towards unity and his willingness to protect American society from societal conflicts. He constantly mentions the importance of togetherness and supports his arguments with convincing backup stories from his cultural and spiritual life impressing the crowd even more. This tactic of sharing personal life experiences and using directness in his speech creates an emotional bond between him and the audience who positively responds to the message.
Barrack Obama ended the speech by giving the Americans hope and assurance using encouraging statements such as, “We can do it” (Burke, 15). This slogan gave his audience the power and courage to come together as one and tackle the issues that were dragging the nation down. The use of rhetorical statements in his speech is meant to cautiously handle sensitive issues that needed to be addressed without causing mass negative reactions. The president was both an intellect writer and speaker by his ability to fine-tune complex words and apply different styles and devices to reach his audience. This speech is among the many others that the president gave, which depicted his level of intelligence and gave the reasons behind his successful campaigns.
Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: University of California Press. Print.5.5 (1966): 12-56
Dunn, R. Chase. “The Future is in Good Hands”: A Pentadic Analysis of President Barack Obama’s Farewell Address.” Kaleidoscope: A Graduate Journal of Qualitative Communication Research 17.1 (2018): 7.
Fengjie, Li, Ren Jia, and Zhang Yingying. “Analysis of the Rhetorical Devices in Obama’s Public Speeches.” International Journal of Language and Linguistics 4.4 (2016): 141- 146.
A Streetcar Named Desire Written vs Performed Version history assignment help writing services
A Streetcar Named Desire
The Written In Comparison With the Performed Version
Tennessee Williams authored ‘A streetcar Named Desire’ in his mid-thirties and launched it in 1947 in New York. The play was so successful that it maintained Williams as one of the most celebrated playwrights in America. The play was transformed into a movie, attracting him more fame and respect in the modern theater. Indeed, ‘Streetcar’ was his first production to be transformed from a written into a performed version. The movie was performed by superb actors and structured in a highly emotional plot that made it a blockbuster in the film industry. The original movie comprised of the same story and themes contained in the play. However, some adjustments were made to diminish the screenplay according to specifications by the National Legion of Decency and the Hollywood Production Code. The film was produced in two versions because censoring and cutting led to the disappearance of utterances and several lines in the first version. The film can be compared to the play by exploring the similarities and differences between the written and the performed version of the Williams’ work. Despite the efforts of the film director to maintain the film similar to the original play, there are significant diseases that result between the play and the movie.
There are some similarities between the written and performed version of ‘A Streetcar Named Desire.’ The performed version is based on the play, hence the storyline in the play is transferred to the movie. According to Forster Hirsch, “The Williams films retain the spirit of the original play, especially, as in the case of Streetcar, when Williams himself worked on the screenplay. His personality still dominates the film version” (Phillips 223). The many similarities between the film and the play confirm the statement by Forster Hirsch that, “a movie based on a Tennessee Williams play is a Tennessee Williams film” (Phillips 223). Similar to the popularity attributed to Williams from the success of his play, the movie was so successful and highly celebrated. The movie won various Academy Awards just as the play won the Drama Critic’s Circle Award and the Pulitzer Prize. Thus, both the written and performed versions of Streetcar were successful.
Most of the words in the movie match those used in the play. Similarly, there is a close connection between the plot of the film and the structure of the play. The eleven scenes of the Streetcar formed a significant script for both the play and the movie. The director of the movie, Kazan, strived to maintain the original production of the play. He only made a few adjustments when transforming the play into the film. He explains, “What I did was to make the set smaller; as the story progressed, I took out little flats, and the set got smaller and smaller” (Phillips 227). The director was great personnel who incorporated and dependent on the efforts of Williams in the production of the film. This created a significant opportunity for William to shape the plot of the film about that of the play.
Despite the existence of some similarities between the play and the movie versions, there are significant differences between the written and performed versions of the Streetcar. Censorship at different scenes of the film creates significant differences between the movie and the play. Although the film comprised of the same story and themes as in the original play by Williams, some significant adjustments were made to make the film adhere to the requirements of the National Legion of Decency and the Hollywood Production Code. The changes made during the film production made the movie differ from the play. There is a different form of censorship in every scene of the movie. First, there are new scenes included in the movie which are not involved in the play. For example, there is the place of a dance casino in the movie where Blanche informs Mitch about the suicidal death of her husband at the casino. However, the place of the casino is not mentioned in the play, and detailed information about the death of Blanche’s husband is not provided.
Elimination of references to homosexuality in the movie makes it different from the play. Blanche’s husband is exposed to be a homosexual in the play. Blanche narrated to Mitch of how she found her husband in bed with another man (scene 6). Blanche is biased and judgmental against her husband over his homosexual behavior. The rules of the Code did not allow for references to homosexuality in the film. Therefore, the scenes exploring the references to homosexuality were eliminated in the film, making it different from the play. The scenes on rape as found in the play are considerably weakened or fully eliminated in the film. In the play, it is revealed that Stanley rapes Blanche behind the stage. However, the film does not expose whether raping happened. “Streetcar is an extremely and peculiarly moral play, in the deepest and truest sense of the term… The rape of Blanche by Stanley is a pivotal, integral truth in the play, without which the play loses its meaning, which is the ravishment of the tender, the sensitive, the delicate, by the savage and brutal forces of modern society” (Philips 230).
Movie directors and producers had to be attentive in handling certain issues like explicit expressions of sex, violence and related aspects. Mr. Kazan, the film director uses a series of symbols to represent sexual overtones. He provides the reason that “because in those days we had to be very indirect in depicting material of that kind” (Phillips 231). Besides, the director uses a deep language when expressing the erotic behavior of the sexually active couple in the film. Indeed, one can’t understand what goes on without paying much attention. These differences between the comprehension of the play and the film arise from the set of rules by the Code on film production. There is a major difference in the ending of the film and the play. The film ends much differently from the play by subjecting Stanley to punishment for rape cases. This is even though no rape incidence is revealed in the movie.
Indeed, ‘A Streetcar Named Desire’ is among the significantly staged plays in the modern theater. Its success attracts popularity and creates opportunities for Tennessee Williams to excel in his career. The play was transferred into a movie, following the standards and rules of the Hollywood Codes. Just as the play was successful, its performed version was also amazing under the direction of Kazan. The film director, Kazan, aimed at making the film similar to the original play by Williams. To an extent, he incorporated Williams in the production work to help in achieving some significant similarities. Although there are some similarities between the play and the film, some significant differences distinguish between the written and performed version of Streetcar. The differences range from the issue of censorship, sexuality, rape and punishment and other general differences in the production of the film.
Phillips, Gene D. „A Streetcar Named Desire: Play and Film.“ Confronting Tennessee
Williams’s A Streetcar Named Desire: Essays In Critical Pluralism. Ed. Philip C. Kolin.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: Signet, 1951.