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RESEARCH PAPER: (25%) DUE: October 21, 2022 Students will conduct secondary (scholarly literature) research to discover the answer to

RESEARCH PAPER: (25%) DUE: October 21, 2022
Students will conduct secondary (scholarly literature) research to discover the answer to a question
related to the impact of an aspect of HRM on organizations in the global economy. At least 5
academic/scholarly sources must be used. The research paper should be no longer than 25 pages,
double spaced; any appendices included will be not counted in the page allotment. The
requirements for this paper will be discussed on the last day of classes.

The Importance of Infection Prevention and Control to Patient Safety Infection prevention

The Importance of Infection Prevention and Control to Patient Safety

Infection prevention and control are significant components of healthcare quality and patient safety. Infection prevention and control can be described as the evidence-based approach to preventing patients and employees from being injured by preventable infections. It affects all aspects of healthcare, including surgical site infections, hand hygiene, antimicrobial resistance, and injection safety (Munoz-Price et al., 2018). The practices are essential in enhancing a safe environment for the public by reducing the potential risk of spreading diseases. They are designed to decrease the risk of infections and enhance a safe and healthy hospital environment for the patients and the workers. The most critical measure to prevent or decrease infections is hand hygiene. Good hand hygiene involves cleaning your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based gel. No infection should occur to a patient in the medical environment; therefore, it is necessary for infection prevention and control measures to be taken in every healthcare setting.

The Importance of Management of the Environment of Care

The Environment of Care (EOC) refers to the setting where patients are treated. The main goal of EOC is to deliver a safe, effective atmosphere for the patients and healthcare providers (Link, 2019). The environment should be free from hazards which might cause injuries. Managing the environment will ensure that patients, visitors and workers are protected from any potential risk of injury. The hospital environment directly impacts the healing process and patient outcomes. Maintaining a safe healthcare environment reflects compassion for patients’ welfare, which is an essential aspect of competent medical care. Patient safety can be improved by finding out the cause of errors and using the information to develop care systems that protect patients. Every organization must have a written plan for managing the environmental safety of patients and anybody who visits the facility, fire safety, utility systems, security, medical equipment and hazardous material and waste (Link, 2019). This plan is required to protect everyone in the care environment.

Importance of Regulations in the Healthcare Sector

Government and private regulations are significant in every healthcare sector. The regulations play an essential role in the medical sector. They protect individuals from various health risks that could affect them. Healthcare regulations ensure compliance and provide safe care for every person who accesses the medical system. The regulatory agencies exist to monitor facilities and ensure they provide safe and quality services. The joint commission is an example of regulations. It was founded in 1951 and seeks to improve public healthcare by inspiring healthcare organizations to provide safe and effective healthcare services (Lam et al., 2018). This improves risk reduction and management, thus increasing community self-confidence in the quality and safety of care and treatment services. A joint commission accredited company is likely to experience various benefits such as improvement in patient care, promotion of excellence, the providence of better program structure, development better communication relationships, and fostering teamwork and staff excellence (Lam et al., 2018). These benefits depict how regulations are essential to patients’ health; thus, they should be adopted and complied with in every healthcare facility.

References

Lam, M. B., Figueroa, J. F., Feyman, Y., Reimold, K. E., Orav, E. J., & Jha, A. K. (2018). Association between patient outcomes and accreditation in US hospitals: Observational study. BMJ, k4011. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k4011

Link, T. (2019). Guideline implementation: A safe environment of care. AORN Journal, 110(2), 169-179. https://doi.org/10.1002/aorn.12716

Munoz-Price, L. S., Bowdle, A., Johnston, B. L., Bearman, G., Camins, B. C., Dellinger, E. P., Geisz-Everson, M. A., Holzmann-Pazgal, G., Murthy, R., Pegues, D., Prielipp, R. C., Rubin, Z. A., Schaffzin, J., Yokoe, D., & Birnbach, D. J. (2018). Infection prevention in the operating room anesthesia work area. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 40(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.303

2 Personal Theory outline Students Name Institutional Affiliation Professor’s Name Course Date

RESEARCH PAPER: (25%) DUE: October 21, 2022 Students will conduct secondary (scholarly literature) research to discover the answer to Management Assignment Help 2

Personal Theory outline

Students Name

Institutional Affiliation

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Personal Theory

Introduction

Hook statement The need to develop assisting strategies based on personality theories led to creating a variety of clinical counseling and therapeutic processes.

Conceptual Statement Following the theory, five essential personality characteristics can be identified: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism.

Thesis Statement This essay will discuss Personal theories, including humanistic theory, Psychoanalytic theory, trait perspective theory, and behaviorist theory.

Paragraph one

Topic sentence humanistic theory has been defined as a perspective or way of thinking centered on human beings rather than on supernatural or heavenly knowledge.

Evidence This approach emphasizes the intrinsic goodness of human beings and the critical role of necessities in human behavior(Joseph, 2019).

There are significant distinctions between the humanistic growth paradigm and the health ideology approach.

Paragraph two

Topic sentence The behaviorist personality theory emphasizes conditioning as a component in behavior and believes that an individual’s personality is the culmination of their environmental experiences.

Evidence Fundamental behavioral concepts continue to be significant, showing themselves in a range of therapeutic procedures that adjust the environment to modify behavior, as well as in cognitive behavior therapy(Yusnaviza & Thoyibi, 2019)

Paragraph three

Topic sentence Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior by examining the interaction of numerous personality components.

According to psychoanalytic theory, the psyche is divided into three functions: dependence, the id—primitive sexual, and violent impulses originate in the unconscious.

Evidence Often, psychoanalytic interpretations suggest that a patient’s current difficulties result from an unmet childhood aim that has persisted self-identically and created disharmony in the unconscious layer of the mind(Nagel, 2020).

Paragraph four

Topic sentence The trait perspective on personality goes into the specific qualities of your personality and the number of traits you possess.

Evidence Profiles of healthy personality functioning created by experts were adversely correlated with profiles of disordered personality functioning and positively associated with profiles of normative personality functioning(Bleidorn et al., 2020).

While psychologists disagree on the number of essential personality qualities, each theorist separates these traits into a variety of broad type spectrums, which are then categorized further.

Conclusions

In general, the personal theories include humanistic theory, Psychoanalytic theory, trait perspective theory, and behaviorist theory.

The humanistic theory has been defined as a perspective or way of thinking.

The behaviorist personality theory emphasizes conditioning as a component of behavior.

The trait perspective on personality goes into the unique qualities of your personality.

Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior by examining the interaction of numerous personality components.

References

Bleidorn, W., Hopwood, C. J., Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Kandler, C., Riemann, R., … & Donnellan, M. B. (2020). A healthy personality from an essential trait perspective. Journal of personality and social psychology, 118(6), 1207. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-00289-001

Joseph, S. (2019). Posttraumatic growth as a process and an outcome: Vexing problems and paradoxes seen from the perspective of humanistic psychology. The Humanistic Psychologist. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2019-49233-001

Nagel, E. (2020). Methodological issues in psychoanalytic theory. In Psychoanalysis Scientific Method and Philosophy (pp. 38-56). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780429338403-3/methodological-issues-psychoanalytic-theory-ernest-nagel

Yusnaviza, A., & Thoyibi, M. (2019). The Environmental Influence On Personality Development In Jeannette Walls The Glass Castle Memoir (2005): A Behaviorist Perspective (Doctoral dissertation, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta). http://eprints.ums.ac.id/id/eprint/72565

Surname 6 Student’s Name Professor’s Name Course Date Persuasion on the state

Surname 6

Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course

Date

Persuasion on the state of News Media Today

Deception is a phenomenon that has existed throughout the existence of mass communication- individuals have always been exposed to strategic misinformation, rumors and political propaganda, long before public communication shifted to digital spaces. For instance, in 1985, New York based Sun Newspaper attracted significant attention with a series of articles that purported astronomy had discovered life on the moon in what was referred as the “Great Moon Hoax”. History is replete with many instances where persons spread misinformation to achieve certain agendas. Digital deception took a major turn during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential election whose outcome caused widespread concern. Fake news is now associated with many adverse outcomes including undermining democracy, denying climate change and promoting public health issues. Some of the methods that can be used to tackle fake news include encouraging high- quality journalism, teaching media digital literacy, enacting laws and regulations, verifying facts, use of algorithms to defect misinformation, and implementing real- name policies when registering in social media platforms.

Personally, fake news means any information, or story that is created with an aim of deliberately deceiving or misinforming recipients. It can also include authentic material but wrongly contextualized. Creators of fake news seek to influence people’s views, cause confusion or push certain political agendas. These creators often check visit verified news sources and use the facts obtained from verified outlets and layer them misinformation to create confusion among their audiences. While fake news is associated with politics, I know it now covers a wide range of disinformation encompassing topics such economics, health and climate science. Traditionally, everyone got their news from trusted sources media outlets and journalists who followed strict codes in their practice. Presently, many people depend on social media sites for news and the credibility of such information cannot be ascertained. Information overload coupled with low understanding about how the web works has increased the amount of hoax stories or fake news.

I strongly believe fake news exist because it is a major topic within the scientific community and the public alike. Further, the proliferation of fact checking websites such as Politifact and Snopes suggests that we are living in the era of fabricated information. I also believe that fake news is an integral part of modern because unlike the traditional media that are bound by well-defined ethical standards of journalism, the internet has made it easy for anyone to create content and present it as they wish without having to comply to any standards or guidelines. I have also major incidents caused by fake news such as when fake news spread that the pope had endorsed Trump and when the House of Commons in the U.K was forced to refute a claim that could be exempted from taxes if they said that their home was a place of worship.

Beyond deceiving, fake news has far reaching impacts on politics, society, the economy, culture, and international relations both locally and globally. The dangers of fake news are more pronounced when the when members come to that perceive fake news as factually accurate. Fake news poses serious societal consequences including worsening interpersonal relations, exacerbating health issues and undermining the democratic process. For instance, Jolly et al. have shown belief in fake news has strong links to violent intentions as seen among 5G – conspiracy theories who were willing to engage in arson and assault communication engineers during the protests witnessed during COVID-19 lockdowns (628). Fake news also reduced the willingness of individuals to get COVID – 19 vaccines thus potentially worsening public health and also decreased the public’s adherence to public health guidelines by encouraging “ fake cures” (Van der Linden et al 1). For instance, some people were advising that bleach injections could cure the coronavirus.

Fake news concerning climate change is also being used to undermine efforts that are meant to curb activities that increase carbon emission. Fake news also undermines democratic processes by spreading misinformation about certain candidates leading to a situation where unsuitable persons win get into power. Analysis of Facebook data during the 2016 US Presidential election reveals that its traffic had more face news than mainstream news which played major role in determining the poll’s outcome (Kim et al. 1). In 2017, the ministry of defense in Pakistan posted a controversial tweet after its official were misled into thinking that Israel was threatening Pakistan with a nuclear war thus straining relations between the two countries (Kim et al.1).

Various theories have been forwarded to explain why people believe fake news. One popular narrative about why individuals fail to identify fake news is based on political motivations. When some encounter politically charged content they assume “identity – protective cognition” which only makes them only believe information that alighted to their partisan identity (Pennycook & Rand, 389). A similar theory argue that individuals are more loyal to their political identities which they hold above truth thus blocking their ability to discern truth from fabrications in favor of believing information that is ideologically concordant. Another theory used to explain why people cannot differentiate truth and falsehood is borrowed from the discipline of reasoning where it focuses about how analytic thinking is seen to override intuitive responses. Classical reasoning is seen as helping people correct faulty intuitions which makes them believe false content. This view therefore predicts that individuals who are more deliberative (reflective) are less likely to believe fake news regardless of their political concordance(Pennycook & Rand, 392). Belief in false information is also linked to religious fundamentalism, dogmatism, over- claiming and bullshit receptivity. Overall, the belief in fake news is influenced by political motivations and reasoning skills.

The adverse impacts of fake news have led to considerable effort to address the issue. Governments have launched various initiatives to curb the spread of fake news including media literacy campaigns (Australia, Belgium, Canada), media regulation (Bahrain, Bangladeshi), online reporting portals ( china), and enacting laws requiring online platforms to delete fake news within 24 hours of risk strict fines (Germany and Ireland) and internet shutdown as seen in India (Poynter 18). Conroy et al. have highlighted an alternative method of tackling fake news which entails the use of machine learning algorithms to enable in the detection of misinformation (2). Given the pervasiveness of fake news, machine based solutions seem the most viable methods of tackling false information given the speed and scope in which it is made and disseminated particularly during times of crises, disasters, election periods and other major events.

Some strategies that I think can address the spread news include encouraging independent and professional journalism which can lead to high quality journalism and build public trust. Writing for the New York Times, Szalai notes that traditional journalism such as print newspaper has been in steady decline since 2004 which has been partly caused by digital media (1). Therefore, these professionals should receive more support from the private and public sector. Further, technology can also play a major role in identifying and removing fake news. Google and major social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter should employ algorithms and machine to filter out news whose source has not being verified. However, when developing such algorithms we should be careful how we define and differentiate fake news from legitimate news (Molina et al. 181). Strengthening online accountability on social media platforms such as by having strong real- name policies during registration can make it easier to hold persons accountable for spreading fake news. Individual are likely to act in certain if they are subject to certain constraints by their society. Accordingly, laws and regulation can regulate the spread of fake news considering the negative impacts it has on society. Improving digital literacy within the general public can also address the issue. People should always fact check news through further investigation such research. Thus, the actions that should be taken to contain the spread of fake news and its creation include encouraging professional journalism, digital literacy, laws and regulations, use of algorithms, and implementing real name policies in social media platforms.

In conclusion, some of the strategies that can be used to address the expansion of fake news include encouraging professionalism among journalists, engaging in digital literacy campaigns, and enacting laws and regulations that will guide how news is created and disseminated. Other approaches include verifying facts, using machine learning algorithms to quickly defect misinformation, and implementing real- name policies when registering in persons social media platforms so that everyone can be held accountable for whatever misinformation that they spread. Some of the theories that have been used to explain the rise of fake news include political motivations and lack of critical thinking skills. Some of the negative outcomes of fake news include increasing violence relations, exacerbating health issues, increasing the number of climate change deniers and undermining the democratic process.

Works Cited

Conroy, Nadia K., et al. “Automatic deception detection: Methods for finding fake news.” Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 52, no. 1, 2015, pp. 1-4.

Funke, Daniel, and Daniela Flamini. “A Guide to Anti-misinformation Actions Around the World.” Poynter, 14 Aug. 2019, www.poynter.org/ifcn/anti-misinformation-actions/.

Kim, Bogoan, et al. “A systematic review on fake news research through the lens of news creation and consumption: Research efforts, challenges, and future directions.” PLOS ONE, vol. 16, no. 12, 2021, p. e0260080.

Molina, Maria D., et al. ““Fake News” Is Not Simply False Information: A Concept Explication and Taxonomy of Online Content.” American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 65, no. 2, 2019, pp. 180-212.

Pennycook, Gordon, and David G. Rand. “The Psychology of Fake News.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 25, no. 5, 2021, pp. 388-402.

Szalai, Jennifer. “Yes, Fake News Is a Problem. But There’s a Real News Problem, Too.” The New York Times, 26 July 2020, www.nytimes.com/2020/07/26/books/review-ghosting-news-local-journalism-democracy-crisis-margaret-sullivan.html.

Van der Linden, Sander, et al. “Inoculating Against Fake News About COVID-19.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 11, 2020.