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Religion In Psychotherapy-based Supervision Summary Ap American History Essay Help

Integration of Spirituality/Religion in Psychotherapy-based Supervision

With several models that borrow from multiple ideas, the integration of religion/spirituality in a psychotherapy-based supervision model will depend on the predisposition of the supervisor, supervisee, and the client. Religion refers to an organized system of beliefs and practices that focuses on the sacred, whereas spirituality is the search for the holy (Barnett, 2020). As a professional requirement, psychologists must conduct themselves not to violate the client’s beliefs and values regardless of whether the client is religious or spiritual. However, there are instances where a psychologist is inspired by faith. In such cases, the supervisor must not let personal belief overshadow their work even if the supervisee and the clients have different religious values.


Therefore, I understand that a counseling session must occur without bias, regardless of the religious predisposition that a counselor may have. For instance, psychodynamic supervision involves a patient-focused dimension in which the supervisor engages his experience while observing how the trainee interacts with the client. The supervisor must not make any interruptions when the session is on. Since the trainee may let personal values get in the way of them helping the client. Doing so is a violation of the psychological code of ethics because the client’s freedom will be infringed upon, and the effects can be adverse. Here, the supervisor’s role is to observe the trainee’s actions and identify the expressed inadequacies for correction.

Several development approaches Summary history homework: history homework

Developmental Models

There several development approaches which draw from multiple theories to form their foundations. While some take the Freudian approach of psychosocial development, others are aligned with the Eriksonian views, which are more detailed in how the developmental stages are discussed (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The unifying factor of all the approaches under the developmental model focuses on supervisees’ needs while considering their level of professional development and standards of performance.

Loganbill, Hardy, & Delworth Model summary history assignment help company

Loganbill, Hardy, & Delworth Model

In this approach, the trainees are examined based on a cycle of three stages. The novice supervisees begin at the stagnation stage, in which they are unaware of their challenges and deficiencies. Therefore, they are more inclined to hold supervisors in high regard (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The more experienced supervisees view this stage as a blind spot where their roles are diminished. All tasks become dull and pointless, and the supervisor is considered irrelevant (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

The second stage is the confusion stage. Its onset can come gradually or suddenly. The supervisees are liberated from rigid belief systems, leaving them confused, disorganized, and unstable (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The supervisees may be aware of a problem but do not know what it is. Conflict may arise because the supervisee may project all frustrations on the supervisor (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

The third stage is the integration stage. Here, the supervisee acquires understanding, flexibility, and personal security from cognitive awareness (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). Supervisees also regard supervisors as people with inadequacies and abundances. As such, they seek to make the best out of the supervisors’ time and expertise (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

IDM (Stoltenberg & McNeill) Model summary history assignment help writing services: history assignment help writing services

IDM (Stoltenberg & McNeill) Model

In this model, the counselor’s development is described to occur in three stages. The first stage is Self–Other Awareness: Cognitive and Affective, in which trainees identify themselves based on self-preoccupation and the awareness of the client’s world (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). Cognitive processes are engaged in the understanding of the self and the client. The second stage involves motivation in which the trainees’ interest and investments make a large part of the training and practice (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The third stage involves autonomy, in which the trainee adopts a degree of independence and can engage therapeutic self-intervention (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

CDS (Rigazio-DiGilio & Anderson) Model summary history assignment help australia

. CDS (Rigazio-DiGilio & Anderson) Model

In this model, the supervisor tracks the supervisees’ progress based on the cognitive style of the supervisee (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). It can also be described as systemic cognitive–developmental supervision (SCDS) because it borrows from Piagetian theories. The opportunities and deficiencies of the trainees are observed based on Piaget’s four cognitive orientations. As such, the supervisor’s primary role is to discover the supervisee’s orientations and assist them in being flexible in applying the orientations (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

The first orientation is sensorimotor. Supervisees who are skilled in this stage can identify feelings quickly through transference and countertransference. A disadvantage of this stage is that emotions can overshadow judgment if not put under control (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The second orientation is referred to as the concrete stage. Trainees who are skilled in this orientation have a linear outlook of things through the cause-effect relationship, thus, giving them the ability to discover patterns. A significant disadvantage in this orientation is that trainees may be consumed in their cause-effect outlook that they fail to understand the underpinnings of outcomes (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).

The third orientation is described as formal. Trainees who are skilled in this orientation can scrutinize a case from multiple perspectives. Their remedy plans are heavily reliant on supervisory feedback. The disadvantage of this orientation is the inability to translating their knowledge into action (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018). The fourth orientation is described as dialectic. Trainees who are experienced in this stage challenge their mindset concerning a case. However, they are also prone to be overwhelmed by multiple perspectives that may prevent them from acting (Bernard & Goodyear, 2018).