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Employment in the Community College System history assignment ideas: history assignment ideas

Diversity in employment within community colleges seems higher than that of four-year colleges and universities on the national level. Research indicates community colleges engage more actively in recruiting and retaining more women and minorities than that of four-year colleges. Recent literature (within the last five years) explains some of the steps communities and community colleges have taken to become more inclusive. This shows not only that community colleges are willing to hire more minorities and women, but that there is also a climate more accepting of hiring minorities and women.

Community colleges undertake a variety of tasks for the satisfaction and success of their students. That is why diversity in faculty may help community colleges achieve their goals. In an article by Hughes, the author explains the need for community colleges to adapt strategies to not only recruit diverse faculty, but also retain them. He also states the inherent challenge in recruiting and retaining diverse faculty. “The challenges in having a diverse faculty require recruiting diverse applicants and in retaining those applicants once hired. Achieving these twin aims has proven elusive for many community colleges” (Hughes, 2015, p. 659).

The study covers a fifteen-year time-period of a college within the United States that adopted strategies that actively sought more diverse faculty to hire and retain. “Over a 15-year period, the college became the most diverse in its state while growing from 4.3% full-time faculty of color to 23.3% full-time faculty of color” (Hughes, 2015, p. 659). They began at first with recruiting from colleges and campuses that had higher rates of minority and female students. From there they sent diversity teams to go and speak with students about their organization, establishing a professional relationship with recruits. They made sure the senior management of the school understood they goal to hire a more diverse staff.

These steps not only led to a more diverse faculty in community college, but it also led to a better understanding of where to find diverse faculty members. It begins at the school level and progresses onto the job level. Some organizations begin even at the middle school and high school level in terms of early recruitment. They want to establish that connection early on so when the potential recruit has the age and skill set to join, they have already established a sense of trust enabling a higher chance of retention of the recruit.

In a 2014 qualitative study, author Fujii examined the diversity rates of faculties in community colleges. “The researcher interviewed 12 participants — administrators and faculty members at three community colleges in a large district in the southwestern United States — who served on faculty search committees from 2006 — 2009.” (Fujii, 2014, p. 903). The author took information from three community colleges covering three years and found information supporting the notion that community colleges have increased their hiring of minorities and women from years past and compared to four-year colleges and universities.

Furthermore, the research reveals the decision of community colleges to include higher levels of communication surrounding a need for diverse faculty within the community college environment. “Analysis of the participants’ interviews specific to ethnic/racial diversity in the faculty search process revealed themes around the communication of diversity’s value and role at the institution and the role of the chair and administration” (Fujii, 2014, p. 903). Much of the push for change within community colleges that wish to increase diversity comes in the administrative level. That is because although affirmative action laws have largely been abandoned, people have discovered inherent benefits from a more diverse faculty.

As people quickly realize the importance of diversity faculty in schools, especially in community colleges where there are fewer selling points to potential students than four-year colleges, community colleges have and are looking for ways to include more and more minority and women recruits. Similar to other research concerning diversity recruitment, there appears a need for organizations to attempt to change strategies beginning with the administrative level. Senior management ultimately lends to a change in policy that adapts the organization to a more receptive attitude and active implementation of diversity hiring.

Similar to this study, a 2013 qualitative study interviewed faculty of color in community colleges in order to determine the climate surrounding them in these schools. “We investigate four community colleges in California through interviews with 31 full-time faculty of color. This faculty group expresses identity conflicts between their professional roles and their cultural identities” (Levin, Haberler, Walker & Jackson-Boothby, 2013, p. 55). Although many of the faculty interviewed showed feelings of being accepted and respected within the faculty and student community, they did feel conflicts in how they were at work and how they identified culturally and within their own community or family. Because minority faculty remain in the minority in most schools, they often feel the need to acclimate to whatever faculty culture is present. This may generate conflicts in their identities and way of living.

Furthering this confusion is the lack of communication from the faculty of color to their peers and employers within the community colleges. Everyone interviewed assumed that the culture of college and college faculty was all the same and that the culture must be adhered to regardless of individual preference or expression. “Their understandings of their institutions suggest that the culture of the community college is more complex and multi-faceted than that portrayed in the scholarly literature, which often portrays the institution as homogeneous and the faculty body as uniform” (Levin, Haberler, Walker & Jackson-Boothby, 2013, p. 55). The authors made a point to highlight the gap in literature surrounding the apparent complexity of community college culture.

Essentially, research concerning diversity in community colleges should be aimed at examining the cultures within these community colleges and how minority faculty respond to it. This may improve retention of minority and female faculty. It may also improve understanding of ways to increase minority involvement within community colleges.

Community College Spotlight and Minority and Women Inclusion

In a 2011 article by Boggs, the subject of community colleges and its recent popularity take center stage. As many have witnessed in recent times, students within the United States are looking for a less expensive option for school. Community colleges offer that option until students desire to pursue a four-year degree or simply wish to earn a certificate for work. Unlike universities and four-year colleges, community colleges offer higher education at a much lower price. “Never before have community colleges received so much attention and recognition. From modest beginnings at the start of the twentieth century, community colleges have become the largest, most affordable, and most responsive sector of American higher education” (Boggs, 2011, p. 3).

With that lower price comes some restrictions. Community colleges in order to deliver quality education to their students must hire quality staffing as well as provide excellent curriculum. As President Barack Obama noted, community colleges have become an important aspect of college life and policy makers and the like have finally taken notice.

Policy makers, media, and the public in general seem to have only now discovered community colleges, which have been put in a spotlight by President Barack Obama and leading national foundations as important to the economic prosperity of the United States. With increased attention comes increased scrutiny, however. What will be expected of community colleges, and how can they best respond, especially given severe financial limitations (Boggs, 2011, p. 3).

Although community colleges have yet to reach the level of popularity as other schools, many have grown and have adopted ways to include what four-year-schools sometimes fail to offer. As previous research shows, community colleges have made a clear effort in including a more diverse faculty.

When examining IV league schools and four-year colleges, most of the staff is overwhelmingly white and male with a leading minority being Asian. In community colleges, although the majority remains white, there are higher levels of minorities in faculty than in four-year schools. As the media and the government pay more attention to community colleges, this aspect comes into focus.

In a 2011 case study, Nitecki attempts to examine strategies community colleges take on to increase student-retention rates. “This case study examines two successful career-focused programs at an urban community college struggling with retention” (Nitecki, 2011, p. 98). Although not noted in the article, some of the ways community colleges increase retention rates is by hiring diverse staff. Affirmative action may not be fueling the desire to hire diverse staff, but rather, competition and desire for students to gain more from a more diverse faculty. In the end, students as noted in the article, stay with a school and more likely to succeed in a school when they have an overall positive experience. Faculty enable such positive experiences.

Many of those that wish to partake in increasing satisfaction and connection within the student body do so by offering faculty that cannot only teach them but also connect with them and their goals for the future. “The findings show how these programs create a unique institutional subculture, resulting in relatively higher rates of retention and graduation, and highlight the tremendous potential of the program to mitigate limitations of retention efforts undertaken at the institutional level” (Nitecki, 2011, p. 98). By offering a unique and satisfying experience, community colleges can increase their student-retention rates. They can provide that experience by hiring more diverse faculty.

Diverse faculty among other things is an important aspect to higher learning. Everything about higher learning is about reaching outside of a person’s limited view. By creating a unique sub-culture within community colleges through diversity, community colleges could be creating enough of an allure and pull that increases student-retention and student recruitment.

A dissertation by Diana Jackson (2012) shows the need for more diverse faculty as students that are more diverse go into higher learning. “Students entering into higher education institutions today represent America’s growing diversity. Much of the increase seen is due to the large numbers of students from different ethnic backgrounds and the changing demographics of immigrants who have migrated to the United States” (Jackson, 2012, p. 1). Diversity in the American student body means a need for this student body to feel connected and feel exposure to cultures and faculty that could relate to them. Although people can connect and relate to each other on a human level, there is always that extra satisfaction from connecting to someone on a cultural and personal level.

This dissertation is included in the literature review to show perhaps why community colleges have gained more attention and an increase in popularity than previously before. It can be because the student body of America going into college has become more ethnically diverse. Wishing to meet the demands of this student body, community colleges in particular have increase their desire to hire staff that are more diverse. “experiences of the faculty and students support the finding that multicultural education should play a significant role in community colleges. The common themes identified included similar statements about; a lack of cultural diversity, language and cultural barriers, and challenges with multicultural competencies” Jackson, 2012, p. 1).

Language barriers are often seen in areas within the United States that house a Hispanic population. Hispanics are the largest minority in the United States. Many Hispanic speak Spanish and although have learned English, still feel most comfortable speaking Spanish. If Hispanic students can find someone like them that speaks Spanish, they will feel more comfortable asking questions and connecting with the curriculum. This leads of course to improved student performance and higher rates of student-retention.

Increasing Diversity Awareness

People often wonder what inspires awareness in others. Although it is difficult at times to grow awareness of a topic, it may be done so through the world of art. In a 2015 study, films were used to expose audiences to cross-culturalism. “Three film events were held at a large public university. Participant feedback via online forums and panel discussions was analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of using film to facilitate learning about cross-cultural experiences” (Eun-Kyoung Lee & Priester, 2015, p. 35). The authors found that because the films highlighted various cultures in a lens that could be examined objectively, audiences were able to connect and/or relate to the subject matter or in the very least, become interested in it.

Interest in multiculturalism, in diversity can be sparked via the inclusion of media and aty from various cultures and ethnicities. “Vicarious experience through film was found to be useful for multicultural education with varied audiences. Findings indicate that films make a difficult topic safer by objectifying it and removing some of the barriers to learning cultural competence” (Eun-Kyoung Lee & Priester, 2015, p. 35). As schools grow in terms of student body diversity, faculty must be represented in a diverse way as well. Not only does diversity in film allow for better understanding and acceptance of diversity in school, but it also creates an awareness for a need for diversity.

Increasing diversity awareness is also reliant upon location of a school. Some community colleges are located in rural areas where minorities remain less prevalent than in urban areas. A 2011 study discussed the need for adjunct faculty in rural, suburban, and urban areas. “Drawing on a survey of chief academic officers at 347 community colleges nationwide, this study examined the impact of institutional type (rural, suburban, urban) on reliance on and demand for adjunct faculty members” (Charlier & Williams, 2011, p. 160). Urban areas, housing many minorities and minority students, require more diversity in faculty than rural areas. The numbers of minority staff within the schools as well as the student body reflects this.

Results from the study suggest rural areas rely less on adjuncts than in urban areas. “Findings indicated that rural institutions rely less on adjuncts, whereas both rural and urban institutions report high levels of unmet demand within specific disciplines” (Charlier & Williams, 2011, p. 160). This could also play a role in hiring minority staff. Minority staff many times serve as adjunct faculty. This is seen a lot in urban areas and community colleges. Without the need for adjunct faculty, rural areas may also see less minority staff recruits. Although this is not a researched area, it is an interesting connection to make when it comes to diversity in community college faculty.

Davis discusses in an article, diversity in education (Davis, 2012, p. 366). People in every area of education including physical education are aware of the need for diversity in staff. By utilizing case studies and examining outcomes from hiring diverse staff, organizations can then implement strategies as seen in an earlier section of this literature review that will encourage diverse participation in the field of education. Students rely on and need diverse staff to educate them and enable learning. Higher learning institutions desire to meet the needs of the recently diverse student population.

As research suggests students fare better when they are exposed to a diverse faculty. They have more satisfaction in their classes and perform better academically. The extra level of variety and connection that diverse faculty give could be what sets a school apart from another in a long list of possible educational prospects.

Gap in Literature

Other gaps in literature have been identified. However, as the United States increases it outsourcing of college faculty by hiring foreign born professors and staff, it is important to understand their levels of job satisfaction because diversity in community colleges have branched out onto foreign born faculty. In a 2010 article, Mamiseishvili highlights the decision of community colleges to expand their internationalization efforts. “Foreign-born faculty members in community colleges can serve as a valuable resource to their institutions’ growing internationalization efforts” (Mamiseishvili, 2010, p. 26).

More and more students from other countries are coming to the United States for higher learning. This means community colleges look for ways to make this growing student population feel more connected by hiring foreign staff. Not only do foreign-born faculty provide connection and increased diversity in community colleges, but they also give options for community colleges in terms of managing budgets by offering competitive rates to the foreign-born faculty. Foreign-born faculty with minority faculty together, provide a varied and satisfying college experience for a more diverse student population. “Together with other minority faculty groups, foreign-born faculty members, with their diverse cultural and language backgrounds, can be instrumental in serving increasingly diverse student populations in community colleges nationwide” (Mamiseishvili, 2010, p. 26).

Much like minority faculty recruitment and retaining research strategies, the article wishes to identify successful approaches to recruit and retain foreign-born faculty. Foreign-born faculty are a new and growing aspect of overall diversity in community colleges that has been ignored in research pertaining to community colleges. This gap in literature may help people learn about diversity within community colleges on other levels (aside from women and minority faculty).

Conclusion

The literature review revealed several things. One was the growing awareness of a need to hire diverse staff. The other is the growing diversification of the student body population. Students require a connection to faculty that can relate to them. Not only does this promote increased satisfaction in students, but it also leads to increased retaining rates and improved academic performance.

This literature review covered several areas of diversity of faculty in community colleges. From diversity awareness to community college spotlight, this literature review highlights efforts of community colleges to recruit and retain not only minority faculty, but also foreign-born faculty. More research is needed on diversity in college education from the perspective of community colleges like rate of pay and national statistics in order to get a better understanding of what work life is like for those of minority and foreigner status working in community colleges. Job satisfaction plays an important part in recruiting and retaining a diverse staff. Without strategies that improve job satisfaction, community colleges may see a decline in minority faculty retaining.

References

Boggs, G. (2011). Community colleges in the spotlight and under the microscope. New Directions For Community Colleges, 2011(156), 3-22. doi:10.1002/cc.462

Charlier, H., & Williams, M. (2011). The Reliance on and Demand for Adjunct Faculty Members in America’s Rural, Suburban, and Urban Community Colleges. Community College Review, 39(2), 160-180. doi:10.1177/0091552111405839

Davis, T. (2012). Essentials of Teaching Adapted Physical Education: Diversity, Culture, and Inclusion. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 29, 366.

Eun-Kyoung Lee, O., & Priester, M. (2015). Increasing Awareness of Diversity Through Community Engagement and Films. Journal Of Social Work Education, 51(1), 35. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10437797.2015.977126#.Vbi1A_lSK3M

Fujii, S. (2014). Diversity, Communication, and Leadership in the Community College Faculty Search Process. Community College Journal Of Research And Practice, 38(10), 903. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10668926.2012.725387#.Vbi0uflSK3M

Hughes, B. (2015). Recruiting, Retaining, and Benefiting From a Diverse Community College Faculty: A Case Study of One College’s Successes. Community College Journal Of Research And Practice, 39(7), 659. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10668926.2014.885401#abstract

Jackson, D. (2012). Perception of minority students and faculty regarding multicultural education and support services at a community college. Gradworks.umi.com. Retrieved 27 July 2015, from http://gradworks.umi.com/35/17/3517158.html

Levin, J., Haberler, Z., Walker, L., & Jackson-Boothby, A. (2013). Community College Culture and Faculty of Color. Community College Review, 42(1), 55. doi:10.1177/0091552113512864

Mamiseishvili, K. (2010). Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Workplace Perceptions of Foreign-Born Faculty at Public 2-Year Institutions. Community College Review, 39(1), 26-45. doi:10.1177/0091552110394650

Nitecki, E. (2011). The Power of the Program: How the Academic Program Can Improve Community College Student Success. Community College Review, 39(2), 98-120. doi:10.1177/0091552111404926

Chapter 3 Methodology

Introduction

Seven community colleges in Virginia were used for this study in order to determine if the effects of affirmative action or diversity implementation were effective in hiring women and minorities. Each college will be described in terms of size, student body, and urbanicity, and census data surrounding the area. Each community college was asked to provide information on their faculty size and minorities hired in relation to new hires, total number of minorities, and total female faculty. This data will be compared to national data gathered from the IPEC website. The data covering the colleges and student body comes from AACC.NCHE.EDU and is from 2010 (Aacc.nche.edu, 2015).

Community College #1 Blue Ridge Community College

The city is Weyers Cave in Virginia with 24486 as the zip code.

It is a public community college with an urbanicity of Rural Fringe.

It was established in 1967.

Total enrollment is 4,437 with 63.8% as part time and 36.2% as full time.

The student population in terms of gender are 56.3% female and 43.7% male.

The total minority population within the school is 16.2% and white population stands at 80.6%.

Community College #2 Central Virginia Community College

The city is Lynchburg in Virginia and the zip code is 24502.

It is a public community college with an urbanicity of Small City.

It was established in 1967.

Its total enrollment is 4,730 with 69% part time and 31% full time.

The student population in terms of gender are 47.1% male and 52.9% female.

The total minority student population is 19.8% and the white population at 75.5%.

Community College #3 Dabney S. Lancaster Community College

The city is Clifton Forge in Virginia and the zip code is 24422.

It is a public community college with an urbanicity of Rural, Fringe.

The school was established in 1964.

The total enrollment is 1,312 with 67.1% part time and 32.9% full time.

The student body population in terms of gender is 44.7% male and 55.3% female.

The total minority student population is 7.5% with an 89% white student population.

Community College #4 Danville Community College

The school’s location is in Danville, Virginia and the zip code is 24541.

It is a public community college with urbanicity of Town, Remote.

The school was established in 1968.

The total enrollment size of the school stands at 4,280 with 64% part time and 36% full time.

The student population in terms of gender is 43.6% male and 56.4% female.

The student population in terms of minority is 38.9% and 59.3% white.

Community College #5 Eastern Shore Community College

The school’s location is in Melfa, Virginia and the zip code is 23410.

It is a public community college with urbanicity of Rural, Remote.

The school was established in 1971.

The total enrollment size of the school stands at 857 with 69.2% part time and 30.8% full time.

The student population in terms of gender is 433.4% male and 66.6% female.

The student population in terms of minority is 46.9% and 50.3% white.

Community College #6 Germanna Community College

The school’s location is in Locust Grove, Virginia and the zip code is 22508.

It is a public community college with urbanicity of Rural, Fringe.

The school was established in 1970.

The total enrollment size of the school stands at 7,379 with 68.1% part time and 31.9% full time.

The student population in terms of gender is 39.3% male and 60.7% female.

The student population in terms of minority is 26.9% and 66.9% white.

Community College #7 J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College

The school’s location is in Richmond, Virginia and the zip code is 23285.

It is a public community college with urbanicity of Suburb, Large City.

The school was established in 1972.

The total enrollment size of the school is 12,454 with 71.5% part time and 28.5% full time.

The student population in terms of gender is 39.6% male and 60.4% female.

The student population in terms of minority is 45.9% and 49.4% white.

Grouping of the Colleges Based on Size

J Sargeant Reynolds Community College has the largest student population at 12,454.

Germanna Community College has the second largest student population at 7,379.

Central Virginia Community College is middle of the road with a student population of 4,730.

Blue Ridge Community College has a student population of 4,437.

Danville Community College has a student population of 4,280.

Dabney S. Lancaster Community College has the second lowest student population of 1,312.

Eastern Shore Community College has the lowest student population of 857.

Analysis of Community Colleges

The largest school, J Sargeant Reynolds Community College has the most minority students and the highest minority student population vs. white student population at 45.9% versus 49.4%.

The smallest school, Eastern Shore Community College has the second highest minority student population vs. white student population at 46.9% versus 50.3%.

Community colleges located in rural, remote or large city areas had a large amount of minority students.

Colleges with median student populations located in town or fringe locations had the lowest minority student population with the lowest being Dabney S. Lancaster Community College.

Correlation with Minority Student Body Size and Minority Faculty Size

Community colleges with higher minority-student population size like J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College have a greater number of minority faculty hires and overall numbers than those with smaller minority student population. However, for a school like Eastern Shore Community College, it was only in recent years, 2011-2013 that there was a minor upsurge in minority hires. All schools showed in strong correlation with more female faculty vs. male faculty and higher populations of female students vs. male students.

Below is a visual representation of the data collected from each community college in relation to minority hires and nonminority hires from years 2001, 2006, 2009-2013. Min is short for minority. NM is short for NonMinority.

Dabney and Blue Ridge Community Colleges had 0-1 male minority hires. Since the minority population is lowest in those two schools, there is some correlation with minority hires and student minority population. Further analysis of findings will be discussed in chapter 4.

Qualitative Methodology

The seven community colleges have been arranged by size with descriptions and correlations made to student population size and minority hiring over the span of 12 years in Virgnia. Other information such as new hires and so forth will be discussed later in the quantitative analysis portion of Chapter 4. The qualitative method involved interviews performed at the 7 seven schools via face-to-face interviews involving a 10 question multiple choice survey asking 20 respondents. The largest schools had the most respondents with 4 or 5. The middle sized schools had 3 respondents each and the smaller schools had only 1 respondent each. The questions asked during the interviews are below:

Diversity Questions

1. I define diversity as:

a. Inclusion

b. affirmative action

c. partnership

d. all of the above

2. Is the term diversity included in your college’s mission statement?

a. Yes

b. No

3. Diversity in employment means to me:

a. team building

b. collaborative processes

c. equal opportunity

d. none of the above

4. Based on your definition of diversity, is your campus/college diverse?

a. Yes

b. No

5. My greatest challenges associated with a diverse working environment?

include:

a. lack of understanding of cultural differences

b. my upbringing or my own personal awareness

c. training

d. all of the above

6. My executive leadership team at the college is diverse.

a. I agree

b. I disagree

c. I am not sure

7. The committees and teams that perform strategic projects at the college are diverse.

a. I agree

b. I disagree

c. I am not sure

8. I feel as though my ideas and suggestions are considered by my supervisor, manager, or executive leader at the college.

a. I agree

b. I disagree

c. I am not sure

9. Have you seen an increase or decrease in minority employment in your college?

a. Increase

b. Decrease

c. No change

10. Has there been training associated with diversity at your college/campus?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Not sure

Since the survey is multiple choice, the answers will be seen as letters. Information from respondents was gathered anonymously with only gender given, no other identifiers such as race or age were included in the survey responses. Participants are faculty members of the schools.

J Sargeant Reynolds Community College had 5 respondents.

Germanna Community College had 4 respondents.

Central Virginia Community College is had 3 respondents.

Blue Ridge Community College had 3 respondents.

Danville Community College had 3 respondents.

Dabney S. Lancaster Community College had 1 respondent.

Eastern Shore Community College had 1 respondents.

JSRCC Respondent #1 Male

JSRCC Respondent #2 Female

JSRCC Respondent #3 Female

JSRCC Respondent #4 Female

JSRCC Respondent #5 Male

GC Respondent #1 Male

GC Respondent #2 Female

GC Respondent #3 Female

GC Respondent #4 Female

CVCC Respondent #1 Female

CVCC Respondent #2 Male

CVCC Respondent #3 Female

BCC Respondent #1 Female

BCC Respondent #2 Male

BCC Respondent #3 Female

DCC Respondent #1 Female

DCC Respondent #2 Female

DCC Respondent #3 Male

DSLCC Respondent #1 Female

ESCC Respondent #1 Female

Since the results from the interview came from multiple-choice answers, they can be analyzed quantitatively. However some aspects of the answers can be answered qualitatively. There were 6 males that answered questions in the interview. There were 14 females that answered questions in the interview. Most of the answers males gave seemed less hopeful and inclusive than the female answers. As earlier stated, there were far more female hires than male in all of the schools with the exception of one. Here a qualitative analysis of some of the words most frequently used during the interview.

Below is a word cloud of what most of the male respondents said.

Below is a word cloud of what most of the female respondents said.

Adding numerical value to the answers the sum of the responses are shown in diagrams 1-7.

Cumulative Representation of Respondent Answers by Gender

Below is the table representing all of the respondent answers.

Mixed Methodology Approach

Insights Concerning Diversity and Inclusion

The observations covering inclusion and diversity within the seven community colleges are mostly negative with the exception of the largest school J. Sergeant Reynolds Community College. The majority of respondents within the seven community colleges felt the environment was not inclusive or diverse enough, especially in leadership and community settings. In terms of female faculty, most stated their community college did an excellent job of hiring female faculty. The majority of respondents feel they receive equal treatment and respect though have not seen much change in terms of diverse hires.

Since the qualitative portion was less than expected due to the nature of the survey, an additional survey was added and further analysis is detailed in chapter 4.

Chapter 4 Analysis of Qualitative Statements and Quantitative Data

The cross tabulation uses the gender of the 20 respondents in addition to the responses provided for each statement. Each statement is written below with the answers representing the numerical data for each answer. All 20 answers to each statement are written below. The pie charts for each statement offer visual representation of the responses and gives indication for how participants reacted to the general topic of diversity in faculty. Unlike the previous section, respondents are not categorized by college and instead are counted cumulatively in order to provide anonymity to the schools as well as respondents.

Research Proposition 1: Community Colleges within the last 12 years have sought to increase diverse faculty numbers by hiring minorities and women.

Statement 1: We have seen in increase in diverse faculty (within community colleges in Virginia) in the last 12 years when it comes to more minority hires.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

The answers of all 20 respondents are: 3,2,3,2,3,1,2,3,3,4,3,2,1,3,4,1,2,2,2,1

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

The responses pointed more toward “neutral” and “disagree.” Not many favored the “agree” or “strongly agree” choices. These responses indicate the respondents do not feel overall, that community colleges within Virginia are making enough effort to hire minority faculty. Additionally the respondents that chose “strongly disagree” feel minorities are underrepresented in faculties.

Statement 2: Women have been represented well in faculties of community colleges within the last 12 years.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

The answers from al 20 respondents are: 4,5,4,4,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,3,1,4,3,3,3,3,4,1

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most of the answers leaned towards the choice “agree” seeing the overall number of female faculty members either increase or stay high in regards to faculty numbers. Although some answers remained neutral, most agreed on the statement.

Statement 3: Community Colleges in Virginia have faculty that represent the student population well.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,4,2,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,2

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most of the answers were “strongly agree” with no one “strongly disagreeing” or “neutral.” Previous data showing student population minority percentages, female percentages show they for the most part, correlate with faculty minority and female percentages.

Cumulative Answers of Respondents for Research Proposition 1:

3,2,3,2,3,1,2,3,3,4,3,2,1,3,4,1,2,2,2,1

4,5,4,4,4,4,5,4,4,4,4,3,1,4,3,3,3,3,4,1

5,5,5,5,5,5,5,5,4,4,2,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,2

Research Proposition 2: Diverse faculties make for higher satisfaction within the faculty population.

Statement 4: Community colleges in Virginia have made enough effort to hire staff that are more diverse in terms of foreign-born faculty members.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,1,3,1,1

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most of the answers leaned towards “strongly disagree.” This could be because not enough efforts have been made to hire more foreign-born faculty members. Although research indicates some community colleges have been making that shift, it is not so common in Virginia.

Statement 5: Community colleges promote an environment of inclusion through policy and setting.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,3,2,5,5,5,5,3,5,5,5,2

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

The strong response favoring “agree” indicate community colleges in Virginia do in fact promote inclusion within their school policy and overall school environment.

Statement 6: Faculty from community colleges in Virginia have a good level of job satisfaction.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 3,3,3,3,4,3,3,4,3,4,5,5,4,3,2,2,5,5,5,1

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Statement 6 produced mixed results having most favor “neutral” or “strongly agree.” Although some respondents feel high levels of job satisfaction, most do not and can be an indicator for how faculty feel in community colleges, especially minority faculty.

Cumulative Answers of Respondents for Research Proposition 2:

1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2,1,1,1,1,1,2,1,3,1,1

4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4,3,2,5,5,5,5,3,5,5,5,2

3,3,3,3,4,3,3,4,3,4,5,5,4,3,2,2,5,5,5,1

Research Proposition 3: There are diversity programs in community colleges in Virginia that promote diversity awareness.

Statement 7: Community colleges in Virginia have taken measures to ensure diversity awareness.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 3,3,3,3,3,3,2,2,3,2,3,2,3,2,4,2,5,5,5,2

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Like the preceding statement, it produced a strong neutral reply with nine respondents preferring “neutral.” Generally, respondents tended towards “disagree” with only four agreeing with the statement. Responses suggest they overall do not feel community colleges in Virginia raise diversity awareness.

Statement 8: Diversity awareness has led to increase minority employment in Virginia.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 5,4,4,2,2,2,2,2,4,3,2,5,5,5,3,2,2,2,2,4

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most respondents disagreed with the statement. More than half of the participants felt diversity awareness did not lead to an increase in minority employment. Furthermore, they did not feel there was enough diversity awareness or cultural awareness.

Statement 9: Community colleges in Virginia have taken steps towards increasing minority faculty size

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 4,4,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,4,4,3,3,2,2,2,1

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most agree of the respondents agreed and showed little variation. Nine respondents selected “agree, five selected “strongly agree” with only one respondent that selected “strongly disagree.”

Cumulative Answers of Respondents for Research Proposition 3:

3,3,3,3,3,3,2,2,3,2,3,2,3,2,4,2,5,5,5,2

5,4,4,2,2,2,2,2,4,3,2,5,5,5,3,2,2,2,2,4

4,4,4,4,4,5,5,4,5,5,4,5,4,4,3,3,2,2,2,1

Research Proposition 4: Policies within community colleges in Virginia promote diversity and minority employment.

Statement 10: Community colleges in Virginia have policies that generate a diversity conscious environment.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 3,3,3,3,3,3,2,3,5,2,3,2,5,2,2,2,1,2,4,3

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most of the answers given by respondents remained neutral with nine choosing the “neutral” option. Most believe however, there is not enough diversity framework within current policies in community colleges in Virginia.

Statement 11: Affirmative Action after it was removed, improved minority employment.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 1,1,1,1,4,2,1,4,3,1,1,1,3,2,2,2,2,1,1,2

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

Most respondents strongly disagreed. 50% or 10 suggested they felt the opposite and have not seen an increase overall in minority employment after the removal of programs like Affirmative Action.

Statement 12: Community colleges in Virginia have implemented satisfactory action towards increasing minority employment in recent years.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

1

2

3

4

5

All 20 answers from Respondents: 3,2,2,2,3,2,3,2,3,2,4,4,4,4,4,5,2,2,2,3

Total Numbers:

Mean (Average):

Standard deviation:

Variance (Standard deviation):

Population Standard deviation:

Variance (Population Standard deviation):

The answers from the respondents for the last statement imply mixed feelings. 5 opted for “agree” and 9 for “disagree.”

Cumulative Answers of Respondents for Research Proposition 4:

3,3,3,3,3,3,2,3,5,2,3,2,5,2,2,2,1,2,4,3

1,1,1,1,4,2,1,4,3,1,1,1,3,2,2,2,2,1,1,2

3,2,2,2,3,2,3,2,3,2,4,4,4,4,4,5,2,2,2,3

Conclusion

Although community colleges in Virginia have tried to promote diversity in schools, it is not enough to convince faculty members (both minority and nonminority) they have implemented correct policy when it comes to minority employment and inclusion of minorities. Programs like Affirmative Action since its removal have not made community colleges increase the amount of minority hires. Community colleges in Virginia do promote however, an environment of inclusion.

German beer tradition Research Paper do my history homework

Beer is as synonymous with German culture as watches are to Switzerland. The centrality of beer to German culture is owing to centuries of tradition, long before the unification of Germany in 1871. Although beer consumption in Germany has declined over the last several decades, beer continues to be a defining feature of modern German economic, social, and even political life.

Background and Pre-Modern German Beer

According to the German Beer Institute, beer has been brewed in Germany for about three thousand years. Until the 8th century CE, most beer was brewed at home for personal consumption. Because it is a domestic food product, and gender roles assigned women to domestic chores, brewers were almost exclusively women during the days of the Teutonic tribes. As Christianity penetrated Germany, brewing shifted toward semi-professional and eventually professional status. Christian monasteries and nunneries brewed the first commercial beers in Germany, using the proceeds from their sales to cover their operating expenses (German Beer Institute). The tradition of monastic brewing still remains throughout Germany and much of Europe. As the Germanic tribes evolved into fiefdoms and kingdoms during the Middle Ages, secular brewing guilds emerged.

However, the division between northern and southern regions of Germany was starting to become increasingly apparent during the Middle Ages as well. Those divisions continue to characterize the diversity of German beer culture. As the German Beer Institute points out, “feudal lords took over most institutional brewing in southern Germany, while burgher-merchants did the same in northern Germany.” Bavaria, in Southern Germany, reached its peak of economic and political power in during the late Middle Ages and Early Renaissance. It was during this time that brewing guilds wielded significant enough political clout to influence trade laws. Secular commercial beer producers often competed vehemently with the monastic beer producers wishing to dominate the industry (German Beer Institute).

The most important trade law — in any industry — to emerge from Germany was the 1516 Reinheitsgebot, which means “purity law.” Initially a regional law pertaining only to Bavaria, the law became adopted throughout modern Germany hundreds of years later. Widely believed to be the “world’s oldest consumer legislation,” the Reinheitsgebot was designed in part to protect the bread industry. Brewing had become such big business and so thoroughly entrenched in German society that the bread bakers needed greater access to grains like wheat and rye. The Reinheitsgebot stipulates that beer must contain only malted barley, liberating the stores of rye and wheat for bakers. Of course, the law would later be amended to account not only for the increase in global grain production but also for the fact that wheat and rye beers were being produced at a fairly large scale throughout Bavaria and much of Germany. In addition to barley malt, hops and water were also ingredients permitted in German beer production. It was not until scientists discovered the microscopic organisms responsible for fermentation, yeast, that the Reinheitsgebot was amended once again. The Reinheitsgebot influenced German beer production, quality, taste, style, culture, and finances for centuries.

After the Protestant Reformation, which began in Germany, the regional differences in Germany became pronounced. Regional differences are apparent in the beer itself, with different styles of beer being brewed in different regions. Those differences remain extant in the 21st century, with some styles of beer only available in their native regions of Germany. Differences in beer drinking culture and context are also apparent throughout Germany. The country now known as Germany was little more than a collection of smaller kingdoms, states, and city-states until 1871. The newness of the nation-state of Germany makes it so that modern German brewing and drinking culture is colorful and diverse. Although the number of beer breweries has declined exponentially over the last century, modern Germany still “boasts approximately twelve hundred breweries making over five thousand different beers in about twelve major styles,” (Borak).

Bavaria epitomizes the importance of beer in modern German culture. Prior to unification, Crown Prince Ludwig married Theresa von Sachsen-Hildburghausen of Bavaria. The celebration was commemorated on October 12, 1810 in Munich with a major festival held on fairgrounds now called Theresienwiese, which means “Theresa’s fairgrounds.” Still called Theresienweise by locals, the festival is one of the world’s largest and most famous: the Oktoberfest. According to Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha, “The event was so successful that it was decided the celebration should occur every year.” A hallmark of the Oktoberfest is the invitation of all Munich breweries — as well as being open to all who care to join in the festivities. The festival includes carnival rides and is appropriate for families and young children, but beer is central to the event too. Okotoberfest symbolizes the importance of beer in modern German culture.

The early modern era in German beer culture was also characterized by significant shifts in the craft of brewing itself. Most importantly was the discovery of bottom-fermenting yeasts that were conducive to longer periods of fermentation at colder temperatures. Suitable to the climate of Bavaria, the longer fermentation process necessitated lagering — German for cellaring. Initially developed in neighboring Bohemia, lagering caught on quickly in Bavaria. The first lagers were brewed in Bohemia, and the first pilsner-style lager was named for the Bohemian town of Pilsen in 1842 (Borak). Pilsner-style beer has become popular in some, but not all, parts of Germany.

The Modern Era in German Beer: 20th Century

Regardless of the stylistic differences between the different regions of Germany, what remains is a nationwide respect for the role beer has historically played as a food, as an economic commodity, and as a symbol of German cultural identity. Otto von Bismarck unified Germany in 1871, bringing together disparate Germanic peoples with different dialects and traditions. The unification of Germany is one of the three most important variables influencing the dramatic changes that took place in German beer culture in the modern era. A second variable is modern chemistry, and the third is industrialization.

Industrialization changed the way beer was made and distributed, and also changed the role beer played in the modern German economy. Beer went from being either within the province of the monastic non-profit tradition or within the province of specialized artisan brewers. With industrialization, it was possible to produce beer on a scale never before possible. Transformations in brewing science and technology likewise made mass production of beer possible because the otherwise sensitive beverage could enjoy improved storage conditions and more rapid transportation to areas outside the town where the beer was brewed. Although most German beer is still consumed in its local province, industrialization did allow for the distribution of beer beyond local, regional, and eventually, national borders. Beer had come to occupy such a central position in German culture, and had attained symbolic value, that “the first freight ever transported by a German railway were two casks of beer brewed by the Lederer Brewery of Nurnberg,” (German Beer Institute).

Modern science and especially biochemistry changed the nature of beer brewing globally. German scientists were at the forefront of much of the research being done on brewing chemistry. In 1837, the most significant breakthrough in early modern brewing chemistry arrived when Theodor Schwann discovered the yeast cell. Noticing under his microscope that yeast consumed sugars voraciously, often devouring all sugars in its wake, Schwann named yeast saccharomyces, Latin for “sugar fungus,” (German Beer Institute). Schwann also discovered how yeast behaved, and that it preferred anaerobic conditions for it to multiply and cause the fermentation of sugars into alcohol. Building on Schwann’s discovery, French chemist Louis Pasteur recognized how to further control and manipulate yeast during the fermentation process. Prior to these scientific discoveries, German brewers had been operating blindly. Most knew that beer did not do well in warm weather conditions, which is in fact why Bavaria eventually outlawed summer brewing (German Beer Institute). Pasteur’s development of the pasteurization process also led some industrial brewers outside of Germany to pasteurize their products for a longer shelf life, a practice frowned upon by most artisanal brewers.

Beer has become one of the common grounds between Germans from different regions, who retain distinct traditions, dialects, and identities. Because of the link between beer and German unification, eeer has become an emotional issue for Germans. As the Radeberger Gruppe puts it, “it is the drink of the man in the street, Germany’s national drinkno other product is discussed with much passion and emotion. German beer represents conviviality,” (1). Beer has social, as well as economic and political significance in modern German culture. The political significance of beer became apparent to the world in 2006, when Germany hosted the World Cup of Football (Soccer). When the announcement was made that Anheuser-Busch received the exclusive rights to serving their beer at World Cup tournaments, fans revolted. Protesters likened the American beer to “dishwater,” and designed a website mocking the Anheuser-Busch logo by making its iconic American eagle throw up (Lawton). So vehement were the protests that Anheuser-Busch was forced to relent and allow German beer giant Bitburger to serve their beers at World Cup stadiums in Germany — albeit in unmarked cups (Lawton). The protest over beer at the World Cup has great symbolic importance for Germany. Beer is so inextricably tied up with German cultural identity that it seemed untenable to have an American brewery representing the nation to the world.

The 2006 World Cup fiasco was not the first time beer rose to the level of politics in modern Germany. After the end of World War One, the Allies demanded Germany pay its war reparations, sending the nation into economic despair and widespread panic. Many Germans blamed Berlin for being too conciliatory toward the Allies, protesting the repayment of war debts. In 1923, the Nazi party organized what was essentially a coup, first storming a Munich beer hall during a meeting of prominent German business leaders. Hitler shouted to the patrons of the beer hall, “The National Revolution has begun!” (“The History Place”). Munich and the rest of Bavaria would become Hitler’s base of operations during Nazi rule, ensuring that beer halls remained frequent points of meeting and beer a part of social gatherings. Hitler and the Nazis based their political propaganda on the imaginary ideal of German ethnic unity. Beer became a potent symbol of German identity during the nation’s darkest hour.

Generations after Germany has pulled itself together from the debacle of Nazism, beer remains part of German culture, tradition, and national pride. Although Germany does not consume the most beer per capita — a title that belongs squarely to the Czechs — Germans do consume large quantities of beer. Beer consumption has also been declining considerably. In the 1970s Germans “consumed 150 liters per capita annually, but current consumption is 106 liters per capita, a 30% decline,” (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha). Drinking is normalized, commonplace, and rarely stigmatized in Germany. The legal drinking age for beer in Germany is 16, much younger than it is in the United States. Moreover, beer can be consumed in public and bought almost anywhere. “It’s not uncommon to see people drinking in parks, on the streets and even on public transport,” (“The Highs and Lows of Germany’s Drinking Culture”). Beer is also cheap in Germany, because beer is considered more of a food product than an alcoholic beverage. While Germans “accept price increases on all other goods, beer is sacred,” and the price rarely changes in a significant way (Raderberger Gruppe). Relative to the cost of living, the cost of beer in Germany is cheaper than anywhere else in Europe (“The Highs and Lows of Germany’s Drinking Culture”). Beer is considered as much a right as a privilege.

However, beer culture is changing in Germany. “More than 41 large- and 182 medium-sized breweries have closed since 2000”Berlin, which sustained some 700 breweries in the early 19th century, now counts only about a dozen firms,” (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha). There are several reasons for the decline in beer’s popularity in Germany. One is ironically related to the stranglehold the Reinheitsgebot itself had on German brewing innovation and creativity. While the law might have ensured quality control for much of German brewing history, the Reinheitsgebot prevented brewers from experimenting outside of the boundaries of their restrictive recipes. It wasn’t until May of 1987 that the European Court of Justice “struck down the Reinheitsgebot as an obstacle to free trade,” while allowing ingredients beyond the original beer brewed according to the Reinheitsgebot receive special treatment as a protected, ‘traditional food,” (Borak). By the time the law was struck down, the Reinheitsgebot had become so much a source of pride and tradition that German brewers did not expand beyond their comfort zones. While Belgium, England, and later, the United States became global producers of exciting new beer styles, Germany remained stuck in the past. This has caused younger generations to eschew beer as being perceived of as a drink for old people. As Fazel et al. put it, “the trend of microbreweries and craft beer is catching on, putting the larger producers in jeopardy.” Viewed from another angle, the emerging craft beer movement in Germany offers the beer loving nation its greatest opportunity to remain a world leader.

Another challenge to modern German beer culture is branding and reputation. Beer had long been branded as the beverage of the people in Germany. As the people’s drink, beer had a pedestrian connotation that is a source of pride for some, but a source of scorn for others. Martin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation, had disparaged the national beverage of beer by saying, “Beer is man-made, but wine comes from God,” (cited in “A little history of what Germans drink and why”). Not surprisingly, many of the regions of Germany that remained Catholic developed more robust brewing cultures than those that became Protestant. Bavaria, for example, was a Catholic stronghold, as is Franconia until this day. Cologne, which is known for its traditional and unique ale-lager hybrid Kolsch, is a Catholic city as well. In addition to it being considered a pedestrian beverage when compared with wine, the image of beer has become more associated with lowbrow vs. high culture. This is especially true of views of the Oktoberfest. “Oktoberfest is now being viewed by some as not very classy,” and many Germans have “promoted wine as a more sophisticated option”beer is perceived to be low end, compared to wine,” (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha).

German demographics are also changing, leading to shifting trends in the role beer plays in modern German society. There are a growing number of immigrants in Germany, many of whom are Turkish and not accustomed to drinking beer prolifically. Germans are also having fewer children, leading to a decline in numbers of the core beer-drinking population between the ages of 18 and 34 (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha). Young people in Germany today view beer as an old fashioned, traditional beverage and have shifted their consumer preferences. Trending now are what are known as “alco-pops,” which are pre-mixed cocktails made with low grade spirits and flavoring (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha). Although these drinks are trending now, they have to compete with millennia of brewing traditions in Germany, a nation whose national image is inseparable from beer. In spite of demographic changes in the consumers of beer, the beverage will remain integral to German national and cultural identity.

With the help of foreign beer aficionados, the traditional beer brewing traditions of Germany are likely to survive the shifting demographics and image of beer in Germany. The American craft beer movement, which has shifted somewhat to northern Europe and Scandinavia, has bolstered interest in the craft beers of Franconia and other regions of Germany. Modern brewing and the introduction of foreign beer styles such as IPAs and stouts remains in its infancy in Germany. Some German breweries are venturing out of the Reinheitsgebot mold, but the transofmration is happening slowly. However, foreign visitors to Germany and “beer tourists” travel to traditional towns and villages making beer that cannot be purchased outside of those regions and must be had on draft from local taprooms. Whereas critics of modern German beer culture cite the lack of innovation and unwillingness to expand production as being harbingers of the demise of local brewing traditions, others remain optimistic that the craft brewing trend that is expanding globally will eventually take root in one of the world’s most entrenched beer countries: Germany (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha).

Beer is ubiquitous in German daily life, but especially in German beer-brewing regions. Not all of Germany is a beer-brewing regions, and the country also boasts many regions known more for their wines. In Bavaria, Franconia, and other beer-brewing regions of Germany, beer is considered a food product. Germans in traditional towns often drink beer at breakfast, a tradition that might be “frowned upon” outside of those communities, but not considered overly strange (Fazel, Helay, Torras, and Saha). More commonly, beer is enjoyed during the afternoons or evenings. In Franconia and Bavaria, beer is typically served in its place of origin and often at the brewery itself. The same is true for other traditional brewing cultures in Germany, such as in Dusseldorf and Cologne. In nearly all German beer regions, the beverage is considered to be a point of communion with friends, family, and strangers. Germans usually opt for “vacant seats at an already occupied table to the solitude of single dining,” something that generally contradicts the otherwise reserved, serious, and staid stereotyped demeanor (German Beer Institute). In Bavaria especially, drinking songs might accompany a night of drinking with friends and singing and music is integral to the Oktoberfest and other beer festivals in Germany. Oktoberfest is one of hundreds of traditional beer festivals throughout the country. Most festivals are seasonal, coinciding with different stages of the seasonal brewing cycle during which certain styles of beer are brewed and released at specific times of the year. The celebration of beer commemorates not only the beverage itself, but also millennia of tradition, culture, and identity.

Works Cited

“A little history of what Germans drink and why.” DW. Retrieved online: http://www.dw.de/a-little-history-of-what-germans-drink-and-why/a-16880477

Borak, Mark. “Beer in Bohemia and Bavaria.” Retrieved online: https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/his452/Alcohol/BeerPage/Beerpage1.html

Fazel, Helay, Flaquer, Xavier Torras, and Venkatesh Saha. “Is the End of the German Beer Industry Near?” Wharton: Management. Jan 02, 2013. Retrieved online: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/is-the-end-of-the-german-beer-industry-near/

German Beer Institute. “Three Millennia of German Brewing.” 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.germanbeerinstitute.com/history.html

“The Highs and Lows of Germany’s Drinking Culture.” DW. Retrieved online: http://www.dw.de/the-highs-and-lows-of-germanys-drinking-culture/a-2226609

“The History Place.” Retrieved online: http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/putsch.htm

Lawton, Christopher. “Ditching the ‘Dishwater’: Eastern German Beer Scores with World Cup Sponsorship.” Spiegel Online. Retrieved online: http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/ditching-the-dishwater-eastern-german-beer-scores-with-world-cup-sponsorship-a-657877.html

Radeberger Gruppe. “German Beer Culture.” Retrieved online: http://www.radeberger-gruppe.de/files/downloads/deutsche-bierkultur-eng.pdf

Imperialisms and Orientalism in Saudi Arabia history assignment help online: history assignment help online

Western Imperialisim and Orientalsim in Saudi Arabia

Is Western Imperialism more prevailing than Orientalism in Saudi Arabia?

From ancient times in Saudi Arabia and other regions of the globe, civilization has seen the rise and fall of Empires. This spectrum of Empires in relation to Saudi Arabia concentrates on royal families. The government of this country has been under the rule of the monarch family for a long time. Their rule, therefore, has influenced the political layout of the country, social process in the state and countries cultural aspects (Chua 1- 16). Over the years, western imperialism has influenced opinions and strategies. This transformation has been the result of the country’s political class entering into various contacts. Contacts with the outside populations have then led to the development of new cultures, economic transformation and local cultures (Chadha and Kavoori 3-17). Although, western imperialism has not taken place largely in the Middle East, nations, for example, Saudi Arabia depicts high cases of Western imperialism compared to other countries. This is due to their relationship with western countries like the U.S.A.

Through several studies, it comes out that western countries have had an influence on various aspects of the Middle Eastern populations. There has been growing drift to the western economy in terms of Saudi Arabia policies. The reasons for these drift relates to the development of bilateral and other agreements with foreign nations. Previous regimes in the Middle East had the ability to govern their subjects using varied schemes. These regimes had developed policies, imposed culture, and ways of life to its people (Ang 12-17). However, current economic situations in the Middle East and political climates have made the Saudi government seek for funds from western countries. The country has seen the need to have funds to cater for military strategies and other national tasks. Such interaction with western countries has been responsible for a shift in cultural, political, and social influences in the country.

Saudi government and other countries in the Middle East have to seek for financial help from foreign western countries. These funds ensure that the government’s have military hardware to fight terrorism, fund healthcare, education and infrastructure. Therefore, one can argue that western imperialism prevails local Orientalism in these states. This study explains why Western Imperialism prevails more than Orientalism in Saudi Arabia. Consequently, it tries to elucidate the influence of Western imperialism in Saudi Arabia. In order for governments in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia included to overcome their thirst for power, market for oil and other influences, there have been agreements with western countries (Chan 3-9). One Particular important country for propagating western imperialism in the country is the United States of America.

Comparison of Western Imperialism and Orientalism

Western imperialism has an influence on Saudi Arabia. Its influence is probably higher as compared to other countries, but Orientalism is prevailing more. The United States of America has had long-standing agreements with the Saudi governments. These interactions have had an influence on the economic state of the country, culture, and politics. With such contacts in the Middle East, the United States has had an influence on Saudi Arabia’s political and economic spectrum. Perhaps, the United States has had long control of the world economy (Thomas 13). The country has been able to fulfill this aspect on the globe using the American English as a global business language; the U.S.A. dollar further has been dominating in the market (Keane 4-12). It is also imperative to note that United States cultures have been propagated to masses using social media, T.V shows, music, and other artistic medium. Over the years, Orientalism has been a framework that rationalized colonialism. Through such influence, one comes to the realization that Western colonial masters to justify dominations used Oreintalism. This phenomenon has not changed in the present climate, but majority of citizens in Saudi Arabia hold to Orientalism.

Case study:

Use of Cartoons

In the course, development of society in the Middle East media press has played an important role in the transmission of information. Members of the press have been able to utilize diverse platforms in disseminating political, economical, and other social information. However, it is not simple for one to quantify media’s influence on the population; the point remains that it has had its influence on the people of Saudi Arabia. From Iraq Africa and all over the globe media practitioners have been able to demonstrate that their tasks are of great importance (Thussu 1-5). One of such medium of transmission is the use of cartoons to depict political emotions and other societal context. Artists, as well as media practitioners presently fuse visual images with the world in newspapers and other articles. Such sources provide a reader diverse perspectives on the subject.

Cartoons as a medium of communication in Saudi Arabia provide different aspects in relation to western imperialism and Orienatalism. Cartoons as a medium of communication however, have unique qualities. Cartoons require one to use their intellectual abilities to grasp certain aspects of its literary and visualization. Therefore, in relation to cartoons of Orientalism, one needs to have the ability to understand cultural aspects depicted on its background and the intended information. Cartoons have been used in the Middle East to satirize corrupt politicians, provide religious information and other information. Further cartoons are responsible for propagating cultural information and trends. In order to promote Orientalism artists integrate local and national languages

In Saudi Arabia as well as other Middle Eastern countries, cartoon as a media use aggression. These artists more than often exaggerate local images and icons to satirize the political class. However, while designing some of these cartoons artists need to use particular international standards of designing. This is where Western imperialism comes into play. The influence of Western Imperialism on these cartoon designs ensures international affairs information reach publics. Sometimes messages conveyed in such media relate to the intellectual, which might manipulate ones conscience largely. Therefore, cartoons have the ability to openly display revolution, communicate culture, religion, and resistance.

Focus on Saudi Arabia Politics

Presstv.ir

Desertpeace.com

Cartoons tell a thousand stories so they say. According to the first cartoon, one clearly gets the interpretation of the culture of men dressing. The man depicted is dressed according to Saudi’s style of men dressing. A closer look at the cartoon shows the man probably a politician pouring poison from a watering can on drying plants in the desert. According to this cartoon, one would probably relate to a politician using poor strategies in tackling the problem. Further, the cartoon uses local language in communication. The artist of this cartoon tries to relay information to the Orientalism of Saudi Arabia. Take note that the artist uses Arabic in communication.

The second cartoon is probably the most hilarious. This cartoon tells a story on the Syrian. The artist expresses the information observing Western imperialism influences. In the cartoon, the artist depicts president Obama wearing a military uniform swinging a sword while pronouncing “Syria.” UN’S secretary general is seen crawling while the leader of the gulf hangs and Obama rides on him like a horse. Mr., Moon is depicted in this cartoon as having no power on the Syrian war other than depending on United States of America for guidance. While interpreting this cartoon one will realize that the artist provides varied angles war in Syria. The artist communicates to the reader how Saudi Arabia relate to the United States of America. By the Saudi Arabian leader-calming president Obama, one gets the picture that these nations are close foes.

What are the cultural influences of western imperialism and Orientalism?

Western imperialism an Orientalism has an influence on the culture of the people of Saudi Arabia. These systems of representation to the population have diverse cultural influences. These systems are unique to the country in that the political system differs greatly to the cultural system. The political system represents the views of the political class in the country while cultural perspectives relates to the way of life. For centuries, people of Saudi Arabia have been under the rule of Monarch. The influence of this political class, therefore, cuts across almost all spectrums. Most of the cultural representations of the country follow Islamic principles. However, growth in technology as well as media platform has had an impact on this exclusive Muslim tradition.

According to Wang (10-13), Western Imperialism has been able to transcend through mobile phone platforms, Television, radio and the internet. It has become evident that most youths in these Asian countries have had their interests focused on western philosophy and culture. The present Saudi Arabia respects freedoms of every citizen. These freedoms relate to culture, religion, and level of association in the society (Carruthers 25). In these respect, one understands the important of media in influencing culture and traditions. Scholars and religious leaders in the country, however, argue that freedom of media houses and platforms have led to collapse of traditional Arabic culture. These scholars are in the opinion that western imperialism infects citizens with bad cultures. Other scholars further argue that western imperialism is responsible for transmitting modern colonial agendas (Baber 21)

Globalization influences on western imperialism and Orientalism in Saudi Arabia

Globalization is perhaps the most important aspect in transforming modern cultures and political environments. During the medieval times, ancient Persia rulers concentrated on governing subjects based on Muslim traditions. However, globalization, which began with the industrial revolution, brought various perspectives to cultures and politics in the Middle East. Western imperialism, on the other hand, began taking root during colonialism (Clammer 36). It was during these periods that citizens in the Middle East began fusing western principles to their traditions. Nevertheless, what would shock the world came because of globalization. Globalization influences led to the movement of people, consumer goods, and information.

It is, therefore, prudent to state that globalization have had an influence on peoples cultures and personal perspectives about life. In Saudi Arabia, individuals can express their views on politics, individuals may use media platforms to understand global events and in communicating with the political class. Global media platforms on the other hand, propagate imperialism ideologies. In respect to these phenomena, global media players have been responsible in marketing global goods and services (White 7). Populations in Saudi Arabia are now able to access information faster using social media platforms, purchase products using the internet (Darling-Wolf 17-22). This influence of western media on Saudi Arabia has had a tremendous influence on the consumption pattern of the people.

On the other hand, these media platforms have had an important influence of lifestyles. In response to the influence of western media, it is evident that youths in the country copy western cultures. Most of these youths use social media platforms and the internet to communicate globally. Therefore, in response to the question, if western Imperialism prevails more than Orientalism, globalization has promoted movement of individuals, information, and interaction. In Saudi Arabia, globalization has propagated western imperialism mostly among youthful generations. The older generations still hold on to Orientalism and disgust western influences.

Media as drivers for Social change in Saudi Arabia

Previous kingdoms in Saudi Arabia believed in buying media personalities for personal gains. These regimes kept citizens on the dark about various aspects of the economy, agreements, and government’s activities. In cases where media houses had preview information on corrupt deals and other negative influences, kingdoms officials either intimidated their journalists or paid them. During a period of Saddam’s reign, a case is given where Riyadh kept its citizens on the dark about Kuwait’s raid in 1991. The regime, however, came to learn that most of its citizens had preview information through the CNN (Butcher 6-9). This perhaps was a wakeup call for the kingdom making it transform its media strategy. Their strategy meant that they had to open new media houses all over the globe, used funds to influence minds. As part of their strategy, Saudi governments use other platforms in transmitting information. The government has invested on films, poetry, and drama to counter western imperialism influences (Fung 2-6). These strategies have seen the kingdom maintain some of its ideologies. According to IIE (7) through such films, the government has been able to keep traditions and transmit information contrary to Western imperialism ideologies.

Conclusion

Western imperialism relates to the cultural influence of western nations on other countries. These influences began at the period where western states had colonies. To date, such influences still exist only transformed to fit current needs. Orientalism, on the other hand, relates to traditional Arabic ideologies of the people of Middle East. A study on Saudi Arabia reveals how western imperialism had had an influence on the traditional Orientalism. Globalization, technological growth, and social advancement meant that traditional Orientalism principles might disappear. Media platforms, social media, and mobile seem to be driving forces to western imperialism ideologies in the Middle East (Wang 10-13).

Works cited

Ang, Ian. ‘Desperately Guarding Borders: Media Globalization, Cultural Imperialism and the Rise of Asia’, in Y. Souchou (ed) House of Glass: Culture, Modernity and the State in Southeast Asia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.2001.Print

Baber, Zander. CyberAsia: The Internet and Society in Asia, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers.2005.Print

Butcher’. Transnational Television, Cultural Identity and Change: When STAR Came to India, New Delhi: Sage.2003.Print.

Carruthers, Anderson. ‘Cute Logics of the Multicultural and the Consumption of the Vietnamese Exotic in Japan’, Positions, 12.2 (2004): 401-29.Print.

Chadha and Kavoori. ‘Media Imperialism Revisited: Some Findings from the Asian Case’, Media, Culture & Society, 22.4 (2000): 415-32. Print.

Chan, John. ‘Global Media and the Dialectics of the Global’, Global Media and Communication, 1.1 (2005): 24-28.Print

Chua. Consumption in Asia: Lifestyles and Identities, London: Routledge.2000.Print.

Clammer. ‘Globalization, Class, Consumption and Civil Society in Southeast Asian Cities’, Urban Studies, 40.2 (2003): 403-19. Print

Darling-Wolf. ‘Virtually Multicultural: Trans-Asian Identity and Gender in an International Fan Community of a Japanese Star’, New Media & Society, 6.4 (2004): 507-28. Print

Fung. ‘Think Globally, Act Locally: China’s Rendezvous with MTV’, Global Media and Communication, 2.1 (2006): 71-88. Print.

IIE.Open Doors Report on International Educational Exchange. 2007.http://www.iie.org

Keane, Simons. ‘Once Were Peripheral: Creating Media Capacity in East Asia’, Media, Culture & Society, 28.6 (2006): 835-55. Print.

Thussu. Media on the Move: Global Flow and Contra-flow, London: Routledge.2007.Print.

Wang. ‘Youth Culture, Music, and Cell Phone Branding in China’, Global Media and Communication, 1.2 (2005): 185-201. Print.

White, Joe. Global Media: The Television Revolution in Asia. London: Routledge.2005.Print

Thomas, Andrew. Imagi-nations and Borderless Television: Media Culture and Politics Across Asia, New Delhi: Sage. 2005.Print.

Local Participation in Tourism Development history assignment help is it legit

Local Participation in Tourism Development in Bung Kan Province

The tourism industry is an important element of economic development sector around the world, especially in many developing countries that possess natural resources that are amenable to tourism development. The experiences to date show that besides major metropolitan areas, people living in rural areas of developing countries can also gain benefits from the tourism. These outcomes indicate that around the world, tourism frequently plays a vital role in terms of helping to decrease poverty levels and boost communities’ economic development (Hong-Long and Kayat, 2011). Not surprisingly, then, tourism has been advocated for economic development purposes for emerging nations in an increasing number of instances in recent years (Hong-Long and Kayat, 2011).

Developing countries can drive their economic growth by attracting tourists to their various destinations for business or pleasure using any of the many tourism niche approaches available today, including sports (Lindberg, 1991), eco- (Cater, 1993), cultural, heritage, cultural-heritage, or so-called enclave tourism models (Hirsch and Warren, 1999). Irrespective of which model is used, properly implemented and administered, these models can promote increased tourism levels in ways that can help developing nations gain economic benefits and drive economic growth from tourism-generated revenues. For instance, tourists are able to pay for the local foods, accommodation, transportation and so forth; this can be said that tourism sector is the source of large scale economic and is the helpful tool to drive the economic development of the country (Auger, 2011). In addition to the important of tourism sector, tourism sector can also have a positive effect on sociocultural, and environmental outcomes (Yoon, Gursoy, & Chen, 2001). For instance, locals can share their unique cultural practices with tourists and so forth. As tourists travel to the particular destination, a good management and long-term sustainable in tourism sector in particular destination is also important as it can make people visit more and revisit the destination again (Shani, Rivera and Hara, 2009). Therefore, Bung Kan province, located in northeast of Thailand and is the newest province as Thai cabinet just upgraded it as 77th province of Thailand in August, 3 2010 (Bangkokbiznews, 2010). The key to success in applying any of these tourism models, though, is the need to do so in ways that are sustainable, a term that means far more than just ensuring that the resources exist in the future, but rather increasingly includes active stakeholder participation in the process.

Therefore, the opportunity currently exists to facilitate the development of a sustainable tourism industry in Bung Kan Province by preserving natural resources while simultaneously creating tourism attractions that can provide long-term sustainable tourism growth, providing that local residents are afforded a voice in the process. Despite this need, time is of the essence in pursuing these developmental initiatives because there is a great deal of competition for international tourists in Thailand. Current statistics indicate that a growing number of international tourists to Thailand originate in the European Union and these consumers pay a great deal of attention to issues such as sustainable tourism destinations that demonstrate responsible social and environmental practices (Sriburi, 2007), Likewise, in terms of destinations, the 1995 Korean Tourism Annual Report indicated that Japan (26.2 per cent) was the most popular destination, followed by the United States of America (17.2 per cent), China (10.6 per cent), Thailand (8.0 per cent) (Pearce and Butler, 1999). .Therefore, the opportunity exists to promote Bung Kan Province as an international tourism destination in ways that can provide long-term sustainable tourism growth by ensuring local residents are afforded the opportunity to actively participate in the developmental process from the outset.

Political Background to Provincial Initiative

Bung Kan Province contains the Nong Khai district in northeast of Thailand. It is believed that the Nong Khai district has potential in tourism sector for driving the province. As the northern area of Nong khai is located near the Mekong River and close to the border of Thailand and Laos, it is advantageous for the Nong Khai district to promote international trade and investment. In addition, Nong Khai can be said that it is the busiest border crossing point to Laos as they had been established and constructed the bridge between Thai-Laos called “First Thai-Laos Friendship Bridge” in 1994 (Siakit, 2009).

The bridge links between Nong Khai, Thailand and Vientiane, Laos and has a road link between these two countries. There is also daily rail service from Nong Khai to Vientiane. Therefore, it is easy to gain many visitors and has the opportunity in tourism sector to gain many benefits from it. Since, Bung Kan district had separated from Nong Khai province and became province itself, it came into the researcher’s thought that Bung Kan province would still has potential for itself to develop tourism sector.

According to Sompong (2011), the vision of Bung Kan Province is to develop the region as a sustainable tourist destination as it is located in northernmost and has nice weather, nice food, and many natural attraction places. It can be seen in this point that Bung Kan Province is ready to develop its tourism sector; however, it is clear that the success of tourism development in Bung Kan Province depends on many factors. The essential part for tourism sector in particular place to be tourist destination is to have a long-term sustainable tourism in a particular place. By having a sustainable tourism in place, there are some vital keys to lead to a sustainable tourism development. It leads to a good management of resource (Patrascu and Ciange, 2010), maintain ecological process and provide fairness and opportunity to local population (Hall and Lew, 1998). However, the main and very vital tool to have a successful sustainable tourism development is the local involvement as local people play an essential role in term of successful tourism planning (Marzuki, 2008). Therefore, this research is considered the local involvement in sustainable tourism development in Bung Kan province.

Research aim

The overarching research aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the opportunities for and practice of local participation toward sustainable tourism development in Bung Kan Province.

Objectives

In support of the above-stated aim, the study will be guided by a number of objectives as follows:

1. To investigate the understanding of local people toward the role of tourism industry in Bung Kan province.

2. To identify the needs of local participation in tourism development of Bung Kan province.

3. To explore the positive and negative impact of tourism development regarding the local perception.

Research Questions

To achieve the above-stated research aim and objectives, the study will be guided by the following research questions:

1. What do local citizens view as their role in the tourism industry in Bung Kan Province, Thailand?

2. Do the locals need to participate in the development of tourism in their province?

3. What are the locals’ negative or positive perceptions toward tourism development in their province?

To achieve the above-stated research aim and objectives and to formulate timely and informed answers to these research questions, the study will use a triangulated methodology consisting of a review of the relevant literature, a case study of an eco-tourism development initiative in northern Thailand as well as similarly situated regions, and a survey of local residents in the Nong Khai district of Bung Kan Province, Thailand newest province. A triangulated research approach can help promote the trustworthiness of the findings that result (Owen and Demb, 2004), and each component of the research approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) and other social researchers concerning the need to review the relevant literature (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2001; Thomas, 2004; Wood and Ellis, 2003; Gratton and Jones, 2003; Silverman, 2005) and the usefulness of including case studies in a study to gain insights and make connections that might otherwise go undiscerned (Zikmund, 2000; Leedy, 1997; Burton and Steane, 2004; Feagin, Orum and Sjoberg, 1991).

Literature Review

Sustainable Tourism Development

Sustainable tourism development can be defined in several ways. One definition is the development that can meet the need of the present visitors but also maintain and enhance the opportunity for future generations and their needs (Delisle, 2007). Other definitions of sustainable development typically describe the use, preservation and protection of existing resources along a continuum that places higher priorities on existing needs compared to future needs depending on the unique circumstances that are involved (Mehmetoglu, 2008).

Because the principles of sustainable development include environmental, economic, and social factors, the definition of sustainable development as it applies to a given destination also needs to address issues such as the management of all resources in economic, social and aesthetic needs and also protect the cultural unity, ecological process, biological diversity and life systems (Mehmetoglu, 2008). Furthermore, the definition of sustainable development should include a description concerning how the process can improve the quality of life in local communities and provide new experiences to tourists, all the while protecting the quality of the environment in which they exist (Ruhanen, 2010). Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).

Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:

1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, “tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which have to be gauged within the wider process of economic development and social change” (p. 105).

2. Environmental: The environmental principle refers to nature places, wildlife, energy, pollution, water and so forth (Rain Forest Alliance, 2007). All of these need to be taken into account in order to maintain and enhance the resources for future generations.

3. Social. This principle means to respect the local traditions and communities in particular place (Chapman, 2007). Achieving authentic sustainability, though, depends on many factors. It is believed that to achieve the sustainable is responsible for all stakeholders. The influence of stakeholders can help sustainability in the quality of the environment (Bramwell and Lane, 2003).

Stakeholders in sustainable tourism development are comprised of residents (local), management (state), government (federal), non-governmental organization, employees, industry involvement and tourists. To be successful in sustainable (equally concerned of economic, environment and social), a different of stakeholder positions and views, need to be concerned. For tourism planning in development, the participation of all stakeholders are essential of public contribution in the decision making process and benefits of tourism development. In sum, stakeholder participations appears to be a critical component of sustainable tourism (Green, 1995; Leslie, 1993; Murphy, 1988).

National governments and international organizations such as the World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), the Eco-tourism Society, the Domestic Technology Institute, the European Union (EU), the Business Council for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) have all actively supported wise-use, market-driven, integrated, sustainable development principles and programs (Hirsch and Warren, 1999). To date, these and other organizations have actively promoted the so-called “greening of development practices” within the global tourism industry that specifically encourage local participation (Hirsch and Warren, 1999) and these issues are discussed further below.

The Need for Local Participation in Sustainable Development Initiatives

Local participation in sustainable development initiatives has been important key in tourism industry in developing countries for more than 30 years (Li, 2006). The research to date indicates that in order to gain benefits and achieve a competitive advantage in many emerging nations, it is essential to include local communities in the developmental process. It is also believed that it will be benefits if local participate in decision making process. Local participation can be supporter in sustainable development (Van Rooyen, 2004). Conversely, a lack of local support can doom even the most well-designed and funded tourism development initiatives (Hirsch and Warren, 1999).

The participation of local people in particular destination is therefore the main key to developing sustainable tourism offerings. It is said that local involvement is the road in development of sustainable tourism as the involvement of community plays a key role in long-term standing and can generate the quality of community’s life (Putnam, 2000). In addition to the Community involvement is the road in sustainable development, it is the process in decision making which enables local to be part of development. It results in supporting local culture, tradition and local knowledge, skill and so on (Lacy et al., 2002). The important issue is that it provides a framework in which the solution of community problems can be pursued (Lasker et al., 2001). In addition, this framework can help reduce the negative impacts while maximizing the positive impacts (Lasker et al., 2001). It can create good and new opportunities for local people and in this way, local people will benefit from tourism development (Lasker et al., 2001). Moreover, a benefit in this point is not mean only about revenue, income or financial but also mean the benefit in the skills development, creating confidence, trust and becoming the owner of businesses (Tosun, 2000). Participation in decision making processes in tourism development can therefore help the Bung Kan Province tourism sector become truly sustainable.

Figure 1: Source: Timothy (1999, p. 372).

According to Timothy’s model in Figure 1 above, full participation in tourism development requires involvement by all of the stakeholders. It is seen here that local people or residents in particular area should have participated in the decision making process in tourism development planning to gain benefits from it. When considering about local participation, in other word community participation in term of tourism, many studies has used “means” and “ends” approach. To define “means,” it regards as the process of participation or in the position of empower community to involvement. To define “ends,” it regards as the level of participation. In addition to the process of participation in tourism development, the consideration is not only dependent on the political, social and economic sectors, but must also take into account the impact from the perspective of local residents. In this point, it refers to personal interest, personal knowledge, personal confidence, resources, education, awareness and time (Reid 2003; Cole 2006; Addison 1996).

Based on these considerations, it is reasonable to conclude that the participation in tourism development planning needs not only power but also personal factors. Therefore, it links to three main types which are motivation, opportunity and ability; these three main are factors that result in participation behavior.

Figure 2: Ladder of Community Influence

Source: Swarbrooke, 1999 p.126

As can be seen from Figure 2 above, the level of community participation exists along a continuum that extends along a series of steps that are required for greater participation. The ladder helps to understand the level and step of community participation in tourism development. It can be seen from the figure that community participation develops from a lower end to great empowerment at upper end. It is seen that in the upper end, the community has a power to have resource control and has a decision making according to community interests.

Impact of Tourism

Many researchers have investigated the impact of tourism by studying locals’ perception toward the impact of tourism development. The research to date indicates that tourism can result in both positive and negative outcomes (Lankford & Howard, 1994). As the main point for sustainable tourism development is local support, therefore, the positive perception or attitude of local communities toward tourism is very essential for visitors. It is approved that to have a successful in sustainable tourism development and planning, local communities need to understand the impacts of tourism sector (Andriotis, 2005; Yoon et al., 2001).

There are several positive and negative impacts that are directly and indirectly related to tourism (King, 2008). According to Kreag (2001), the impacts of tourism can be categorized into seven types which are economic, community attitude, social and culture, environmental, services, crowding and congestion and taxes. While, accordingly to Archer and Cooper (1994) stated that the impacts of tourism can be categorized into five sectors which are economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental and ecological effects. Other researcher shows that there are only two impacts of tourism which can be categorized into only socioeconomic impacts and environmental impacts (Inskeep, 1991). Therefore, it can be concluded here that impacts of tourism result in economic, sociocultural, and environmental (Yoon, Gursoy, & Chen, 2001). Each of these impacts can affect different groups in varying ways; for example, some communities may be affected by environmental issues while others may be more affected by the economic impact, with the latter appearing to predominate for the reasons discussed further below.

The corporate sector in tourism as in all industries seeks investments that yield the best opportunities for expansion and profit maximization. This inclines the industry towards promotion of luxury consumption for the cash-rich and privileged, or a mass market of middle-class tourists who are encouraged by the industry to develop similar tastes that can be satisfied through a standardized ‘package’. The result is a capital-intensive pattern of tourism development, which has the same tendency as extractive industries to expand to the limit the use of all available ‘resources’ in its search for profits (Hirsch & Warren, 1999, p. 265).

Fueled in large part by the demand to maximize profits, growth in the tourism industry has been characterized by a tendency towards more and larger accommodation centres and transport facilities, and an ever-increasing demand for new attractions. Nature and culture are vulnerable commodities in the search for unique sources of comparative advantage. ‘Nature’ and ‘culture’ are marketed as new products for tourist consumption without regard for intrinsic worth or value context. Habitats of hill tribes such as settlements of the Akka and Karen are converted to tourist centres, and people ‘exhibited’ as attractive showpieces. Wildlife too becomes victim to the price tag on its rarity (Hirsch & Warren, 1999, p. 265). Indeed, although Thailand has been very successful in attracting tourists and developing the industry, the progress to date has exacted significant social and economic costs. These costs have been incurred partly because of the lack of an effective control system (Elliott, 1997). Tourism implementation, especially development, demands an effective, active and experienced ministry-level agency that possesses the power needed to effect change where needed and protect local citizens who may be vulnerable to exploitation. In this regard, Elliott (1999) emphasizes that in Thailand, while the Tourism Authority of Thailand has the needed experience and expertise, the organization has largely been ineffective in development control because it has lacked the requisite power.

From this perspective, local citizens in the newest Thai province are faced with a wide range of opportunities as well as corresponding threats, including diversion or destruction of the resources upon which they depend, loss of cultural identity and consequent economic and cultural dependence within a background of political change that may or may not provide the support required for sustained development of the country’s tourism industry (Elliott, 1997). In this regard, Hirsch and Warren report that, “The constant uprooting and relocation of communities by tourism sector interests and associated corporate projects exacerbate rural indebtedness and landlessness. Skilled labour and custom-produced luxury foods are imported, marginalizing local products and leaving local people unemployed” (p. 265).

Moreover, the economic and social problems that have taken place as a direct result of this type of poorly administered development model remain understudied and salient, thereby detracting from Thailand’s ability to develop its full economic and social potential. According to Hirsch and Warren, “Such strategies induce structural dependence on technology, finance and marketing through transnational corporate control of the local industry, with negative impacts on the very cultural integrity and natural resource base upon which the comparative advantage of the region in the tourism industry depends” (1999, p. 265). Therefore, there is a need to identify the perspective of local communities concerning their understanding of the respective impacts of tourism development and to find out whether they have positive or negative attitudes toward tourism in the Bung Kan province and these issues are described further below.

Study Area

As noted above, the Bung Kan district recently separated from Nong Khai province and became province itself, it came into the researcher’s thought that Bung Kan province would still has potential for itself to develop tourism sector (see political maps in Figure __ and __ below).

Figures 1 and 2. Political Maps of Thailand (Figure 2 on right highlights Bung Kan Province)

Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/81/Thailand_ Bueng_Kan_locator_map.svg/220px-Thailand_Bueng_Kan_locator_map.svg.png

The Bung Kan Province is further subdivided into eight districts, or “Amphoe” and these districts are further subdivided into 54 subdistricts or “tambon” (singular and plural) as well as 599 villages or “muban”; the districts are as follows:

1. Mueang Bueng Kan

2. Phon Charoen

3. So Phisai

4. Seka

5. Pak Khat

6. Bueng Khong Long

7. Si Wilai

8. Bung Khla

This northern Thai enclave of eight districts also contains a number of existing tourist attractions that could serve as the basis for sustainable developmental initiatives and these destinations are described further below.

Tourist attractions

The Bung Kan provincial region features a number of nature or eco-tourism destinations, including the following:

1. Wat Phu Tok, a temple on Phu Tok, a rocky sandstone outcrop which is now the symbol of the province.

2. Bung Khong Long, an emblematic lake located south of the town which is a breeding ground for aquatic birds.

3. Phu Wua Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected natural area with forests and waterfalls.

4. Nam Tok Tat Kinari, a waterfall with pools of clear water

The locally developed vision for Bung Kan province is that it will be a “suitable tourist destination as it is located in northernmost and has nice weather, nice food, and many natural attractions such as waterfalls” (see Figure 3 and 4 below) (Sompong, 2011, p. 3).

Figures 3 and 4. Waterfalls in Bung Kan Province

As the newest Thai province (the Thai cabinet upgraded it as the country’s 77th province on August, 3 2010 (Bangkokbiznews, 2010), this is an important event for the tourism industry in the province because the elevation to provincial status authorizes the election of a senator to the bicameral Thai National Assembly (Thai government, 2012). This means that local citizens in Bung Kan will have a direct voice to the national government that was not available in the past, an issue that directly relates to the enhanced decision-making roles for local citizens as a guiding principle of sustainable development. Not surprisingly, the overwhelming majority of Bung Kan citizens support the initiative. For instance, according to a report from the Pattaya Daily News concerning the event, “The residents of Bung Kan are very pleased and proud to gain this provincial status for their hometown. About 98% of Bung Kan residents said that they support the government’s decision” (2012, p. 1).

The local citizens in Bung Kan Province clearly recognize that the elevation of the region to provincial status carries significant benefits for them. For example, the article goes on to note that, “In becoming a province means that the residents will have more power to express their opinions in matters relating to development of their districts and neighbourhoods” (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011, p. 2). In addition, prior to the upgrading, local Bung Kan residents had to travel long distances to reach the services that were previously provided by the Nong Khai provincial offices; however, following the elevation of the Bung Kan region to provincial status, the local citizenry will now enjoy governmental services in closer proximity because the province has established government offices including a court and post office, water and electricity offices (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011).

Besides the rubber plantations that are ubiquitous in the region, Bung Kan also has a number of tourism destinations that can promote the region as a destination of choice. For example, Wat Phu Tok (“mountain temple”), is described as “a remarkable place for a man’s spiritual enlightenment. Wooden stairs and ladders encircling the seven levels of the temple symbolize the seven traditional steps towards enlightenment. The higher levels provide an overview of the Isan plains while the seventh level is the top of the rocky outcrop” (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011, p. 3).

Other current tourist attractions include Wat Ahong Silawat, meaning “Navel of the Mekong,” which is situated on the banks of Mekong River (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011). The temple has been renovated and currently offers essential services for monks and visitors alike (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011). According to empirical observations and historical reports from a recent visitor to the site:

This temple enshrines the Luang Phor Yai Kuwanan, which is cast after the Phra Buddha Chinnaraj image. Luang Phor Yai Kuwanan faces Mekong River. From the temple, you can enjoy a clear view of Laos’ landscape on the other bank of the river. In front of the temple’s pier, there is a whirlpool in the Mekong River. Locals call this spot “Navel of Mekong” and this is the first place where Naga fireballs are seen. It is believed that Phraya Naga stayed overnight around here. You can look for accommodation here too, or look for options in Pak Khat district. (Northeast Region Trip 7 Pilgrimage to Sacred Pagodas – Naga Trail along Mekong River and Visit to Thailand’s Kunming Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Nong Khai, Loei and Khon Kaen 2008, pp. 1-2).

This tourist destination is highlighted in Figure __ below.

Figure __. Map showing Wat Ahong Silawat (“Wat Ahong Silawas” in graphic)

Source: Northeast Region Trip 7 Pilgrimage to Sacred Pagodas – Naga Trail along Mekong River and Visit to Thailand’s Kunming Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Nong Khai, Loei and Khon Kaen 2008, p. 2

Another currently available tourist destination is the Wat Sawang Arom that features a panoramic view of Thailand and Laos border region from its bell-shaped shrine hall. This destination is situated in a hilly area with cliffs, with stone platforms and trees; taken together, these attributes create “a peaceful environment with a small stream flowing through it” (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011, p. 3).

Besides the foregoing eco-related destinations, Bung Kan also features a number of resources that are amenable to wildlife tourism including the Phu Wua Wildlife Santuary (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011). This facility features wild animals endemic and native to Thailand including elephants, tigers, bears, gibbons and monkeys as well as numerous species of birds (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011). Furthermore, the Bung Kan Province also features numerous caves for tourists interested in modest spelunking adventures as well as “Nong Gud Thing” (a title that local residents may want to reconsider if this resource is used for tourism development), which is described as “a large swamp with a wide range of microscopic sea life” including 20 fish species that endemic to the region (e.g., these species are not found anywhere else in the world) (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province 2011, p. 3). In addition, a number of other aquatic fish, animal, and bird species are also prevalent in the region. According to the editors of the Pattaya Daily News, this may not be the last provincial designation with others planned in the near future. For instance, they note that, “Bung Kan is Thailand’s newest province but it may not be the newest for long with several other districts are also looking to gain provincial status such as Fang district in Chiang Mai province” (Bung Kan Is Thailand’s 77th Province, 2011 p. 3). Each such additional provincial designation will further dilute the senatorial voice provided by the recent elevation of the Bung Kan Province, making time of the essence for promoting developmental initiatives in this region.

Fortunately, the region is in fact well situation for such developmental activities. For instance, according to Van Esterik (2000), “Thai identity is constructed in such a way that it is easily and eagerly consumed by tourists. Thailand is an appealing tourist destination, with visitors embracing luxury tourism, so-called ‘hippy tourism,’ mass tourism, eco-tourism, and even sex tourism in varying proportions” (p. 120). Although there have been a number of drawbacks associated with tourism development on local citizens and the environment, it is also widely recognized that the tourism industry can provide a source of income for thousands of local citizens that might otherwise not have access to gainful employment. Nevertheless, Van Esterik (2000) emphasizes the need for informed development of tourism initiatives to avoid these adverse effects. For instance, Van Esterik writes:

Even the tourism industry acknowledges that tourism will destroy tourism if resources such as heritage sites, ethnic diversity, artists and artisans, and women are not managed well. Individual tourist destinations may be damaged by insufficient concern for the environment or certain locations such as hill villages overrun; but the tourist industry’s agenda is extraordinarily compatible with the government agenda with regard to national identity and public culture. (2000 p. 120)

At present, there are no enclave tourism initiatives being promoted in Thailand, with the possible exception of tours to some minority peoples’ villages in the uplands regions (Van Esterik, 2000). Rather, tourists are provided with the opportunity to directly participate in various aspects of daily Thai life instead of visiting tourist villages built on a model of these types of villages in an approach this is congruent with Thai values. According to Van Esterik, “This is partly related to the tolerance of the Thai for respectful foreigners and their willingness to allow others to pay to ‘do their own thing’” (2000 p. 121).

Therefore, although the tourism industry in much of Thailand is mature, the tourism sector in Bung Kan Province can best be characterized as being in its “discovery stage” as elucidated by Butler (1980). The model of “life cycle” for tourism area, Butler has made this model which related to tourism industry which he has made six stages in the model. However, in economic sector for tourism industry, it used “Life cycle of the tourism product” as can be seen in Figure __. Each stage can be defined in the following:

Firstly, Discovery stage, at this stage tourism starts to mark itself in a territory for the first time. The discovery stage was done by involving accessible to a minority, improvisation characteristics

Secondly, a launch stage which tourism grows very quickly. At this stage, minority practices changed by quantitative increase of demand and supply which shadowing the discontinuous growth pattern.

Thirdly, Stagnation stage which shows when saturation is reached. The combination of decreasing quality of offer, unavailable demand levels, and environmental decline of the tourist destination has become obvious and uneasiness.

Finally, a decline stage which the stagnation stage has become apparent and cleared. The problem should be taking into account to change the downward trend of the curve in the situation. In the decline stage, more mature destinations will have more solutions to choose from.

Figure __. Source Butler, 1980

Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that Bung Kan Province is in the first stage (Discovery stage) of tourism product as it just became the province itself and need to develop tourism sector. In the early stage, it is important to ensure the future sustainability in tourism as it usually is the process of discovery which needs the involvement. As in the early stage, there are few tourists’ activities, few transportation provided, poor facilities, few services and so forth (Butler, 1980). These are needed the further developed which above all these; community involvement is essential for developing the sustainable tourism and these issues are discussed further below.

Current Trends in Sustainable Tourism Development in Thailand

By any international standard, the extent of the growth in tourism in Thailand has been profound. According to Hirsch and Warren, there was double-digit increases in tourism levels year to year throughout the 1990s, with Thailand receiving almost seven million international arrivals (an increase of 12.7 per cent over the previous year) in 1998 alone (Hirsch and Warren, 1999). Moreover, projections by Thai governmental agencies indicate continued increases in tourism levels for the foreseeable future (Hirsh and Warren, 1999). Further, despite some ongoing political problems in recent years, these did not substantively affect regional or national stability and tourism levels were not adversely affected (Michaud, 1999). In sum:

If the government and trade industry predictions are correct, Thailand could become one of the most sought-after destinations in the world. In addition to its substantial share of the holiday tourist market, Thailand is also fast emerging as a convention centre and business hub in Asia. Consequently, the demand for travel and tourism facilities is increasing rapidly, and many Thai business leaders are anxious to respond with new products to create and accommodate new demand. (Hirsch and Warren, 1999, p. 265)

Therefore, the question for the local residents of Bung Kan Province is what type of tourism model is best suited for sustainable development given their unique attributes and circumstances? Given the Bung Kan region’s natural attributes, a nature or eco-tourism model appears to represent a viable approach. In this regard, Hirsch and Warren (1999) point out that this model has a proven track record of success that dates back to the 1950s. According to these authorities, “The idea of ‘nature’ tourism is not new. Natural history tours attracted Western tourists in the 1950s; later, ‘discovery tours’ were marketed as products for travellers” (Hirsch and Warren, 1999, p. 265). The definition provided by Hirsch and Warren (1999) indicates that, “Eco-tourism is purposeful travel to natural areas to understand the cultural and natural history of these habitats while maintaining the integrity of the ecosystems and providing economic opportunities that make conservation of natural resources financially beneficial to the inhabitants of the host region” (p. 265). The operative component of this definition, then, is the conservation of natural resources in ways that not only benefit local residents economically, but this conservation is done in ways that are sustainable over time. As noted above, the nature tourism model has been used in some parts of upland Thailand with modest results, but these initiatives have largely been superficial presentations of Thai cultures that are presented in neat and tidy packages designed for tourist consumption rather than being reflective of authentic Thai daily life. Nevertheless, as noted above, Bung Kan has more than its fair share of natural resources that are suitable for tourism development, especially its waterfalls and abundant wildlife. These attributes, together with the stated goals of the local tourism development authorities to promote tourism initiatives that are sustainable over time and benefit local residents economically, suggest that some type of nature-oriented approach would be most suitable for the Bung Kan Province.

Conceiving any type of tourism initiative is one thing, of course, but selling it to local residents is quite another. In fact, as also noted above, tourism development initiatives in Thailand have frequently been met with mixed responses from local residents who recognize the economic value of such enterprises but question their relevance to their own lives if these benefits do not accrue to them as well. In this regard, Hirsch and Warren (1999) emphasize that, “It is argued that eco-tourism offers the advantage of supporting local communities while protecting forests and other habitats since it provides more income than other forms of exploitation, generating employment for the local people while earning foreign exchange. But critics challenge these assertions. Investments are made by outside financiers who have no concern for local people or resources; residents simply cannot compete with or control the demands of the tourism industry, and find their way of life increasingly dominated by external forces” (p. 266). The adage that land is a good investment because “they aren’t making any more of it” is certainly applicable to nature-themed tourism development initiatives as well. For example, in some parts of Thailand, “Both wilderness and cultivable land are fast disappearing in eco-tourist areas, and families are forced to seek wage labor to survive. Tourism creates external dependence rather than appropriate development predicated on local autonomy” (Hirsch and Warren, 1999, p. 262).

Given some instances of past exploitations by unscrupulous tourism developers, some Thai residents have come to view any appropriation of their natural resources as just another scheme by outsiders to unjustly profit from these resources. According to Hirsch and Warren, “Cultural and eco-tourism, like other models of the industry, change the socio-cultural as well as the environmental landscape, despite claims of protection. “Indeed, ‘eco-tourism’ in Thailand is increasingly seen as a device for appropriating the country’s national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and other protected areas” (emphasis added) (1999, p. 262). One of the more salient of these types of tourism development projects that has been aggressively promoted by the private sector as well as Thai national travel authorities was a cable-car initiative to reach the top of Doi Suthep mountain and its beautiful Buddhist wat in Chiang Mai Province, also located in northern Thailand (see map in Figure __ above) that failed because of this perception of exploitation by local residents as well as the failure of the project developers to actively involve local residents in the project development process. Unlike Bung Kan, Chiang Mai is an a more advanced stage of tourism development and the region has become an important tourist destination in northern Thailand in recent years due in large part to the efforts of the private sector to develop existing resources for these purposes. In this regard, Pholpoke advises that, “Over the years, investors with government support have created several attractions within Chiang Mai to draw more visitors and bring substantial profits” (2000, p. 262).

According to Pholpoke (2000), on the one hand, “Tourism has become a highly promoted development strategy throughout the world because of its potential for rapid growth and for contributing foreign exchange to national economies. It also has the image of being a ‘soft’ form of development with lesser environmental and social impacts than other types of natural resource exploitation” (p. 262). On the other hand, though, Pholpoke emphasizes that, “The expansion of tourism in Thailand, however, is increasingly perceived as posing a serious threat to the cultural and environmental resources of host communities. In fact, the sustainable exploitation of cultural resources in the tourism industry is proving as problematic as the protection of natural values” (p. 262).

Particularly noteworthy was the fact that the cable-car project developers, Four Aces Consultants, promoted the initiative in ways that suggested the local community supported the project in collaboration with the Thai governmental authorities, the harsh reality was that local residents were largely excluded from the development process altogether (Pholpoke, 2000). Among the more egregious failures was the fact that Buddhist monks were not consulted nor surveyed concerning their views of the cable-car project even though it directly affected their wat (Taylor, 1997) and the region was noted by its biodiversity (Elliott et al., 1989). In this regard, Pholpoke adds that, “From the point-of-view of the environment, Doi Suthep’s unique mountain features would be eroded with every new activity in the area. Some of the rare animals and plants which are localized in very small areas would be exterminated. And most of these still await recognition of their importance as genetic reserve or as medicinal plants” (2000, p. 262).

The case study presented by Pholpoke makes it clear, at least in hindsight, where project developers went wrong. In this regard, Pholpoke reports that, “In 1985, Four Aces, the consultants who had produced the Master Plan for Chiang Mai, submitted a proposal to the local government to erect a cable-car system between the foot of the Doi Suthep hills and the temple, covering a distance of about 3 km and requiring an investment of around 115 million baht (U.S.$4.6 million at 1985 rates)” (2000, p. 262). This initiative was a joint venture between two companies in Bangkok (the Four Aces Consultants Company and Phaibun Sombat Co. Ltd., proprietors of several real estate properties in Bangkok) with financial support from a Bangkok-based Thai Farmers’ Bank group company (Pholpoke, 2000). The cable-car initiative, though, ignored the needs of the local residents of Chiang Mai in ways that helped to doom the project. For example, Pholpoke reports that, “Some critics noted the conflict of interest involving consultants who served as planners, later as investors and businessmen, and the fact that the master plan had been silent on socio-economic issues. There are about 2,500 song thaew (pick-up vans) plying the city, providing a livelihood to about 5,000 families. With the introduction of the cable-car and more sophisticated modes of transportation, these families were threatened with job losses” (p. 262). In response, local residents mounted a grassroots campaign against the project that defeated the proposed cable-car initiative despite intensive campaigning on the part of the joint venturers and the Thai governmental tourism authorities (Pholpoke, 2000).

The failure of the cable-car project in Chiang Mai provides some valuable lessons learned for tourism developers in Bung Kan Province who are in the formative stages in this sector. Whatever tourism model is used, it is clearly vitally important to actively involve the local citizenry in the developmental process to avoid unexpected adverse consequences that might not be readily apparent to developers otherwise. Therefore, surveying the local residents of Nong Khai district in northeast of Thailand represents an essential first step in achieving sustainable development of tourism in this newest Thai province.

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