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Reasonable Balance Proportionality Between The Benefits And Costs Of Private Ownership Of Guns History Essay Help


Software process improvement(SPI) history essay help: history essay help

Software Process Improvement


Software process improvement(SPI) gets defined as a method that is composed of a sequence of techniques, tasks, and tools to implement and plan activities for improvement to achieve goals like cost reduction and high quality of products as well as increase the speed of development. SPI gets made up of four steps that are cyclic that entail several aspects including evaluation of the current situation, planning of improvement, and implementation of the improvement and eventually the evaluation process of the improvement (Norimatsu et al., 2018). SPI can get considered as a project for change management that can be used by organizations in detecting inefficiencies in their software development lifecycle and help resolve them to improve their processes.

Initiation of SPI in an Organization

An organization will have to follow the various SPI process steps in initiating it into the organization to help in the development and improvement of the company. These steps are critical in ensuring that the right techniques get used to avoiding errors that could potentially lead the organization into worse performance instead of improving it. The various steps of the process are as discussed below.

Evaluation of the current situation

            This step involves assessing the software process’s current situation by obtaining the necessary information from the stakeholders, conducting an analysis of the deliverables and artefacts and making identifications of the inefficiencies in the current software process (Norimatsu et al., 2018). The information can be elicited through conducting interviews with the stakeholders, observations and analyzing case scenarios, among other appropriate means.

Planning for improvement

            The results of the analysis of the current situation and goals for improvement get placed in categories and prioritized on the basis of what is of more importance or a matter of urgency. The priorities come with the alignment of the needs of the stakeholders, establishing how new target levels for improvement in the organization should look like.

Implementation of the improvement

            This step involves the execution of the activities that were planned in the previous step, meaning that now, the improvement gets put into practice in order to establish the outcomes desired by the organization. The improvements get spread across the organization in an iterative way to make it possible for the organization to realize the achievements from the SPI early.

Evaluation of the improvement

This step makes it possible for the organization to make comparisons of the actual change and that which gets planned in order to make decisions and allocate resources based on actual results and progress that is expected.

Importance and contribution

SPI is important within an organization because it is practical and standard clearly created for the development of software in an organization, and it makes it possible for employees to be satisfied at their job with the good quality of products that get produced and a reduction in the workload. SPI ensures consistency and improves quality through its tools, making it possible for employees to play different roles in a project. Also, SPI contributes significantly to the success of projects through the reduction of costs of projects that get done by eliminating redundancies, issues and deficiencies as well as enhancing the progress (Kuruba & Chitimalla, 2018). Another way SPI helps in project success is through its outputs that include products that are valuable, delivery of projects, meeting the goals of the organization, standards that are quality, and documentation that is professional. Another way it contributes to project success is through improving the satisfaction of customers, SPI does this by delivering projects on time and on the basis of specifications of high quality which goes a long way in improving the satisfaction of customers and improving the process of sales. For these reasons, therefore, SPI comes highly recommended or organizations that aim to optimize their performance.



Kuruba, M., & Chitimalla, P. (2018). Quantitative software process improvement program using lean methodology. In Quality, IT and Business Operations (pp. 335-346). Springer, Singapore.

Norimatsu, S., Kishi, T., & Wada, N. (2018, September). Development of “SPI Strategy Framework” and Its Application. In European Conference on Software Process Improvement (pp. 307-317). Springer, Cham.



The close relationship between the two through the change of Putney high school women’s sports ap us history essay help

Nowadays, the relationship between elite sports and mass sports has always been a hot topic. The participation rate of sport is considered to be one of the important benchmarks for the development of sport in a country; both two articles have their views on it. Jonathan Grixa and Fiona Carmichael (2011) discusses why the government should invest in elite sports by citing examples from the United Kingdom. Another article from L Misener et al (2015) referred to the ‘leveraging strategy’ to confirm the results of sport participation by comparing two medium-sized events. Both referred to the relationship between the development of elite sports events and participation in sport. The report from the Internet confirmed the close relationship between the two through the change of Putney high school women’s sports.

The two articles use different methods of argumentation to discuss the role of the government in developing the relationship between elite sports and sports participation.  Jonathan Grixa and Fiona Carmichael(2011) uses a dialectical approach to explain why the British government should give priority to elite sports. The provision of relevant policies formulated by the British Government in the early days proves that elite sports have received various support from the United Kingdom. The article also proposes and explains the ‘virtuous cycle.’ On the other hand, the article by Laura Misener et al (2015) focuses on analyzing and studying how to make good use of public resources to achieve and promote the growth of sport participation. By analyzing the relevant literature and interviewing methods to investigate how sporting events have an impact on sport participation, leveraging strategies were proposed to provide benign suggestions for future sports development-related measures.

Interestingly, neither of these articles can show evidence that elite sports and sporting events contribute to sport participation, that it is simply a social identity and that it does not quantify their relationship. The virtuous cycle is seen in Jonathan Grixa and Fiona Carmichael (2011) as the cornerstone of the British sports model. First of all, they are vigorously developing elite sports. The success of elite sports will give people a sense of collective identity that will promote grassroots participation in sports. Such popular sportspeople not only contribute to national health, but they also form a “pool.” This “pool” is going to produce the next elite. Through the excellent performance of elite athletes in the international arena, the international reputation of the government has been gained, the national image has been enhanced externally, and the national pride of the people has increased internally. This is the fundamental reason why the British government invested in elite sports.

A web report also reported the British sports model “Virtuous Cycle.” The report comes from the principal of a high school in the UK. The report mentions the direct impact of elite sports on sports participation.  Due to the outstanding performance of the England Women’s National Team in the international arena, more and more girls are joining the sport. More and more parents are also supporting their daughters in the professional training of related sports at school. The school hires professional coaches to know their training and, at the same time, plans a timetable to ensure their academic knowledge. This shows that female elite athletes not only promote sports participation but also set an excellent example for girls. Also, a “pool” was successfully created to train elites for British sports.

Laura Misener et al.’s article refers to the “trickle-down effect” of sporting events. Comparing the 2005 Pan American Junior Athletics Championships organized by local community groups and stakeholders with the 2005 Canadian Figure Skating Championships is part of the Canadian Sport Policy (2002), With the support of the industry surrounding the event. However, the event itself may have a direct impact on the results of the participation in sport, the organization’s control of the events will still have a significant impact on the results of sports participation. The government should coordinate events and cooperate with event organizers to explore demand and create opportunities for grassroots sports. Use this to leverage the development of grassroots sports participation.

However, both of these academic articles list documents, data or examples based on arguments. There are still some examples that are not sufficient to convince readers. Article Jonathan Grixa and Fiona Carmichael mention ‘There appears to be some evidence, though very difficult to quantify, of the ability of sport to bind a nation or a sporting event to change the perceptions of the host nation.’ (p 10). There are also a few examples (Brazil, Germany, South Africa, etc.). People’s views on a country are determined by factors such as history, culture, religion, the water and soil environment, and sport can only temporarily give the international community a new understanding of the country within a short period. If you want to change the image of the country through sport fundamentally, you need to work together in many ways.

I do not think that the conclusions drawn by the interview method used in Laura Misener et al.’s article are very accurate. After all, the interview was about 2005, and the record was 2011-2012. This time interval, in my opinion, is a bit long. The sports industry has developed rapidly in six or seven years. In 2005, the factors affecting sports participation may not necessarily have the same degree of influence in 2011 as in that year. However, to obtain more accurate data, a shorter period should be chosen between the publication of the article to provide more useful data support to formulate future sport development measures better.

In general, these two articles have a high reference value for the government to promote grassroots sports construction in the future further. Although there are very meaningful opinions about mid-to large-scale elite events and sporting participation, small sports events can not be ignored as well; it can promote the development of grassroots sports participation.


Jonathan Grix & Fiona Carmichael (2011): ‘Why do governments invest in elite sport? A polemic,’ International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, DOI:10.1080/19406940.2011.627358


Laura Misener, Marijke Taks, Laurence Chalip & B. Christine Green (2015) ‘The elusive “trickle-down effect” of sports events: assumptions and missed opportunities’, Managing Sport and Leisure, 20:2, 135-156


Independent School Sports 2020,’The changing face of girls’ sport,’ viewed 26 April 2020,<>



Moral development critical for all sports. do my history assignment: do my history assignment


The acceptable behaviors and proper attitudes can only be taught to children comprehending the ethical manner acceptable in society. Today, sports is considered the most famous leisure activity for youth. Through participation in organized youth games, athletes are presented with several chances for social interaction with peers and people from different cultures. As such, athletes learn values and moral norms. In the course of the games, athletes face different choices on behaviors that may increase or ruin the chances of winning being in line with the sport’s rules. Likewise, athletes use moral reasoning to make practical decisions such as fair play, sportsmanship to mention but a few. However, the sports arena does not entirely yield moral development as anti-social behaviors have been records in the sports area. As such, the adverse reactions on the field may yield consequences that limit the athletes from using sports as a wheel for moral development. The teachers, parents, and peers ought to create a favorable social environment as it significantly contributes to shaping the ethical behavior of the youth. Prior, sports activities do not necessarily build character as a few lapses may occur during games; however, moral development is critical for all sports.

Moral Development in Sports

Today, moral education is one of the significant topics in contemporary school systems. Physical education (PE) and sports stimulate human behavior, instilling values of human competence, attitudes, and talents. According to author Pennington, sports and physical education has the capability of fostering social responsibility which enhances the moral reasoning skills, improves sportsmanship, and develop pro-social behavior of the athletes. As such, schools have the opportunity to build character and improve the moral behavior of the youth. Similarly, the sports arena is a breeding environment for the athletes to master co-operation, role-playing competition, and explore the extent to which morality, character, and sportsmanship create social harmony. Also, character values may develop in the sports arena where the children learn the importance of social and moral characters such as honesty, fair play, loyalty, teamwork, and many others. As such, youth coaches and physical educators should not work under the fallacy of considering participants as professional athletes as the two do not rhythm. Despite the moral behaviors instilled into the sports academy, some may fail to reflect in some professional athletes who may not be an excellent example for the youth.  Therefore, coaches play a vital modeling role in young athletes. According to authors Bronikowska, Korcz, and Michał, coaches and PE teachers spend a considerable amount of time with sportspeople. As such, they can build self-control while developing performance proficiency and instilling performance-related knowledge into the athletes. Therefore, unprofessional coaching of athletes’ can have prolonged negative impacts on the moral behaviors of the athletes.

Additionally, a moral climate is essential for the development of values and norms into athletes. Parents, teachers, and peers need to provide a favorable atmosphere for a sportsman. The climate created can either have positive or negative consequences for the athletes’ physical and psychological well-being. In the long run, depending on the atmosphere created for a sports person, pro-social or anti-social behaviors may arise. If a pro-social climate prevails for an athlete, benefits in society are in need as a  co-operation of individuals takes place, people acquire new talents and improve skills through learning from one another.

Contrary to the anti-social acts which result to unfair play in the game, verbal abuse from fellow players; a behaviour that is morally deteriorating. Also, the moral climate should consist of athletes themselves the perception of team leads has great impact through support, and motivation. Subsequently authors Kavussamu, Smit and Utema note that the moral climate has substantial impact on the outcome of the young athletes. The authors further note that in any sports arena, athletes learn by imitation, as such, in case poor behaviour is portrayed by one of their role models, they are prone to engulf it with the thought of such behaviour being appropriate contrary to the truth.  Before that, pro-social norms like fair play are not just random ethical behaviors as it relates to the psychological and societal norms. An individual learns to be honest even outside the sports arena exhibiting great virtuous characters of equality, respect, and self-control, to mention but a few. Besides, the sports arena also teaches the purpose of moral reasoning into the athletes. Before, people believed that morality originates from home; however, such theories have been proved wrong through the outstanding behaviors portrayed by athletes. Coaches play a vital role as young sportsmen consider them role models. For example, an athlete may face a tough choice of using drugs to enhance performance or maybmay becked into intentionally hurting the opponents to win the game when the chance arises. However, engagement of moral reasoning sessions with coaches and fellow team members, the athlete is bound to reject such harmful behavior as it creates a bad image, enmity in the long run leading to psychological torture. Therefore, in sports, the perception of moral values initiates from the social conscience inspired by society norms, ideology. Performance climaxes the significant values in sports acquired from points, qualifications of higher competition levels, and international recognition. Olimpism is a substantial value in sports involving solidarity, respect, generosity, tolerance, and friendship. As such, when olimpism is in practice, athletes are bound to develop moral behaviors in the long run.

Sports and Character Development

Worldwide, sport is a major part of all cultures and societies with participants ranging from all ages. Although people partake sports for several reasons such as fitness, relaxation, stress management, and others as a profession. However, poor character and improper behaviors have become a consistent issue in sports today. According to author Doty, inappropriate behaviors following disrespect, use of drugs, violence, and cheating have all associations in the sports arena. The author further notes that how athletes behave in the field is different from that in real life. On the field, pro-social norms may arise contrary to real life, where some athletes portray poor character behavior. As such, research evidences sports life to be completely different from real life (Doty, 2006). None the less, sports is partly a reflection of the moral values comprehended today. Sports is an atmosphere that represents cultural norms and is a medium through which youth learn, experience, and practice the core values of society as the experiences play a vital role in their character building. However, sports do not build character, but rather character is taught and learned within the sports environment. The sports experience can build character, but only if the atmosphere is goaled towards character enhancement. Likewise, the sports setting should include coaches, parents who not only encourage athletes to win but also reward individuals with sportsmanship, fair play as a skill of building character in the sportsmen. Also, sports programs can take place, whose major goal is to build good character and lifestyle that is not only used in the sports arena but as well as the outside, including society and homes. More so, proper coaching, as well as teaching approaches on character improvement and sports activities, can significantly contribute to the building of acceptable character amongst athletes both in and outside the field play. Henceforth, positive character development is not inherent to athletic participation. Parents, coaches, and other significant leaders require to partake athletes through sessions that encourage positive character. As such, positive character needs to be taught just like an athletic skill more than once. In so doing, good character traits develop, which do benefit not only the sports but also the community in which the athletes live.

Lapses in Ethical Demeanor

Ethical teachings, especially in sports, are quite vital. In every sports arena, athletes learn on the acceptable behavior required on the pitch. Such may include fair play, sportsmanship, teamwork, honesty, and many others. The taught morals enable athletes to play games fairly despite the outcomes without destroying friendships even outside the pitch. Author, Bronikowska, et al., that the developed good character traits are not only portrayed on the field but also in the community in which the athletes live. However, lapses may arise even with the instilled ethical morals in sports, especially professional games, unethical behavior such as unfair play. Intentionally hurting opponents may arise with the urge to win. Similarly, coaches and parents themselves overwhelmed by ego may encourage athletes to cheat in a game, which is unethical. Henceforth, despite the instilled moral behaviors, at some point, immoral conduct and character may arise amongst athletes both on and off the pitch.

Additionally, the over-all gist acquired from the lectures was moral reasoning. Appealing to the decision making criteria, moral reasoning helps an athlete to focus on the right path. An athlete can partake the right decision even when faced with challenges as this not only contributes to character building but also maintains friendships but also builds teamwork with respect and honesty.


In a nutshell, sports significantly contribute to moral development in society. However, people like coaches, the parent has to take part in emphasis such traits as role models. Good character is not inherent from the athlete’s participation but rather from being directly taught and motivated. Also, lapses should be expected in a sport setting regardless of the instilled moral behaviors.


Stakeholder Presentation Organizational or Patient Issue history assignment help in uk

Stakeholder Presentation

Organizational or Patient Issue

What is the issue that you are trying to solve or improve

Patient dissatisfaction is a standard issue in the contemporary healthcare sector.

It results as health service delivered below or against the expectations of the patients.

Quality improvement considerations significantly help to increase patient experience hence patient dissatisfaction.

Why should the audience care about solving patient dissatisfaction?

Significant audiences include health professionals, nurses, patients, and healthcare facilities.

The parties above should care about it because it is essential to address issues of billing, phone or office wait times, and scheduling and office personnel interactions, which enhances excellent patient satisfaction.

It helps to improve health outcomes, such as decreasing readmission rates.

It is vital that Value-Based Purchasing has connected to Medicare reimbursement to HCAHPS scores.

It measures quality in healthcare among healthcare organizations.

Patient dissatisfaction influences clinical outcomes, medical malpractice claims, and patient retention.

Besides, it also influences timely, efficient, and patient-centered delivery of quality care.

The relevance of an Interdisciplinary Team Approach

Why is using an interdisciplinary team relevant or the best approach to addressing the issue?

 An interdisciplinary approach depends on health professionals and experts from diverse areas sharing, knowledge, roles, and responsibilities collaboratively.

It is relevant to the issue because there is a communal sharing of roles and responsibilities to promote interdependence while valuing member’s ideas, experience, and autonomy in improving the patient’s experience.

It motivates health professionals to work effectively.

It relieves stress and nurse burnout hence increasing patient satisfaction rate.

It promotes a patient-centered approach.

How will it help to achieve improved outcomes or reach a goal

An interdisciplinary provides multidisciplinary rounds that are headed by leaders and are patient-centered.

The rounds allow for open and collaborative communication, knowledge sharing, decision making, care planning, cost and quality acre issues, patient safety issues, communication with patients, and patient safety issues.

Besides, it involves a timely response to grievances and concerns.

These interdisciplinary processes ensure quality health outcomes.

Interdisciplinary Plan Summary

What is the objective?

The objective is to adopt a patient-centered model that will reduce patient dissatisfaction and increase patient experience.

To define the essential services offered to the patients and implementation of the patient-centered model to increase quality health delivery services to the patients.

How likely is it to work?

The interdisciplinary team approach is categorized about solving common issues within a group of members who collaboratively and interdependently develop goals and standard treatment plans.

There will be assessments to determine the views of patient experience on the caregivers and services.

This will identify areas of strengths and weaknesses.

As a consequence, there will be high and suitable chances for improvements and evaluation of the effects of change hence effective.

What will the interdisciplinary do?

The interdisciplinary will elect leaders in charge of each department in a healthcare organization.

Leaders will ensure the effective implementation of the patient-centered model.

Nursing personnel elected will oversee specific healthcare givers that permit a patient-centric approach is achieved.

Quality personnel as a leader will also be elected to oversee quality effectiveness through thorough and extensive assessments and evaluations.

Heath administrators will be given a role of ensuring collaboration in care delivery.

Key stakeholders from different segments will suggest ways and processes reduce patient dissatisfaction.

Implementation and Resource Management 

How could the plan be implemented to ensure effective use of resources?

Through the increasing level of staff to cover the growing number of patients.

Ensure health literacy among the underprivileged to achieve equitable and efficient access to healthcare information and services.

Health professional training and professional development on advancing matters such as the adoption of health information technology.

How could the plan be managed to ensure that resources were not wasted?

They are giving visibility to establish accountability a top priority.

It ensures the safety of information such as patent data to avoid information breaches.

Prioritize on team-working objectives as opposed to individuals.

Ensuring positive management and staff relationship is critical in managing the facility’s resources.

Keep communication open among members,

Outsourcing workers.

How does the plan justify Resource Expenditure?

Escalate need to commit more financial resources to health information technology.

It achieves cut-rated reimbursement with policyholders.

It decreases the lousy debt stemming from greater patent obligation for the cost of care.

It also accounts for shortages of technicians, nurses, and pharmacists.

It reveals the state and cost changes in pharmaceuticals and medical supplies.


What would a successful outcome of a project look like?

Stakeholder satisfaction.

Quality measurement.

Correct schedule.


Involve every person.

Flexible action steps that respond to the risk.

What are the criteria that could be used to measure that success?

Safety care
Patient satisfaction
Effectiveness of care
Schedule of care
Efficient use of medical imaging
Data transparency

How could this be used to show the degree of success?

Promote the power of patient’s preferences.

Aim on data aftermath.

Measure the level of accountability.

Reviewing the patient’s experience responses.