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READ these descriiptions relating to appropriate use of deadly force: Texas Penal Code Chapter 9; see “Subchapter E” (Section

READ these descriiptions relating to appropriate use of deadly force:
Texas Penal Code Chapter 9; see “Subchapter E” (Section 9.51 paragraphs c, d, e, f, and g) regarding police officer use of force: https://statutes.capitol.texas.gov/SOTWDocs/PE/htm/PE.9.htm
FBI police on deadly force (for FBI Agents, but is consistent with other Department of Justice federal agencies such as DEA, US Marshals Service and others as well as federal law enforcement agencies in other Departments of the US Government): https://www.fbi.gov/about/faqs/what-is-the-fbis-policy-on-the-use-of-deadly-force-by-its-special-agents

REVIEW these articles:
Different deadly force mindsets…or just different agency policies ? (focus on how different deadly force or other policies can cause a legal or policy conflict for an officer from another agency being assigned to a task force sponsored by federal agency, and his/her department policy conflicts with the task for agency policy he/she is assigned to): https://www.themarshallproject.org/2019/10/31/why-some-police-departments-are-leaving-federal-task-forces
Opinion Column – Fear and Use of Deadly Force (think about ones fear affects one’s view as a person or situation as a threat…which leads to deadly force under the policies…does one person’s framework of “fear” or threat differ from another person’s framework of “fear’ or threat when it comes to a decision to use deadly force legally?): https://www.themarshallproject.org/2019/05/01/can-understanding-fear-mitigate-police-violence
Implicit Bias (focus on the sections relating to how implict bias is formed and how to counteract it…recognizing that one’s unconcious implicit bias can frame how one assesses potential violence, an escalating situation, and/or use of deadly force): https://www.justice.gov/file/1437326/download

THINK about
The assumptions made by the authors, the Texas statute and FBI policy about use of deadly force, and your own sense of when it would be appropriate to use deadly force if you were a police officer (as in, would your personal standard be more limited than the statute or policy allows, or do the policy and statute provide enough flexibility for confrontations?) ..Is there clarity for law enforcement officers trying to be guided by the policies?
What about the subjective language in the statute and policy….words like “reasonably” and “believe” and “justified” and “necessary” and “imminent?” Are there advantages and challenges with those words?
Is there bias in any of the articles?
Any other analysis (not just opinions…but analysis of the issues and challenges and solutions, if any).
THEN, WRITE an essay relating to the articles, noting the below:
Important – this is an exercise in “critical thinking,” where you compare and contrast differing author viewpoints, examing their points, see if there is any gaps in their thinking, and examine the conclusions they make. You may have an opinion (and if you MUST you may decide to make a final comment at the end of your essay expressing it – you won’t gain or lose credit for that)…but this essay should focus on your analysis of the points being made and how they relate to the other readings for this unit. There is a difference between disagreeing with an author’s position or relfecting/expressing your own rather than finding faults in the author’s analysis and conclusions based on objective examination! (You may even agree with a author’s conclusion, but decide the author arrived at it wrong or missed something !!!!)
You must read all 3 articles and in some way refer to or incorporate ALL of them into your essay, but your essay will focus primarily on one of the articles.
Spend some serious time thinking about what you have read and your analysis and reaction to each piece….make notes and plan your answer before you begin writing. Again, don’t just say “I agree with this” or “that,” or give broad opinions generally about what you believe are injustices in the world or your community.
Focus on the articles and statutes/policy.
Guidance for length is 3 pages at a minimum (excluding title and sources pages), and make sure to give proper credit for work that is not your own (quotes, etc) using APA format for citation. Submit your essay in a Word document by clicking on the assignment title above.

1 1Surname Student’s name Instructor’s name Course Date Feminism by Susana Glaspell

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Feminism by Susana Glaspell

Susana Glaspell is a writer who is well known for being an early feminist. One of her most famous works is “A Jury of Her Peers.” This essay takes a look at feminism, according to Susana Glaspell. It will consider what her works say about feminism and what she thought of the movement. The first thing to define is feminism itself. It is often looked at as a “movement.” However, the word will be used to define women’s advocacy in this case. Many people have used this term to describe themselves and their ideals. Susana Glaspell uses these terms interchangeably and never defines them explicitly in her works. The first place they are used is in the play Trifles.

The play Trifles has many themes, including feminism. The play revolves around a woman murdered in what may have been an abusive marriage. This is one of the first times that Susana Glaspell links feminism to her work. It’s not enough to say that the woman was abused by her husband, though it also explores the social context of women at that time. Many of her works are based on stories women would tell her about their lives. This gives them a more personal feeling than if they were written by a man (Arciniega 50). At the same time, she maintains a sense of detachment from these women and their stories because she uses them as inspiration for her writing without interfering with the story itself or portraying themselves in ways that may be false or inaccurate.

Additionally, the play is one of the first to introduce the idea of women’s support networks as well. These networks were formed by groups of women who would share their stories in a sort of comfort beyond their husbands and social circles. While men had support groups like this, they were never run by men like women’s groups were. There’s an entire scene in Trifles entirely within a women’s support group (Darwesh 553). This is an event that most people had never seen before the play was written.

Additionally, Susana Glaspell had a lot of connections with aspiring women writers. One of her friends, Gladys Kennedy, was one such person. She was a writer who became Susana Glaspell’s lifelong friend and correspondent. Another woman, Genevieve Taggard, worked on the script for Trifles and asked Glaspell to write in some of her ideas from her experiences growing up as a girl in the West to make it more realistic (Hernando-Real 35). This is notable because Trifles was based on an actual murder in Glaspell’s hometown of Galena, Kansas, in 1895.

Conclusively, feminism was a growing movement in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It became an issue at many universities and colleges as women started to obtain higher educations, despite it being illegal for women to enter most of them. Books such as “Trifles” were written to introduce women to the idea of feminism, so they would have resources on how to advocate for themselves once they finished their educations. Other authors also took on this cause because they knew it would help them become more successful authors once they began exploring new ideas in their writing.

Additionally, Susana Glaspell played a major part in the feminist movement. She worked to bring awareness to these issues by providing a living example and role model for women who wanted to become more involved in the movement. Some of her works, like Trifles, are also considered works of literature that have inspired feminist groups and are widely accepted and celebrated. She paved the way for many other writers who desired to be involved with feminism, such as Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, who published “The Madwoman in the Attic,” still used today as a resource for teaching feminism.

Works Cited

Arciniega, Lourdes. “Home as an Activist and Feminist Stage: Women’s Performative Agency in the Drama of Susan Glaspell.” Performing Dream Homes. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2019. 45-64.

Black, Cheryl. “Emeline Jouve, Susan Glaspell’s Poetics and Politics of Rebellion.” (2018): 468-471.

Darwesh, Nasrin O. “The Negative Aspects of the Feminist Message of “The Outside” by Susan Glaspell.” Journal of Al-Frahedis Arts| مجلة آداب الفراهيدي 11.01 (2019): 551-557.‎

Hernando-Real, Noelia. “Suicide Across the Waves: On the Feminist Possibilities of Dramatic Suicide in Plays by Susan Glaspell, Marsha Norman, and Naomi Wallace.” Suicide in Modern Literature. Springer, Cham, 2021. 33-45.

Hernando-Real, Noelia. “Susan Glaspell: Her Life and Times.” (2021): 86-90.

8 Student’s name Differences between city structures of Tong and Song dynasties.

READ these descriiptions relating to appropriate use of deadly force: Texas Penal Code Chapter 9; see “Subchapter E” (Section Writing Assignment Help 8

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Differences between city structures of Tong and Song dynasties.

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When the Han dynasty fell in A.D. 220, there didn’t live an emperor with enough power and strength to unite and rule China as one. During the following three centuries, over thirty local empires emerged and collapsed. in 589, an emperor known as Wendi once again united northern and southern regions of the country. He re-established a centralized government. China’s following two dynasties, the Tang and Song, had a long period of prosperity, becoming the world’s wealthiest, most dominant, and technologically sophisticated nation.

During these dynasties, China experienced tremendous growth in most spheres including culture, religion architecture and administration. Tang, which succeeded the Sui dynasty, borrowed from and modified structure from the previous dynasty in addition to inventing new and more progressive architecture. The Song arose after Tang collapsed and further altered and developed the structures and culture of the Tang (Yinan, 2005). This paper explores and evaluates the distinctions between the city structures and city life of the Tang and Song dynasties

Differences between the structures’ styles and functions.

Tang

The Tang dynasty’s first 130 years were among the richest and most remarkable eras in the history of China’s advancement. Throughout this period, Chinese empire had spread so vastly over Central Asia that Bukhara and Samarkand (currently in Uzbekistan) were briefly within Chinese authority. Monarchs of central Asia paid homage to China, and Chinese cultural imperialism permeated Korean and Japanese regions. Chang’an rose to power as the world’s leading metropolis at the period, with numerous religious groups flourishing, notably Monotheistic, Buddhism, Manichaeism, Gnosticism, Catholicism, Zionism, and Islamism. This certain internationalism is evident in the numerous artworks from the time.

Daxing, the capital of Sui (currently Xi’an), was built under imperial statutes in 583 by the renowned architect Yuwen Kai. After 618, the capital was rebranded Chang’an and subsequently extended by the Tang. The massive city, roughly five times the size of modern-day Xi’an, was built on a grid – like pattern in a little over eight months, with east and western marketplaces and the Imperial City in the northern to central sector, a pattern subsequently adopted in the restoration of Beijing during the Ming dynasty. Tang Taizong constructed a massive palace, the Daming Palace, on elevated terrain to the northeast of the city in 634.

The Daming Palace was partially dismantled, which would become the center of imperial court in the sparkling dynasties of Gaozong (649 to 683) and Xuanzong which was between 712 and 756. Both Linde Hall, with its raised corridors extending like massive arms towards interlacing triple pylons and Hanyuan Hall, were discovered. Yuwen Kai’s tilting atrium in the Sui monument, which may have well held 200 guests, as well as the 295-foot high state Spirit Hall constructed for China’s only ruling empress, the tyrant Wu Zetian, who altered the empire’s name from Tang to Zhou throughout her rule from 690 to 690, are both lost wonders of Sui Tang palace architecture (Yin et al, 2021). Mosaics from Buddhist tombs in Dunhuang and unearthed imperial burial sites close to Chang’an depict a vivid history of Tang architecture, along with its inclination towards highrise elevations, tall buildings, and extravagant raised pavements, as well as its unusual use of brightly colored slabs on building facades and its incorporation of architecture with orchards, ponds, and overpasses.

The first half of the Tang was a golden age for temple construction. Pagodas, particularly the Songyue Temple pagoda, were created with influence from India. Tang also built wooden pagodas, some of which may still be seen in Nara. They also built masonry pagodas, like as the seven-story, 190-foot-high Dayan Ta, or Great Wild Goose Pagoda, of Chang’an’s Ci’en Temple, over which corbeled balconies identify the succeeding storeys and flat beams, or pillars, trusses, and capitals imitate timber elements in stone. Fabricated burial sites were no longer sufficient for some Tang monarchs, hence funerary caves were built out underneath enormous mountains. Emperor Gaozong and his concubine, who thereafter ruled as Wu Zetian, are buried in Changling’s massive tomb, which has not been unearthed and seems to be in uninterfered with.

The Indianesque central pillar, the centre of worship, was abandoned in Tang sanctuaries at Dunhuang, that was carved and adorned on all outer walls with Buddhist paradises in Six Dynasty caves. Major Buddhist icons and paradise murals were brought to the back of an open room during the Tang dynasty and accorded higher positions, a lot like a monarch crowned in his throne (Liu & Wu, 2015).

The Song; more advanced and delicate.

The song advanced the planning and organization of the parts previously introduced by Tang, making them increasingly complicated. Temple halls were frequently erected in two or three levels, with more complex structural detail. The palaces and temples were first built in the Tang style, which was robust and basic in detail but modest in scale.

The Song Aarchitecture has a number of distinguishing characteristics. The eaves line, which would have been straight in Tang style in northern China, now sloped up at the corners, giving the roof a noticeable drooping appearance. The dougong became increasingly sophisticated; being not only continuous in between rows, frequently with doubled or even fake cantilever arms slanting down from the interior superstructure to the brackets, but also included a wide range of bracket varieties inside the same structure The tail-rafter, which was formerly fastened to a horizontal beam at the inner ends, is now loosely supported on the bracket clusters, supporting purlins (horizontal timbers) at each end, giving the entire structure a dynamic functionalism reminiscent of High Gothic architecture. The interior is also significantly more ornate. Richly detailed rounded vaults, or cupolas, are set in the ceiling over the principal images; baldachins and pavilions to house images or relics replicate the elaborate carpentry of full-scale buildings in miniature; and extremely complex bookcases, some of which were made to revolve, as at the Huayan Temple, also take the form of miniature buildings (Steinhardt, 1986).

Song architecture’s range of form, structural technique, detail, and decoration displays Song culture’s sophistication as well as a renewed intellectual interest in the art. Yu Hao, the master builder, and Li Jie, the state architect, were both educated individuals. Today, he is well renowned for compiling the Yingzao fashi, which he delivered to the Emperor in 1100. This illustrated book covers every aspect of architecture, including layout, building, stonework, carpentry, bracketing, decorating, materials, and labor. While the Yingzao fashi was helpful in propagating the most advanced skills of the time with its first publishing in 1103, it could also have impeded further advancement and made a contribution to the traditionalism of succeeding approaches by codifying practice.

In contrast to following times’ increased uniformity, Song architecture was experimental and increasingly diversified. Early Japanese structures reveal two types from the Southern Song period. One style is known in Japan as Tenjiku-yo, or “Indian style,” but it actually developed on China’s southeastern coast, in the city of Ningbo, where towering evergreen trees grew. It sometimes used timber columns that reached a height of around 65 feet, into which vertical tiers of up to ten transverse bracket-arms were inserted. This harsh and basic architecture is exemplified by Buddhist priests from the Hangzhou region and south brought another style, known as Kara-yo Chinese, to the new shogunal capital of Kamakura, where it can be seen in the 13th-century Reliquary Hall of the Engaku Temple. It has unpainted wood siding, multilevel paneled walls (no plaster or lacquered columns), and a lot of attention to detail. Because the impact is rich and dynamic and lacks the minimalism that one might anticipate from Chan architecture, others believe it represents a Chinese regional style rather than anything distinctively Chan.

GENRAL LIFE DIFFERENCES

The Tang kingdom was known for its vibrant arts and culture, a formidable expansionist military, a capable civil service and educational system, and a boom of goods and ideas. Many of the Tang’s achievements were built upon by the Song dynasty, but life for the Chinese at this time was very different. Invaders on the Song empire’s northern and western frontiers challenged its security, making foreign participation in the Song increasingly risky. Many Chinese people reacted to these intrusions by concentrating on ideologies and experiences closer to home rather than on foreign concepts (Xue et al,2016).
When the Tang dynasty came to power, it brought many reforms to Chinese government and society in order to strengthen and unite the country. Taizong, the second Tang emperor, reintroduced and expanded the tradition of selecting government officials through stringent written tests based on Confucian values of devotion and service. The emperors could be guaranteed that loyal and hardworking officials would be placed throughout the empire in this manner. This would be especially crucial as the empire grew, necessitating officials serving in locations other than Chang’an. By establishing military bases along the Silk Road, the Tang emperors attempted to extend their control as far as feasible. From as far afield as Persia and Byzantium, these colonies brought new products and ideas to China (Zhou,& Huang, 2020).

To feed the rising population, the Tang emperors began a land reform campaign, with the purpose of putting more land in the hands of farmers. This program resulted in a large rise in farm output. The Grand Canal was used to transport more rice from southern China’s rice fields to northern China’s power centers. Foreign religions and ideologies were introduced as a result of increased trade and contact with other cultures. Some foreign faiths gained prominent in addition to the native religious doctrines of Daoism and Confucianism.

The most important of these was Buddhism, which expanded from India to China via the Silk Road. Emperor Taizong, a Buddhist enthusiast, had a special pagoda built in Chang’an to store valuable sutras brought from India by Xuanzang, a prominent monk. During the Tang dynasty, the invention of inexpensive printing technology was spurred by the desire to produce enormous quantities of Buddhist scriptures. Tang sovereignty was weakened in the tenth century in terms of migratory peoples’ assaults on their northern and western borders, as well as interior political strife. The Chinese government also started to lose control of the Silk Road. Heavy taxation, imperial and administrative corruption eventually sparked a revolt, and the last Tang emperor was deposed in 907.
SONG DYNASTY
After a half-century of conflict and chaos, Zhao Kuangyin, a military commander, formed the Song dynasty in 960. In China, the Empire was the country’s second greatest medieval period. Unlike the Tang dynasty, the Song dynasty was continually threatened by invasion. By sending vast sums of silk, silver, and tea to the menacing northern kingdoms of the Qidan and Tangut, Song rulers kept the peace. Rather than creating and controlling a vast empire like the Tang, the Song concentrated on improving domestic wealth and stability. Diplomacy and civilian-controlled administration were highly valued by the Song dynasty. During the Song dynasty, examinations as a way of attaining official government positions grew even more significant. At each level, only ten percent of exam takers were permitted to move.

Wealthier families spent a lot of money on literature, schools, and tutors in order for their sons to have a good chance of succeeding the civil service exam, which required memorizing Confucian classic passages and creating sophisticated poetry on specific subjects. The Song dynasty, however, experienced a setback in 1127, when neither bribes nor military defenses were enough to prevent the Jurchen peoples of Central Asia from conquering Kaifeng, the Song capital in the north. The Song administration and many Chinese people fled to southern China, establishing Hangzhou as a new capital. Historians have dubbed the dynasty that followed this move the Southern Song. Researchers, artists, physicists, and engineers thrived during the Southern Song dynasty, even after their downfall (Jiang et al, 2021)
China turned to ocean-going trade after being cut off from the Silk Road in the north. Shipbuilders created vessels with multiple masts, and stern post rudders took the role of oars. The magnetic compass helped seamen to sail longer distances out of sight of shore. The Song used gunpowder technology to manufacture flame-throwers and destructive rockets as a continual defense against foreign attack. More stomachs to nourish in the rice-growing regions of southern China as a result of the inflow of people. Through selective breeding, Song researchers with the Ministry of Agriculture developed quicker techniques of growing rice, increasing the quantity of harvests. The constant fear of outside invasions caused many Song Chinese to abandon Buddhism—now regarded a foreign religion—in favor of resurrecting Confucianism’s natural ideals.

As a result of Confucius’ ideology, which emphasized women’s subordination and dependence on men, women’s individuality and rights were weakened. Urban life flourished alongside intellectual life. People began to migrate to Song’s metropolitan centers to work in industry and trade. Increased demand for books on a wide range of topics fueled rapid growth in publishing, and bookstores could be found in all of the Song’s major cities. Southern Song urban centers thrived until 1276, when the last Song regent submitted to Khublai Khan’s Mongol army instead of fight futilely and see his citizens and metropolises decimated.

References

Jiang, X., Xiong, L., Bai, L., Zhao, N., Zhang, J., Xia, K., … & Zheng, B. (2021). Quantifying the social structure of elites in ancient China. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 573, 125976.

Liu, J., & Wu, Z. K. (2015). Rule-based generation of ancient Chinese architecture from the Song dynasty. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH), 9(2), 1-22.

Steinhardt, N. S. (1986). Why were Chang’an and Beijing so different?. The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 45(4), 339-357.

Xue, J., Chang, Y., & Jiang, J. (2016). The Analysis and Research on the Inherited Relationship of Chinese and South Korea’s Buddhist Architecture. DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research, (mime).

Yin, L., Wang, T., & Adeyeye, K. (2021). A Comparative Study of Urban Spatial Characteristics of the Capitals of Tang and Song Dynasties Based on Space Syntax. Urban Science, 5(2), 34.

Yinan, L. (2005). A Study of the Changes in the Tang—Song Transition Model. Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, (35), 99-127.

Zhou, H. J., & Huang, J. (2020, June). Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and Japanese Traditional Wooden Architecture. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 510, No. 5, p. 052017). IOP Publishing.

2 Mental Health on children Living under Foster Care Name Course Instructor

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Mental Health on children Living under Foster Care

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Introduction

Most children leave home due to child abuse and neglect, leading to traumatic experiences. The children who live in foster care face tremendous hardships mainly due to changing environment. The goal of foster care systems is to provide children with a temporary safe home before they get reunited with their biological families. However, most children age before they can feel safe under foster care management; hence they face the risks of adverse mental health. Most children move from their biological homes due to abuse and child neglect; hence the child experiences psychological and physical trauma. In other cases, the child could be taken to foster care because parents have been taken to prison or death or have a mental disorder (Font and Kim,2021). Children may have severe mental implications as a result of the trauma. Children move a lot in foster care before they can settle permanently with a particular family, which leads to instability and loss resulting from the child’s separation from a particular family. The children are forced to endure the “starting over process” in many cases, which may lead the child to have attachments and adverse effects on the child’s ability to form and maintain healthy relationships in the future. Lack of proper support and treatment in foster care results in physical and mental symptoms. The child will have a hard time understanding, processing, and recovering, which may affect them even in adulthood.

The research paper illustrates mental health concerns in children living under foster care. It looks at how local communities and states address the issues on how to reduce the risks to mental health in young people. The research paper will focus on the need assessments, treatments, challenges, and solutions to reducing mental health in the foster system. According to research, the foster care system exhibit emotional and behavioral problems. Most youths who experience foster care are likely to undergo more mental and behavioral problems than those living with their biological parents. Children need stability, understanding, and reassurance in foster families, but in most cases, they end up experiencing multiple placements, unpredictable contact with their families, and instability. Some children prefer to live independently as they grow older than under foster care which risks their chances of homelessness, financial instabilities, socialization problems, school dropouts, and behavioral problems. Children living under foster care exhibit mental issues as not all foster care meets basic human needs; hence the child experiences homelessness, maltreatment, neglect, and insecurities. The current review findings aim to generalize interventions to foster care, look at the child’s relationship in foster families, and highlight empirical support through interventions that help identify the foster’s utility within a population. The paper aims to provide the methods of foster care and explore personalized goals concerning providing support to the children they take care of. A better understanding of these goals will also enable quality care for children. The availability of goals also can empower foster care by discussing treatment plans.

Method and methodology

Design and Setting

I researched the analysis of data in the Reflective Fostering Program. In the study, qualitative research was used to identify the goals set by foster systems. Anna Freud National Centre developed the RFP for Children and Families in Europe. Its purpose was to develop programs that support foster care, especially for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties, as it is designed to encourage reflective parenting capabilities (Flaspholer et al.,2012). In the first stage of the intervention process, the program comprised three-hour meetings of 10 foster groups caring for children aged 5-12.

Recruitment

The local authorities and child social workers helped to help in identifying foster carers who would fit best in RFP program. Interested families were given all the information about the group, and then they would decide if they were interested in participating. The primary requirement to participate in the study was that foster carers should have cared for a child aged 5-12 years a month before the actual day of recruitment and expressed the need for additional support and be fluent in English to participate in the program.

Participants

I did the study on thirty participants in the RFP program with 3 males and 27 females. The participants completed the information about the goals they set for themselves if they joined the program and how they would engage with the program. Most of the participants were married, and their mean age was fifty years. The length of time they fostered varied from 2 years to 17 years, and most of them fostered between one to three children. Regarding 27 children under their care, the study reported that 65% were female, and the maximum age of children was 10 years. Two participants reported that their children had been replaced hence foster care breakdown but were replaced four years ago.

Measures

According to (Law and Jacob,2015), GBOM measures the progress towards achieving goals concerning intervention. During the start of the intervention, the participants were required to identify atleast three goals they sort to achieve at different reviews and report how far they had achieved due to their involvement in the participation. They were rated on a 0-10, with 0 showing no progress while 10 showed a goal fully achieved. The outcome was to be calculated by the movement of the scale from the start till the end of the intervention. The measure evaluates achievements of goals at a personal level and clinical work.

Data Collection

The foster carers participants were invited to complete a form on goal setting as part of their feasibility study. The methods used in data collection involved gathering information online using devices such as the Patient Owned Database through questionnaires. Each participant was given a unique password to access and complete the questionnaires, and after completion, the data would upload automatically and get stored in POD, which was safe. Some participants filled the data on paper due to technical problems with a tablet provided by RFP. The instructions on the goal-setting form stated, “What are some of the problems you need help on and the goals you want to achieve in the program?”

Data Analysis

I analyzed the research report on data mainly based on the qualitative analysis. The aims were to identify and categorize the goals. The purpose of the analysis was to organize and give meaning to the collected information and draw achievable conclusions. As a result of the nature of the data, the main aim was to analyze a more extended structure rather than a quantitative one.

Step 1; Identifying Goals

This step focused on how the number of goals included in each statement. If a statement had more than one goal, they were separated into various categories, and the responses were split into various statements. Ten-goal statements were split into two or more units following the agreement on cluster responses and splits where necessary.

Step 2; Goal Classification

Initially, the goal statements were classified using the existing analytical framework established to analyze parents’ goals in seeking help for children in mental health institutions. The process involved reading statements severally and classifying the goals and subcategories. The classifications were modified in response to the information to develop categories of meaningful foster carers. In some cases, the topics in categories and subcategories were rearranged. All statements without goal statements were omitted and created new categories related to foster care participation (Leve and Chamberlain,2009). The emerging classifications were then organized by grouping those with similar clusters into broader categories. The procedures were meant to reduce biasness and the researcher’s role, leading to a final framework with goal statements arranged into 5 main categories depending on the goal focus.

Findings

According to the information I gathered, the following were the results of my findings. Thirty foster carers set a total of 96 goal statements. The average number of goals set by the participants was 3.2. Generally, the participants did not set goals to handle difficulties like sleeping issues or bad behavior in school or at home but focused on those with broader perspectives. The goal statements were separated into two main categories focused on the child or the carer, further grouped into primary and subcategories.

Child-focused goals

The child-focused goals were divided into three main categories: emotions, relationships, and behaviors, then divided into 8 subcategories. Child emotions goals focus on understanding the child’s feelings and emotions of past experiences. The category had the highest number of goal statements, including issues with the child’s ability to speak about his feelings. The goals also focused on improving the child’s happiness, confidence, and self-esteem (Pears and Fisher,2005). For example, one foster carer statement report aimed at helping the child deal with the death of their birth parents, and another aimed at wanting to understand the feelings of their child.

Child behavior focused on goal statements related to the child’s behavior and was divided into two subcategories. One category showed the carer’s concern and desire to understand the challenges that face children’s behavior and the wish to learn new strategies to manage them. The other was concerned with the different behaviors of children and what leads to them. Both subcategories had similar goal statements as they majored in the child’s behavior.

Children’s relationships focus on goal statements on the child’s social skills. Most of the goals here are concerned with the child’s relationship with the carer and the ability of the child to interact with others. Some children have a hard time associating with adults, and other children may also have difficulties making new friends even with children of their age.

Carer focused goals

The carer-focused goals were divided into two main categories the individual goals and RFP participation goals. The goals were then divided into seven main subcategories. Personal goals involved the role of the caregiver to the child and their well-being. Most of the statements focused on how the carers could manage their stress and responsibilities. The main categories focused on goals where the carers wished to improve communication between them and the children. It also focused on how the child should understand the carer in various situations.

The goal statements set by carers to participate in RFP mainly focused on those who wished to acquire knowledge and skills and how to relate with others in the group. Most of the carers demanded they wanted to understand the issue of reflective fostering and how they could meet the group’s needs.

Discussion

The research represents analyses of goals set by foster carers during an intervention to support them in caring for children with emotional and behavioral problems. The research focused on five major categories of child goals and fifteen subcategories (Leslie et al.,2005). The main categories were divided into child focus which focused on the child’s emotions, behavior, and relationships. In contrast, the other categories focused on the carers’ well-being and their goals relating to the participation in RFP.

According to the research I conducted, the foster carers also focus on providing goals that care for themselves and the children. They hoped to learn new skills in parenting so that they could apply them to their lives every day. The reports also show that the carers wanted to learn about their stress. However, it can sometimes be challenging. This added self-confidence and their general well-being as it would make communication easier between them and the children hence enjoy their role as foster carers. The studies also focused on measures that assessed anxiety levels, self-efficiency, and the mental well-being of caregivers based on standardized questionnaires. The questionnaire forms determined the outcomes and concerns of change the foster carers needed to dwell on.

The participants also showed interest in various learning skills on participating in the program, such as mental awareness and reflective functioning that resonated with the problems the carers would face. The carers also wanted to discuss their colleagues’ experiences, hence creating a familiar support network. The general needs of foster carers are also expressed in other subjects. For example, when the carers create an opportunity to share their feelings, challenges, and experiences with fellow carers experiencing similar difficulties, it helps them reduce individual isolation from groups. The study also suggests group interventions are suitable for foster carers as they give them a chance to develop supportive networks.

Limitations of the Study

Challenges in Collaboration

According to my research, it is challenging to provide psychiatric services to children and teenagers in foster care as it requires the collaboration of the child welfare team. The people involved include birth parents, foster carers, and social welfare authorities, and in some cases, it could also involve court representatives. Most states have policies that define the consenting parties for mental health treatments and practices that consent to psychotropic medication for children under foster care.

Foster carers can serve up to fifteen families and are responsible for placements of children, safety, parental visitation, planning for permanency, and court preparations. In some cases, psychiatrists should reach out to child welfare services to help build collaborative relationships between foster carers and children (Clausen et al.,1998). Most foster systems share their information on office hours, emergency policies, appointments, and information on prior assessments with psychiatrists in the child welfare department. Children in foster care experience many challenges; thus, it could lead to worse scenarios, such as depression and anxiety, especially in cases where the foster parents do not listen to or understand the child. Psychiatrists, social welfare, and foster parents should provide leadership policies and practices to ensure the child’s mental health is taken care of.

Diagnostic Challenges

Sometimes the child welfare system and foster systems present psychiatrists with unique challenges. In this case, the birth parents and child welfare should present all mental health records, even those with the carers, to establish effective mechanisms to obtain a reliable history of the child. Psychiatrists then pass information about the needs to the team, who develop protocols on how the child’s mental health can improve. Most children may also suffer under foster care due to malnutrition, traumatic experiences such as abuse, separation from parents and siblings, illness, or change in the environment. The psychiatrist should know of the most painful experiences the child has gone through and provide counseling and other necessary treatments. Sometimes, it could be difficult for psychiatrists to obtain that kind of information from the child as some children could be weak to replay the torture in their minds. The clinicians need to conduct assessments specific to traumatic exposures and those that could expose the child to torture.

The priorities of the child’s welfare systems are to ensure the child’s mental status is stable and reunify the child with the supporting foster parents. The carers are present throughout the child’s visit to the psychiatrist; hence, it becomes easy to achieve the goals of meeting the child’s mental health. Sometimes involving the parents could make it difficult for the child, especially since they come from low-income families. The child has seen domestic abuse by either the parent or the parents involved in substance abuse. It is also essential for the psychiatrist to address parental needs such as substance treatment to make reunification much easier and heal the child’s mental health (Redfern et al., 2018). The common goal is the child’s well-being and reunification among the parties involved; hence it is essential to educate all members about the importance of parents in a child’s life, even if they are under foster care.

Solutions to the study

Psychotherapy

It is a situation that involves a therapist to address trauma and behavioral stress in children. The most common method in psychotherapy involves Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which involves studying the child’s behavior and emotion (Scozzaro and Janikowski, 2015). Parent-Child Interaction Therapy helps to improve parenting skills and reduce child immoral behavior. Psychotherapy works mainly for children that experienced malnutrition and physical abuse.

Pharmacotherapy

Studies show that many children in foster care use antipsychotics. It has a significant impact, especially in children who have a genetic history of anger, anxiety, and malnutrition issues. It is essential to monitor the child’s response, especially for children who take antidepressants, as they are prone to suicide. Children with sleeping difficulties because of trauma, even on medication, shows the medication is limited; hence it is good to contact a psychiatrist. Change of medication, especially in children with aggressive behavior, could be risky; hence the change should start with low medication as the child is monitored.

Conclusion

Most children under foster care are diagnosed with mental health issues. The children face difficulties associated with maltreatment, change of environment, and separation from birth parents. The children are vulnerable to emotional and behavioral health, which affect their mental health. Foster should focus on ensuring the child’s mental state is stable by developing goals of understanding the child’s behavior and creating healthy relationships between the child and the carers. The benefits of these interventions reduce the incidences of child’s anxiety, depression, and malnutrition.

References

Clausen, J. M., Landsverk, J., Ganger, W., Chadwick, D., & Litrownik, A. (1998). Mental health problems of children in foster care. Journal of child and family studies, 7(3), 283-296.

Flaspohler, P. D., Meehan, C., Maras, M. A., & Keller, K. E. (2012). Ready, willing, and able: Developing a support system to promote the implementation of school-based prevention programs. American journal of community psychology, 50(3), 428-444.

Font, S. A., & Kim, H. W. (2021). Sibling separation and placement instability for children in foster care. Child maltreatment, 10775595211012482.

Greeson, J. K., Briggs, E. C., Kisiel, C. L., Layne, C. M., Ake, G. S., Ko, S. J., … & Fairbank, J. A. (2011). Complex trauma and mental health in children and adolescents placed in foster care. Child welfare, 90(6), 91-108.

Leslie, L. K., Gordon, J. N., Lambros, K., Premji, K., Peoples, J., & Gist, K. (2005). Addressing the developmental and mental health needs of young children in foster care. Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP, 26(2), 140.

Leve, L. D., Fisher, P. A., & Chamberlain, P. (2009). Multidimensional treatment foster care as a preventive intervention to promote resiliency among youth in the child welfare system. Journal of personality, 77(6), 1869-1902.

Pears, K. C., & Fisher, P. A. (2005). Emotion understanding and theory of mind among maltreated children in foster care: Evidence of deficits. Development and Psychopathology, 17(1), 47-65.

Pecora, P. J., Jensen, P. S., Romanelli, L. H., Jackson, L. J., & Ortiz, A. (2009). Mental health services for children placed in foster care: An overview of current challenges. Child welfare, 88(1), 5.

Redfern, S., Wood, S., Lassri, D., Cirasola, A., West, G., Austerberry, C., … & Midgley, N. (2018). The Reflective Fostering Programme: background and development of a new approach. Adoption & Fostering, 42(3), 234-248.

Scozzaro, C., & Janikowski, T. P. (2015). Mental health diagnosis, medication, treatment, and placement milieu of children in foster care. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(9), 2560-2567.

Alkabiri 2 Abdulrahim Alkabiri Marianne Critchley 2022L2-ENGL-151-DL1 25 April 2022 Effects of

Alkabiri 2

Abdulrahim Alkabiri

Marianne Critchley

2022L2-ENGL-151-DL1

25 April 2022

Effects of Global Warming on Public Health

Climate change has been a global issue that has impacted people’s health. While everyone is affected by climate change, those living in the world’s poorest countries are the most susceptible. Various activities, including human actions, result in the release of excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, resulting in climate change. Hot temperatures raise ozone levels, harming people’s respiratory systems and causing issues for asthmatics and those with lung illnesses. Increased global warming can endanger global defense by compromising agricultural production, resulting in conflict. Climate change may affect our health through extreme weather conditions and worsening air quality. While other parts of the economy have been influenced by global warming, public health has been disproportionately affected, resulting in effects on the nervous and respiratory systems and an increased risk of sickness.

Climate change is already having an impact on health in a variety of ways, including a rise in death and illness as a result of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, cyclones, and floods. Furthermore, climate change is threatening many of the social factors of human health, including livelihoods, equality, healthcare access, and peer pressures. Climate-related health risks disproportionately affect the most vulnerable, ethnic minorities, poor communities, migrants or displaced persons, age groups, and those with physical disabilities.

According to Kjellstrom and McMichael’s article ‘Climate change threats to population health and well-being,’ the understanding of the effects of changing climatic changes on human health is growing. Prolonged heat has immediate consequences, such as heat stroke (and perhaps death), decreased performance at the workplace, and disruption of regular home routines. Storms, floods, and wildfires, among other exceptional weather phenomena, pose direct harm hazards and the danger of communicable diseases epidemics, malnutrition, and psychological anguish (Kjellstrom and McMichael).

These direct health impacts will become more prevalent due to climate change. Poor nutrition and undernutrition induced by failed sustainable farming, the development of vector-borne infections and other contagious diseases, mental health, and other issues produced by mass relocation from afflicted housing and families are all examples of indirect consequences. Famine, wars and the repercussions of large-scale severe financial impact due to diminished social and ecosystem production illustrate ecologically communicated effects of preventive medicine. Global warming causes coastal flooding, rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, an increase in the frequency or severity of certain extreme weather events, and an increased rate or severity of other weather events. People’s health is jeopardized due to these repercussions, which affect the food they eat, the air they breathe, and the weather they experience.

The intensity of these health hazards will be determined by occupational health and environmental agencies’ ability to handle or adapt to new threats, personal performance, gender, and economic position. The effects will differ depending on where a woman resides, how vulnerable they are to health concerns, how much they are subjected to global warming consequences, and how successfully they and their society respond to the news.

According to Maibach et al., climate change negatively impacts human health, and some public health experts have asked their counterparts to speak up about it. The authors stated that the total number of deaths resulting from climate change is projected to worsen considerably over the next several generations and beyond unless carbon dioxide emissions globally are substantially reduced, and considerable efforts are implemented to assist people in adapting to inevitable climate changes (Maibach et al.). Internationally, the population health effects of global warming will remain disproportionately felt in the world’s poorest countries, where inhabitants are inherently burdened by a plethora of health problems linked with impoverishment, which are aggravated by the changing environment.

Reducing carbon emissions, which involves drastically lowering emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly long-acting carbon dioxide (CO2), and boosting CO2 absorption at the planet’s surface, is the essential preventative method. This requires immediate transitions from fossil fuels for electricity generation, sustainable energy in construction architecture and urban management, and decreased inefficiencies in transportation and agriculture.

According to Patz et al., the rapid buildup of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse effect is causing extraordinary and perhaps permanent changes in worldwide climatic conditions. Through complicated two different routes, global warming presents a series of threats to people’s health. The authors argue that an interprofessional approach is essential for better understanding and addressing the complex aspect of health hazards caused by climate change (Patz et al.). Researchers in the environmental healthcare system have found that, on equilibrium, adverse health effects will outnumber positive health impacts under these altered climatic circumstances. Climate change poses one of the significant and most significant public health threats of the twenty-first century because of the numerous channels via which it might damage people’s health.

In his article ‘Global Warming and Its Health Impact,’ Antonella Rossati asserts that human activities have boosted greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere, resulting in higher average temperatures (Rossati). Rising temperatures cause land pollution, reduced productivity, degradation, habitat destruction, diminished freshwater supplies, ocean acidification, and disturbance and reduction of ozone depletion. These factors influence human health, resulting in non-communicable illnesses, including injury following natural catastrophes, starvation throughout the drought, and higher death rates during heat waves owing to difficulties in persistently sick individuals. Close encounter with natural disasters negatively influences psychological health, and a correlation has even been shown between environment and civil conflict, albeit it is too difficult to quantify.

Global warming can limit farming methods over time by reducing water supplies, altering and decreasing agricultural land, increasing pollution, accumulating harmful compounds in the food chain, and creating ecosystems conducive to people and animals’ virus propagation. Low-income nations’ citizens are especially susceptible. Global warming possibilities include changes in the spread of serious diseases due to rising temperatures and variations in epidemics linked to weather extremes. Increased incidences of serious infections have been observed following the floods. Water heating is impacted by climate change, which increases the spread of water-borne diseases. Pathogens conveyed by vectors are especially vulnerable to global warming because they undergo a significant portion of their product lifecycle in a cold-blooded host arthropod with a temperature comparable to that of the surroundings.

Climate change, like other natural and man-made health variables, has a wide variety of consequences for public health and sickness. Existing health risks will grow more acute, and worries about a healthy lifestyle will emerge. Not everyone is in the same danger.  Financial resources and geographic location are all crucial considerations. The rise in temperature, more frequent heavy rain and runoff, and storm effects all result in a higher risk of illness as a consequence of climate change.

Works Cited

Kjellstrom, T., and A. J. McMichael. “Climate change threats to population health and well-being: The imperative of protective solutions that will last.” Taylor & Francis, 2 April. 2013, www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/gha.v6i0.20816.

Maibach, Edward W., et al. “Reframing Climate Change As a Public Health Issue: an Exploratory Study of Public Reactions.” BMC Public Health, 1 June 2010, bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-10-299.

Patz, Jonathan A., et al. “Annals of Global Health.” Annals of Global Health, 25 November 2014, www.annalsofglobalhealth.org/articles/abstract/10.1016/j.aogh.2014.09.007/#.

Rossati, Antonella. “Global Warming and Its Health Impact.” PubMed Central (PMC), 10 Dec. 2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6679631/.

2 Dirty Hands Case Study Student’s Name Institution Instructor’s Name Course Date

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Dirty Hands Case Study

Student’s Name

Institution

Instructor’s Name

Course

Date

Dirty Hands Case Study

‘Dirty hands’ is a case involving Dr. George A. Soper, an epidemiologist who was summoned to examine a rapid typhoid epidemic in the family of a New York banker after many members of his family developed typhoid within days of each other. The landlord was terrified that until the problem was resolved, he would never be able to rent the space again. However, this paper will use relevant terms, concepts, and distinctions from different theories to formulate an analysis.

Utilitarian or Kantian analysis

Whether or not patients with typhoid disease should be segregated would be the focus of a Kantian analysis of the case. Kantian ethics is founded on the concept that there is a comprehensive moral code that everyone must follow. This rule is founded on the intelligibility principle, which asserts that we should always act logically and rationally. In this scenario, the question is whether isolating typhoid patients or prohibiting them from cooking in hotels or private residences is acceptable and sensible. However, the Kantian response is that typhoid patients should not be put in a separate room but instead be given some medical treatment. Additionally, the theory asserts that every employee working in hotels or restaurants should be given the right to cook and do other hotel duties.

Using practical analysis, the case would be different from that one of Kantian. Utilitarianism is a moral theory that states that whatever will bring the most happiness to the most people is the right thing to do. In this case, whether typhoid patients should be segregated is more important than using the resources to save the lives of others. The most helpful response would be that the patients should be segregated to avoid spreading the disease from one person to another. The lives of other people are more important than anything else. So, it is recommended to ensure that the employees in hotels and restaurants are tested before being handed the cooking duties since typhoid quickly spreads through foodstuff.

The case may be examined from both a Kantian and a practical perspective. The Kantian analysis is based on the idea that we should always act logically and rationally. The practical analysis assumes that we should always behave to produce happiness for the most significant number of people. In this situation, both strategies would result in the same final result: typhoid patients should be isolated, and all employees should be screened before working.

Social Contract Theorist/Contractarian analysis

To assess and evaluate the scenario, a social contract theorist would look at the objectives of the people engaged and find a solution to harmonize those objectives. In this instance, the social contract theorist would most likely weigh the interests of both the firm and the workers and try to walk a fine line. According to the social contract theory, the corporation is interested in maintaining its workers happy, and the workers have an incentive to be adequately compensated for their labor. According to the social contract theory, the ideal way to reconcile these objectives is to pay its employees a reasonable wage. Theorists of the social Contract would likely contend that the corporation should not try to abuse its employees by undercutting them. Finally, according to a social contract theorist, both the employer and the employees should moderate their requests and attempt to achieve a compromise.

Virtue Ethicist analysis

To assess the case’s primary moral question, a Virtue Ethicist would look at the qualities and character flaws of the persons engaged. They would look at what each person did to see if their activities were decent. They would also think about the repercussions of each person’s activities and determine whether they were beneficial or harmful. In this situation, the Virtue Ethicist would most likely decide that both the epidemiologist and Mary, the patient, acted morally. By digging more into Mary’s job history, the epidemiologist hoped to prevent other people from contracting typhoid. Mary, a hotel chef, was said to soil her hands and then returned to the kitchen without washing them, making the doctor worried.

The Virtue Ethicist would undoubtedly find that the doctor’s activities were beneficial. The lives of the other hotel employees were saved because Mary was apprehended and taken to a separate cottage. The Virtue Ethicist would most likely conclude Mary’s acts by promising that she would not work as a cook or handle other people’s food. However, the Virtue Ethicist would almost certainly claim that the Department of Health and the epidemiologist acted ethically and that their activities had beneficial outcomes.

Feminist Ethicist

A feminist ethicist would be knowledgeable of the case’s primary moral challenge by addressing the concerns of all persons concerned. The doctor would examine the problem by considering all of the parties’ points of view. He would also consider the power dynamics at work and how these could affect the judgments made. The feminist ethicist would start with Mary’s best interests in mind. Mary never thought she was an asymptomatic typhoid carrier, so the Department of Health would have looked into her case. She had the same right to work as other workers, but she was sacked owing to her medical condition. There are also the doctor’s interests to take into account. The epidemiologist is apprehensive about those who have not yet been infected with typhoid. However, the epidemiologist must be able to look into Warren’s family and separate those who have typhoid.

Theories that offer satisfactory responses to the central moral question of the case and unsatisfactory responses.

Utilitarianism is one theory that provides a satisfying response to the case’s core moral concern. The philosophy argues for maximizing society’s happiness. It is founded on the practical concept, which argues that an activity is correct if it provides the most significant amount of happiness to the largest audience and considers the consequence of an action. The theory is competent in addressing the case’s moral concern since it analyzes the implications of the conduct (Abumere, 2019).

The theory that offers unsatisfactory responses is relativism. The relativism theory is founded on the notion of cultural relativism, which asserts that an activity is right provided it adheres to cultural standards. Since it overlooks the owners’ interests, the approach is weak in addressing the case’s moral dilemma. Because it evaluates the activity through the prism of culture, the theory is also biased.

Reference

Abumere, F. A. (2019, December 9). Utilitarianism – Introduction to philosophy: Ethics. Welcome to the Rebus Press – Find OER by the Rebus Community and collaborate on publishing projects. https://press.rebus.community/intro-to-phil-ethics/chapter/utilitarianism/