NOTES FROM VIDEO LECTURE Well, hello again, everybody. We’ll be back at
NOTES FROM VIDEO LECTURE
Well, hello again, everybody. We’ll be back at it. And today I’m going to be talking about the subject matter and module four, which, for lack of a better term, the American political landscape, American political culture. And i’m going to say pretty close to the maglev text in chapter four
00:19in your text. So this is obviously the last chapter in unit one. And when you’re finished with this chapter and keep an eye out for the unit, one exam, check calendar and canvas, and and and start preparing for it.
00:34And I just hope you’ve been taking really good notes during the lectures, taking really good notes when you’re reading, because when you get to the essays it’s a short essays on the Minute Exam. That’ll all pay off. Now let me see if I can find my Powerpoint slide into a share screen
00:50and get it going. We will get started here.
00:58The American political landscape boy.
01:01What a country!
01:03Just remember that our nation is almost three thousand miles across
01:08one thousand five hundred to two thousand miles north to South Don’t. Forget we have Alaska and Hawaii, and other territories as well, like Puerto Rico.
01:17So we’re enormous in terms of our geographical size. We’re almost a full continent. We’re on, you know, keep us in Canada, and that’s North America.
01:25So that’s where we’re mass. If obviously we face two different oceans, the Pacific
01:31and the Atlantic, and I guess I should include the Arctic Ocean, too, because Alaska borders the Arctic Ocean so three different oceans.
01:40You see you there a picture of the Golden Gate Bridge, which goes across the San Francisco Bay on the Pacific side.
01:47I don’t forget you have the famous Brooklyn Bridge over in New York on the East Side. So the east side of our country there are iconic, iconic, architectural land. Ah! Points of reference all across this nation.
02:02It’s just a very amazing place. We have three hundred and about three hundred and thirty million people today in in America, which makes it one of the most populous nations on earth.
02:12It’s an increasingly diverse Ah! Country and ethnic firms racial terms, that ah religious terms! You name it nation of origin. You name it, we’re, we’re becoming more and more diverse. So we’re going to
02:25dig into all of that in today’s lecture.
02:29So let’s talk about geography and natural resources. We are a very large country and a relatively isolated country. We do have countries that border us to the north as Canada and Canada’s. Very few people.
02:43There are more people living in Los Angeles County than there are in the entire country of Canada.
02:48So it’s a it’s a slowly populated country, and in a very cold climate. So Canada is a is a historic friend of the United States. It’s not considered to be a threat to us, so we’ve been very lucky to have them as a neighbor, and of course, Mexico to the south of our border.
03:05Except for the Mexican-american war, back in the middle of the nineteenth century. It’s also been a friend of power as well, and not not considered a threat to us militarily. So we’re very blessed to have the oceans, the Pacific and Atlantic kind of protecting us
03:20on the East and the West and the North and the South, we have had
03:24blessings of not having for dangerous enemies on our borders.
03:31Um Manifest destiny is also an idea that you should probably be aware of It’s a historical idea. It came up in the nineteenth century leaders in America on the East coast started to justify a Western expansion all the way to California and the Soviet coast, and they said, Well, this is our destiny. We Americans are destined to
03:51take control of that from that land, and I believe it was God’s mission. That’s for you to decide um. And so they felt it was the destiny of America to rule that land between the oceans, and to do something special in the history of the world,
04:06so that’s manifest destiny. That’s one of the reasons that we’ve developed all the way to the pacific
04:12natural resources. Well, there’s tons of natural resources. One of the things we have that many countries don’t have is a huge number amount of arable land with arable landme. It means you can farm it. It’s fertile, and it’s it’s land that can be turned into croc land for farms and food production.
04:31So for a very long time the United States has led the world in food production. We feed ourselves, and we feed a lot of the rest of the world with our farming.
04:40We also have lots of fresh water that other countries Don’t have. Remember, we’re bordering the Great Lakes to the north. We have all sorts of in the Mississippi River and Missouri River and the Columbia River,
04:52the Sacramento River, and many others, and we are, of course, vast lakes and underground aquifers. So America is blessed with a lot of fresh water we’ve blessed with huge stands of timber forests to the north and to the east and the north
05:08a huge amounts of timber which provide the raw materials for building, building homes and many other things, paper and other things, minerals. This land has been blessed with all sorts of minerals, not not the least of which
05:22it’s coal for energy, but no less than a but but obviously silver and gold and
05:28and iron, and many other things that have become useful, as we have manufactured those minerals in the manufacturing process to build our society in tangible in tangible form.
05:41We’re all in natural gas if we deregulated the oil and natural gas industry in America, which but if we did, we would have by and far and away the largest oil and gas production in the world.
05:58But even with it heavily regulated, we still we still produce a huge amount of oil and natural gas, because it’s just there. Naturally,
06:06our lands, and finally, we’re also blessed with great fisheries along the Atlantic coast, particularly the North Atlantic coast, off the coast of Maine,
06:16Massachusetts, and then, of course, the Pacific coast, particularly the northern Pacific coast, going all the way from Oregon and Washington all the way up to Alaska.
06:25So obviously we have a lot of natural resources and have had a lot of natural resources historically. Excuse me,
06:36wet my whistle now and then. I’m going to lose my voice
06:40well into you. Take a look at American kind of figure out. Well, what are the various differences in terms of geography? Remember
06:47your text talks about the Sun Belt, the Sinbell are all those country states in the country that
06:53that forum where there’s warmer climate most of the year, and that’s really from Central California all the way down, and maybe capturing southern Nevada, most of Arizona, much of New Mexico, Texas, and all the way through the south around Louisiana,
07:11a Georgia, Alabama of South Carolina, and Florida. All those States are in the sundown because they get a lot of sun. They’re much warmer than the rest of the country,
07:19and then, of course, above the Sun Belt is the frostbelt. That’ll be any of the kind of states above that where you get frost in the morning early in the fall, and you can get speed, and you can get snow in the air. See the sun belt. You have a frost belt, and of course California is mostly in the sun.
07:36The Bible belt is kind of a to describe most of the States in the Midwest and South Southern, Midwest and South, the
07:44where the Protestant faith,
07:48evangelical Protestant faith is a particularly Baptist.
07:52The nomination is very common and very strong, and so sometimes it’s called the Bible, because so many people have that affiliation
08:02and don’t forget the rust belt. The rust belt is back there in the Midwest Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, where we used to have a great manufacturing of the Twentieth century. The car industry, the steel industry.
08:14Many of those industries have dried up and gone offshore to other countries. And so those whole factors are sitting there rusting, and sometimes we call that area the upper midwest area, the Russell
08:27State local identity. Or remember, understand this, that we all have a proud of the States we live in, and we all have a sense of pride in our local identities as well. We all have what’s called provincial, as most Americans
08:41think of themselves as Americans, of course, but we also think of ourselves provincially, as you know, people from Long Beach or in California, people from the West Coast people from the Pacific coast. Many different ways that people in various locations in America
08:58urban and rural populations there. There’s a very significant difference in the urban areas. You tend to see more of ethnic minorities, more racial minorities,
09:06and in the rural and suburban areas you’ll tend to see more white people proportionally.
09:14Um, that’s that’s That’s a product of many things, but particularly something protects called white flight back in the sixty, S. And seventy S. As more and more minorities were into major cities like Chicago and in core areas of La and nor any of the white people that were living there moved down into the suburbs,
09:33mainly because they were moving into the middle class in terms of income, and they were moving out as the minority population moving in. But some social scientists had come in, and there was some racism going on there, and i’m sure that that’s part of part of that partly affected.
09:50But that’s where we’re situated. Today we see the suburbs and small towns and rural areas are far, far greater white populations than do the core areas of the inner cities of.
10:02And these demographic changes should tell you Every ten years we do a census. And so this is going to going back to the last census of two thousand and ten. You can see those two blue States, Texas and Florida. They’re the States that picked up the most representation in Congress. Why, as they got the most increase in population previous ten years.
10:22By the way, we just did a two thousand and twenty census, and guess what Texas and Florida got more seats and bombers, because they continue to grow faster than all the other states in the country.
10:32It’s actually a good thing if you’re a Republican, because those are parties that those States are increasingly Republican.
10:39They are a big impact on the electoral college and our selection for the President, and of course, the representatives there.
10:46The more there are the more Republican representation you get in the House of Representatives which helps Republicans try to control Congress,
11:03Pink States. They are in their states that it’s historically been democratic for the last thirty years, and you can see they’re losing population to the south of the Sunbell states.
11:14You must see only one State there, or the state of organs. The only state that actually picked up a seat in two thousand and twelve that actually gained a little bit of population in what we call the frostbelt is pretty much from the north of California all the way north.
11:30So a good thing to remember is the northeast is losing population most of the rest of the country. It’s kind of just holding its Brown
11:38and Texas and Florida, particularly our gaining population at the expense of the rest of the country.
11:46You know. There was a brief discussion in your text about it. This was a number of years ago, but it points out that there’s a kind of a different mindset, you know. You know the West into the rural areas of the West. You know the forest, raising land with lots of cowboys and bloggers
12:02ranchers. Um. The rural West is a decidedly suspicious view of Federal power, United States Government much more so than urban and suburban areas. Why? Because they use Federal lands on lands owned by the Federal Government blm lands, particularly to graze their cattle or lob timber,
12:22and they have historically had a lot of influence and control over those lands
12:27when the Us. Government or the States try to assert their prerogative, maybe try to limit their grazing or limit how much lumber they can take. Well, they take an umbridge, and they actually had a Mini revolt here a few years ago, and took control of the Federal facility in Eastern Oregon for several weeks. Finally it was picking their roles taken down by marshals.
12:46But it’s an interesting thing that most of the people who are tried for Federal crimes for having taken over a Federal building in a Federal courtroom or an organ,
12:56were found not guilty by a jury that was very sympathetic to them. So it’s kind of interesting, and this is true. Across the West and the rural areas about rocky mounds, areas, rural areas of California, Arizona, Oregon, and Washington
13:11do have an attitude which is quite different than what you’ll see in herment areas.
13:17Race. And Evan, I say, Well, let’s use the terms that your text, the definitions your text uses.
13:23Excuse me, Race refers to physical characteristics that you can measure. You can see right physical things. You can observe.
13:31Ethnicity refers to national origin, religion, and language.
13:36There’s a lack of agreement on whether a race is a biological distinction or a social distinction like ethnicity. I’m not coming.
13:43Take a position on that, because I agree. I think it’s a open question.
13:50Hispanics Latinos, or some Now, now some academics, referring to them as lab
13:55next are increasing in their political importance, because they’re the second largest ethnic group in America. There is great diversity in their ranks. They have become very politically important in California, Texas, Florida, and New York.
14:08In California and New York
14:11they are. They tend to be Hispanics tend to be a more liberal New York, more Ah! Higher percentage of Portuguese, California, higher percentage of Mexican Americans. They tend to be more liberal in Florida. Cuban Americans tend to be more conservative, and they didn’t have an influence on Florida Politics from that perspective.
14:30And in Texas Mexican Americans are more conservative than they are in California,
14:37and, for instance, the majority of them voted for George W. Bush, for Governor in State of California. So our State of Texas, so it’s a it’s a diverse group. The Latino outcomes can can trace its heritage back from many different parts
14:53of Central America, South America, the
14:57the Caribbean, and of Course Mexico,
15:02African-americans, the one immigrant group that did not come here for the most part voluntarily they were. They were literally brought here in slay and chains as slaves, and even after slavery’s abolished African Americans continued to live predominantly in the South or in urban areas outside of the South
15:19African-americans live in all fifty states, but typically they live in urban areas and not in the suburban and rural areas.
15:30And there are many different reasons for that. They I think your text touches on if you want to go back and take a look at that. But you should understand this about African Americans. They’re highly concentrated as the population in the Southern States, for instance, the State of Louisiana,
15:46the African-american population I think Last time I checked it’s thirty six that’s better than a bird. Of Louisiana is black. If you look at a nationwide, the African-american population is only about eleven percent.
15:59So the Southern States are far more have far greater concentrations of African American
16:05citizens than do States outside of the South. That’s a That’s a for important salient point, because that means in those States. They have more influence in the outcome of the political contests. In those States,
16:19Asian-americans are another very diverse group hailing from different countries and speaking different languages, Korean, Americans and Pacific islanders, Asian civic islanders,
16:30Japanese, Americans, Taiwanese, Chinese, Americans, Filipinos, and there are many more ties, Cambodians.
16:40It’s a very diverse group from they. They’re a very different country, and many are fairly recent immigrants who still speak of second language, and they’re different languages. Thai is very different from the Cambodian, which is very different Japanese, which is very different than a Chinese.
16:54We have had a very significant influx of Asian immigration in California in the last twenty years right here in the Los Angeles area,
17:03and if you’re maybe wanting to know even more that there’s a huge population of Chinese and Taiwanese Americans of recent immigration,
17:11who moved into the San Gabriel Valley, which is not too far from where I live in Sierra Andre
17:16Um. But all these groups are obviously interplaying with one another in our political system and our political system, that they all have different ways of looking at things, at different subcultures
17:27and different histories in the country, and they’re all one of the challenges of American politics to make this all work again, make sure that everyone meshes, and then we can move forward
17:39a productive way as a nation, instead of being divided based on our differences.
17:44Let’s not forget native Americans, the folks who are here before everybody else. Hence we call them native Americans.
17:50They they’re a very tiny percentage of the population only about zero point two, not even a full percentage point of the Us. Population today.
17:58Most live on reservations, and I have to say that it’s a sad thing to say that most Indian reservations or native American reservation
18:08are places that are very poor, you know, have a lot of problems, a lot of social problems. There are many. There are plenty of exceptions. There. There are some exceptions around the West coast, where American tribes have done a very good job developing their land in agriculture or timber, or in gambling,
18:27but as a general statement, native Americans are a very poor population relative to the average American,
18:35and they are, By the way, there’s a special ah bureaucracy in the Federal Government that’s set up just to administer for the Canadian Americans. It’s called the Bureau of Indian Era of Indian Administration
18:50Bia, and that they have the responsibility of making sure that
18:55on the reservations are able to get the basic things they need, so they can develop themselves and move on with their life
19:04changing racial compositions. If you go back to one thousand nine hundred and fifty, you can see that ninety percent of about ninety percent of America was white of some type. Remember, there’s a lot of diversity in that white category, too.
19:16Today we have to even we
19:19a substantial number of Hispanics when asked and surveyed to identify themselves as white. That’s Why, now, the sir, Us. Census has created a separate category non-hispanic white.
19:30Ah! To try and differentiate between those people who are, who who are Hispanic, who consider themselves to be white, and who those who are white or not. Hispanic is kind of silly in my point of view. But it it is what it is
19:45you can see today in twenty up to two thousand and fifty. Only about seventy percent of the country will be white,
19:52and so you can see a huge number of change in the American population in that short, very short period of time.
19:58Um. Obviously the biggest changes in the Hispanic category. You can see that they are in the. They have projected to be almost thirty percent of the Us. Population
20:07in two thousand and fifty that is, owing primarily to immigration, both legal annually the
20:14and on the subject of race. I was like to point out that I I live through. And
20:19witness the first African-american President of American history, who was elected, I might add, by a non by a majority of Americans, which was not African-american. The African-american vote went for Obama, but that’s only about ten percent of the vote. So he had to have a lot of folks a lot of white folks and Hispanic folks to Asian votes
20:39to getting into the Presidency. So I think that’s a Testament to how far America has come in terms of our ideas about race, the idea of tolerance, and our sense of what is right and what is fair. And of course he was elected twice. So We’re quite, quite a Testament to one hundred and fifty
20:56to the man himself, but obviously to the changing attitudes in America the
21:01that you got to live through. You’ve all lived through witnesses as well.
21:04Don’t forget we haven’t had our first. He he appointed our first Hispanic Supreme Court, Justice Justice Sonia Soda Mayor
21:14also that’s also a very path-breaking change in Government demographics. I might add
21:23George W. Bush did try to appoint a Mexican-american attorney to the us Supreme Court back. I think it was about two thousand and four,
21:32but the Democratic party Bush was a Republican from Texas, and so it’s his appointment. It’s Hispanic.
21:40The Democratic party controlled the Senate, and they they they! They turned that that nomination down because they thought the man was too conservative. So you could have had a
21:53about ten years earlier than Southern Mayor, but, as it turns out, she is our first, and she’s a democrat, obviously
22:02religion globally. If you go around the world in the history of the world or the world today, you’ll find that religious differences are often the source of violence, and wars. Jews and Muslims
22:13obviously have been in each Other’s throats for a long time. Ah! The wars between Muslims, between Sunni, Muslims and Shia Muslims middle wars between the the conflict between in in India, between the Muslims and the Hindus, the Sikhs,
22:30the Christians you name it. Religion is oftentimes a source of conflict. The
22:36America has enjoyed relative peace and toleration among its religious groups. We get conflict from time to time. We
22:43we haven’t had those religious wars. We’ve had a kind of a of relative stability and peace on our religious groups. And that’s largely because of our religious freedom. We’re probably the most free nation on earth in terms of practicing religion, tolerating each other’s religions, and that’s built right into the Constitution,
23:01that religious liberty is built right into the Constitution. The first clause of the first, and then it says Congressman, establish an official church, so there is no official church which opens up the possibility of anybody wanting to practice their religion without being told. Hey, that’s not good. We have to practice the government’s religion. We don’t
23:20you have that
23:21we also. We know, though, that religion is an important part of how people look at the world.
23:28And so when you are looking at political candidates or people, you know, or looking at political candidates, oftentimes knowing what the political candidate’s religion is, gives you a a few cues about where they may be on certain political issues.
23:42So we try to act like religions not involved in politics, at least overtly. It isn’t Certainly our governments,
23:49you know Constitution prohibits any religious tests, so you cannot be asked what your religion is to be able to run for office that is forbidden. But we do know that religion matters to people. Most people are religious, and we do know that
24:04the religion of political candidates can can be very important to people
24:10you’re looking at how religion impacts people in America Politically, obviously fundamentalists or evangelical Christians.
24:17They’re probably a single, most influential Ah, ah! Religious group in the country! But in political terms they’re overwhelmingly Republican, and they they form a very key group in the Republican Party coalition, and there are some who are not Republican, but that is the and it’s certainly the tendency there.
24:37But America is really diverse. If you. I’ll show you a slide that’s coming up next. We’ll show you how diverse we are. Protestants of different denominations dominate America, but certainly there’s plenty of us plenty more religion to see
24:51the larger trend I want you to be aware of, though, is a trend towards Secularism.
24:57To be secular is not to be atheist. It just means you’re non-religious, you mean you may call yourself a Christian or a hindu or a Muslim, but if you’re not practicing the faith on a regular basis. We call you secular,
25:08and we know that there’s a trend towards Secularism in America. Each year, and more and more people get more and more secular, and I might add that the generated millennial Z Generation Z. Is the most secular generation we’ve ever had.
25:23Well, they will. Well, your generation turnaround become more religious as you get older. Maybe that’s the typical pattern, but maybe not.
25:31And this this is a nice graph of where we’re at right Now you can see that we’re the big red part of that graph. About forty percent of America is one denomination or another of Protestantism,
25:42the largest, single, the largest single denomination are Catholics, about twenty, one percent of the population.
25:51And then, of course, you can see various other versions of Christianity, of witness Mormons. Others.
25:59We have the historically black churches, which are kind of considered demographically as a separate enterprise, although they’ve shared much in common with Evangel Protestants
26:09to be added all up, and there’s a majority of Americans that consider themselves to be Christian. Probably I think it’s about
26:17well better than seventy percent of American considers themselves to be Persian of some time,
26:22which is down. Actually, it used to be higher than that just thirty years ago.
26:27As American becomes more secular, it intends to become less Christian, and as we get more immigration from places like India and Asia,
26:35we’re getting more
26:37Hindus and Muslims and Buddhists as well,
26:41so religious affiliation is changing in America. Like so many other things, changing
26:49tech stocks about the importance of gender, our political system, both in terms of voting and participation. About fifty years after gaining the right to vote, women voted at lower rates than men.
27:00But now, over the last forty years women have been voting at higher rates than them, and we have more women involved in the political system running for political office, holding political office. We have a woman in the Vice President’s job right now in the United States, which is a first.
27:15So women are done quite well in the last three decades in terms of trying to catch up. In some ways they’ve surpassed men who actually get more women voting in a Presidential campaign every four years than men.
27:27There is a gender gap in risen to. You know, representation of women in general tend to vote more democratic than men do, then tend to vote more Republican than women do.
27:39Single women in particular tend to be more likely to be democratic.
27:43Married women are almost fifty over fifty, almost leaning a little bit to the Republicans, but but single women are tend to be very much much or in towards the Democratic party,
27:54and that’s an interesting thing, because
27:56young single women are particularly more we in towards the Democratic party. We call that the gender gap between two parties. The gender gap favors the Democrats when it comes to women,
28:08Statewide candidates and national candidates for President know that, and oftentimes tailor some of their appeals during campaigns to the female, but particularly the single female.
28:21You can take a look at this. You’ll notice that Obama was a Democrat, and you’ll see that women voted for the Red Bars. Women voted, and far more women voted for Obama than did men. Then you look at the Republican, and then he ran against,
28:38and Romney, and he got far more votes for Republicans than than than than from women of hardly from. He got more votes from men than women than Clinton, a Democrat. Remember, he got more votes from women than men, and Then Trump, who ran again,
28:54did far better with men than women. I only had Trump did break the barrier with married women. A majority of married when it did voted from,
29:04but a majority of women still voted for his opponent. So this this Democrat Republican split between men and women is measurable, and it can make the difference in the outcome of a residential election,
29:18sexual orientation and gender identity. Obviously, your text. It gives you a little bit more on this. We know that there have been significant expansion of legal rights for Lgbtq over the last
29:33fifteen to twenty years, two to ten percent of our population falls into this category, and it’s an interesting thing that they’re becoming more and more politically active, organizing in various interest groups. They’re having more and more influence of both political parties with more influence in the Democratic party than the Republican party,
29:52and they’re winning office. They’re now holding offices in across the country as well.
30:00I’ll let you go.
30:01Political agenda text talks with. When the military finally answered ended the policy of Don’t. Ask Don’t tell. We want to ask you if you’re homosexual, or if you don’t tell us
30:12that was ended in her under President Obama, and of course say same-sex marriage was decided not too long ago by the Us. Supreme Court. So recent developments have gone in a direction expanding rights.
30:26I’ll teach you,
30:29and he married Jackie. The disgust me is a good example of this. She’s the first openly gaminger of Salt Lake City, which is a majority of Mormon city, a fairly conservative place.
30:40The times there are changing right
30:43family and fertility.
30:45You should know this, that America is shrinking in terms of our population, because you to replace our population, the
30:53women have to have two point one bursts per female in the population. That’s the replacement rate, not to grow just to replace our population.
31:03Us is now one point, six verse per female, and we’ll start ringing and then shrieking in size in the coming twenty and fifty years. So we are we we’re continuing, growing now because of immigration that’s going to peak somewhere in the next ten to fifteen years, and then we’re going to start shrinking quite considerably
31:20over the next half of this century, unless we do something to encourage women to have more
31:24kids and or have more immigrants coming in who tend to have more kids. Now,
31:29this is a big, a big issue all across the Western world, you see, declining birth rates and populations that are not going to be replaced. For instance, Spain and Italy,
31:40Reese are. All are all going to be about half the size they are today in just fifty years, because they’re having so many people I mean Spain. Their their birthrate is now one point, two children, or a female. So all these countries are trying to figure out ways to encourage P. Family, to encourage women to have more kids.
31:59You see this in Japan any all the affluent nations in the world.
32:04You see this, and you see this happening. There’s only one actually one nation. I guess that’s an exception of that, and that is the nation of Israel, where they actually have about three children per female. So they’re growing.
32:16They’re the only first world or modern a fluid country.
32:22Isn’t seeing a decline in population owing to this lower fertility rate,
32:27One reason is, people are getting married later, and it’s when you get married later, and you wait into your late thirties early fortys to try having kids. Fertility rates. Drop for a woman at age thirty-five. And so, when couples are having a harder time pro-creating
32:44and goggles, are just choosing to have fewer kids, having no children, or having one child, is now a much more common in each generation coming generation. This is more common, so that the yellow idea of having five or six kids.
33:02It’s very much less common than it used to be,
33:07and we’ll see those trends continue. Because if it does, America is going to start shrinking that has all kinds of repercussions, both good
33:15in that, but particularly bad if you think about it from an economic point of view. So
33:20when we look at the reform of our social welfare system. We’re going to bring this back, and we’re going to talk more about it, because it’s very important to talk about this when we talk about retirement.
33:31Uh, we know, for instance, that
33:34America’s graying, that we that more and more Americans are baby boomers, about eighty million of us, and as we get greater, the country proportionally will get greater, and we’re going to have fewer people being able to pay the Social Security Medicare tax to pay for the agreeing population.
33:55Um, divorce and abortion are still common, but the rates of both are significantly down in recent years, and that’s really good news, because divorce and abortion obviously are associated with all sorts of issues.
34:10We still, and of course, with a recent decision by the Supreme Court to eliminate the national abortion. Right? The
34:17you most experts expect abortion to drop even more, because many states like, for instance,
34:26let me give you Oklahoma, or simply making an abortion illegal. So more and more women are going to be not going to have that choice. It’s a state-by-state decision in California. Obviously it’s still legal
34:42number of households, headed by women, continues to rise as well,
34:47and that is an interesting thing.
34:50Even with the lower abortion Rates and divorce rates, we still have a phenomenon where
34:56a woman has a child out of wedlock. Typically she doesn’t marry the father. She has the responsibility, the board typically awards custody to the woman, or when she divorces it doesn’t remarry. She’s going to have custody many children. She has typically family court side with a woman
35:12that means that women are marrying the responsibility of raising children on their own, which is a heck of a heck of a of a challenge.
35:22Education, college education. The rates vary by race, the white population, about thirty, two percent are college graduates, almost the third the African-american population about twenty two percent Hispanic population, about fifteen percent nation. Why, we’re about about twenty two percent of Americans.
35:41I’ll have a colleague, four-year college degree
35:44less than Five percent of Americans have a graduate degree like a master’s degree, a Phd. A law degree, a medical degree.
35:53We know that education predicts political participation.
35:57The more levels of education you have completed, the more likely are to vote more likely, or to participate in politics, or even run for office. So we know college education correlates very closely with many democratic values
36:12I mentioned the graying of America. Americans are simply living longer, which is really kind of good news, and because they’re living longer they’re going to need to be supported longer. Right?
36:23Um! Their health care costs continue to rise because people live longer. You know that by the time you reach your sixties you tend to have more healthcare issues. And so, if you’re going to live longer on average, that means there’s going to be more pressure on the health care system. Maybe twenty years ago, when there were a few or older people.
36:43Earth rates I’ve already mentioned are in Free Fall. At the same time we have a rain population of eighty million baby boomers. So the timing of this probably couldn’t be any worse
36:55percentage of population over the age of sixty five. But you can see if you go to. If you look at us right now, somewhere in the middle of that graph you’ll see two thousand and twenty. It’s about seventeen percent. But look where it’s going to be in two thousand and sixty. It’s going to be almost a quarter of the population in this country will be over sixty, five,
37:14and most of them will not be working in the marketplace. Right? So that’s taking a big chunk of people who can work out of the labor market,
37:22and they’re put it. They’re going to be needed. They’re They’re going to be needed to take well to take care of them with social security and Medicare and other programs for seniors. Those programs will have to be funded by people who are now your age, where they get older and you better make more money, and you have to pay one hundred’s taxes to pay for
37:40benefits of the older population. So that’s why social welfare, reform, and social welfare system is such an important topic, and we’ll deal with that later. This semester.
37:55Wealth and income. Well,
38:00wealth versus income links to political views. Well, let me just remind you something that
38:05typically the wealthiest people in the country, Don’t necessarily have the highest income. What they have typically is an accumulation of wealth in terms of property they
38:15oftentimes they have high incomes.
38:17Well, but when I talk about wealth, I’m. Talking about what you own, not how much money is coming in. Every
38:22we know that
38:24of how much money you have, how much your income you have, how much wealth you have oftentimes links you to political views.
38:31The more typically the way this works, the less money you have, the less likely to be conserving, more likely to be liberal. The more money you have likely to be. There are exceptions to that, but that’s the tendency
38:48from one thousand nine hundred and fifty to one thousand nine hundred and seventys average income in America grew across the war. Those are the great times of economic growth in the sixtys.
38:58In two thousand and sixteen. Fifteen percent of Americans fell below the poverty One this is the long before Kovan.
39:06Income Inequality is now is now a challenge that Americans face. We still have a large middle class that stabilizes our society. Most Americans think they’re in that middle class,
39:17but most American income is not keeping up with the cost of living. You know twenty, twenty, twenty, twenty-two. We have an inflation rate that’s at a thirty year high. And so in this particular. Year we’re all feeling it really tough, because these prices continue to go up. We’re not getting raises from our employers to pay for.
39:38So we’re falling behind, if you will, and that is, most people are falling behind during this high inflation of climate
39:44that leads over time. If that key continues to happen, people at the bottom are gonna find they can’t pay for their food, or
39:52or gas, or or both, and that could lead to a democratic instability rioting in the streets things of that nature. So this is a very important issue that our Government is trying to address right now. We will deal with it later in the semester. When we look at social welfare
40:08percentage Americans living in poverty. If you go back to two thousand and fourteen, you can see the the poorest dates. Well, Arizona, New Mexico,
40:18Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Kentucky, West Virginia,
40:22the richest States, in terms of just fewer people, not the richest States, as few as people living in Poverty Utah Wyoming or Dakota, Minnesota, there in the North, and the great plain States, Iowa, Missouri, Virginia, New Hampshire.
40:36So you’re if you’re a poor person. It would seem to me. You probably want to move to those States and get out of those States where you see such a high percentage of
40:49your textbook, talks a little bit about the debate over the minimum wage. I don’t want to get into that now. I’m going to move on, and the minimum wage is the amount that you’re guaranteed by a Federal law.
41:00If to go to work as a worker for somebody and some people argue, we should have a lot higher minimum wage. Some people believe it should be lower or kept the same. Um, We’ll get into that debate when we look at economic policy making later in the semester
41:15occupations. We’ve been industrializing as a country for a very long time. You should know what a gross domestic product is. Gross Domestic product is a total dollar’s value of all things produced in America in the course of the year.
41:28Our Gdp. This year is almost twenty two trillion dollars, that’s all. We produce a lot in America,
41:35and we’re doing less with industrialization and less with manufacturing and we’re doing more of what’s called post-industrial work, which tends to be white collar work, knowledge work as opposed to building things and factors. Blue collar
41:50jobs have just dried up and we’re in a place where we have a white collar or office-type jobs, technical type jobs. And of course there’s still almost twenty on my number for it.
42:03About Twenty Five million people work in government at the Key State County City and Federal level. So that’s still a big employer, as well,
42:13obviously as you can see the decline at the manufacturing of, and that it’s been pretty considerate. And remember two thousand and fifteen that actually started to rise after President Trump got into office. That was one of the things he ran trying to get industrial, manufacturing up getting work, those types of jobs for people,
42:32and he had some successes in any of those four years. But it’s apparently because of Covid. It’s now flattened again. That’s on the graph that you can’t see,
42:44but it’s way down from where it was
42:46in many parts of the country, like the Russell back in place like Ohio, in Indiana, Illinois.
42:52That’s a big deal. People are struggling to find a way to make a decent living without having a factory job,
42:59a social class from America.
43:01Everybody wants to be in the middle class. We don’t see ourselves as the proletariat versus the bourgeoisie. The way, Mark said. You know war versus the rich. Most Americans believe that they are in the middle class, whether they aren’t or whether they are, or whether they are.
43:17And so we don’t have that that class struggle. You have many other parts of the world.
43:21We Americans are more interested in becoming part of the middle class when we are becoming rich than they are, you know, taking a hard view about what social class they’re in,
43:33and demanding things as a result of that social class status. Your text is a better, more thorough job of Explain that, and i’m going to let your text speak for itself on that. So if you need more on that, please go back and reread that section in Chapter four.
43:50Well, folks, that’s what I wanted to share with you today. I mean I could go on and on. I could make this lecture a three or four-hour lecture.
43:58I’ll tell you I am a person who, when I graduate from Linfield College back in one thousand nine hundred and eighty,
44:06I was asked by a good friend if I wanted to get in his dots and pick up and drive all around the country with him. All I had was three hundred dollars, and he had one thousand six hundred dollars because he had. He had graduated early and worked all spring and had some made some money.
44:20So we’re in this old dots and pick up. We didn’t even have a radio in the pickup.
44:24Didn’t have air conditioning,
44:26and we got in it, and we started driving east. We were up in Oregon. That’s where we went to school in Field College, in Oregon,
44:33and we drove all across the country, all up to the north, from Canada to remain on the east coast of Midwest, all the way down to Florida, back to the Deep South, back into California.
44:44We were gone for over two months. We spent rope over thirteen thousand miles,
44:49and all I can tell you is, i’m glad I did. I didn’t have a lot of money. We camped a lot. We visited friends and relatives.
45:01And had sheep motels. I eat a lot of breakfast at Mcdonald’s because it’s all we could afford.
45:06But you know i’m glad I did it because I got to see this country in this country. It’s an amazing place. It’s a massive place.
45:13It’s so. It’s so different. Maine is so different than California.
45:18You know Michigan is so different than Florida, Oregon. It’s so different than Louisiana,
45:23and you really don’t appreciate that until you’ve actually been there, you know It’s not the same to fly over it
45:29in New York or Chicago before you’re flying over America. It’s not the same. Do yourself a favor. Get a couple of friends and plan a long trip to see this country while you’re still young, and you have the time to do it,
45:42because once you make a commitment to a career and family, you’ll find that those opportunities are probably not going to present themselves to you.
45:50Anyway. I learned a lot about the American political landscape by just driving through it and seeing people meeting people, and, you know, give me a tremendous perspective on just just how how how amazing this country really, truly is.
46:07Okay? Well, I’m going to finish this now, and I just want to remind you that when you’re finished with this module, and be on the lookout for the calendar announcement for the unit one Exam.
46:20And put some time into preparation for that. Go look at your lecture and reading notes very carefully, and contact me. If you have any questions about anything, and I will do whatever I can to help. Okay,
46:32that’s it for me today. See you soon.
JOURNAL ARTICLE CRITIQUE 1 3 Journal Article Critique: Student Academic Performance Nivea
Read RAT 7 Initial Topic then read the discussion response by Edet Jones. Type a one-page response to Edet Essay Religion and Theology Assignment Help JOURNAL ARTICLE CRITIQUE
Journal Article Critique: Student Academic Performance
School of Education, Liberty University
I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nivea Carattini
Email: [email protected]
People’s most cherished results are substantially correlated with academic achievement. Those who are more prepared for school and have a well-thought-out strategy and planner tend to succeed academically and achieve greater professional success. Achieving academic success is crucial to a young person’s healthy growth and development as an individual and a member of society. Intrinsically motivated students, on the other hand, tend to perform better academically, making it easier for them to become productive members of society eventually. Enhancing students’ learning outcomes requires a thorough understanding of the factors that motivate them to study and their strategies.
Successful social maturation requires that young people also flourish academically. Those who perform well in school have a higher chance of thriving as adults in their chosen fields and the economy. Academic performance so measures how well students do in school generally. However, the importance of intrinsic motivation and effective learning strategies cannot be overstated when raising academic performance. “Research showed that students’ motivations and strategy use have some impact on student performance” The article cites research about Liberian students’ (Gbollie & Keamu, 2017). Motivating beliefs and learning strategies are used concerning their academic achievement. In addition, it asked students to reflect on their experiences with any obstacles they believe may prevent them from succeeding in school.
In this case, 323 people from two different counties took part in the study, which used a cross-sectional quantitative research approach. It was estimated that there were 162 males and 161 females in total. “They were drawn from eight public schools, comprising 182 (56.3%), and 7 private schools with 141 (41.3%) participants from Montserrado and Margibi counties” (Gbollie & Keamu, 2017). Twelve possible learning barriers were identified, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was modified to address these issues. SPSS 17.0 was utilized for the statistical analysis process of the investigation (Gbollie & Keamu, 2017). According to the findings, students whose motivation came from external sources performed better on tests than those from internal sources. Furthermore, the most common tactic was practising, while asking for assistance was revealed to be the least employed. In addition, the results demonstrated statistically significant connections between the two factors considered in the study.
The authors have an impressive level of education, and their article reflects that. The Youthful Champion is one of three inspirational and enlightening books written by Dr Charles Gbollie, a renowned Liberian scientist. He has published over six academic studies in peer-reviewed international journals (AllAfrica, 2020). It is still a difficult and highly desired goal for many African people to get a PhD. However, for the young Liberian scholar Charles Gbollie, this goal has been realized with distinction. However, Harriett Pearl Keamu has published one scientific research article and has been cited eight times by other researchers as an authority in her field. Besides, the article’s central argument is predicated on understanding students’ innate drive dynamics. The strategies they use to study are key to enhancing their academic performance.
Among the most intriguing results of this survey is that Liberian middle and high school learners repeatedly contemplate not having enough money to buy food. The case disproves the premise of the articles, which predicted that inadequate learning facilities and harassment would be the most significant obstacles to education. Besides, people’s apprehensions may stem from their general foreboding about the future. While some could question the study’s methodology, it does add to the body of knowledge in important ways. As a result, understanding of how different learners are motivated and the methods they use to retain information is expanded (Gbollie & Keamu, 2017). The study also helped students recognize possible learning barriers and develop strategies for overcoming them. The study’s results draw many important implications for education and policymaking in Liberia.
It is essential to include students’ cognitive ability and past accomplishments in the analyses when analyzing the significance of motivating variables for students’ progress since they are among the greatest single predictors of academic success. The results of Steinmayr (2019) agree with the finding of Gbollie & Keamu (2017) in that the Ability self-concepts were given greater relative weight than the matching intellect scores. Moreover, students’ achievement goals and ability self-concepts seem to induce positive or negative connotations in students, and these valences, in turn, act as simple but important triggers of successful school-related behavior. However, potential directions for future research might look towards mediation. Anticipation beliefs, such as ability self-concepts, seem to be influenced by accomplishment motivations, which are described as more generalized personal dispositions.
Academic performance is significantly impacted by relative autonomy motivation thanks to a more in-depth study approach, and increased effort spent studying. For this purpose, I would argue that accomplishment motivation is what energizes and guides behavior toward achievement. As a result, it is recognized as a key factor in determining academic performance. In addition, it was discovered that rehearsal tactics were the ones that were utilized the most often. Asking for assistance was revealed to be the approach that was considered the least factor in improving academic performance. Therefore, strategy and intrinsic motivation play an immense role in learners’ success.
AllAfrica. (2020, September 30). Liberia: A Young Liberian Scholar Welcomes President Weah’s Call On Doctors. Retrieved from https://allafrica.com/stories/202009300368.html
Gbollie, C., & Keamu, H. P. (2017). Student academic performance: The role of motivation, strategies, and perceived factors hindering Liberian junior and senior high school students learning. Education Research International, 1-11. Retrieved from https://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2017/1789084/
Steinmayr, R. A., Schwinger, M., & Spinath, B. (2019). The importance of students’ motivation for their academic achievement–replicating and extending previous findings. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 1-11. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01730/full
Running head: NEEDS WSKHT 1 7 NEEDS WSKHT Needs Wskht FirstName LastName
Running head: NEEDS WSKHT
SOC-480: Needs Assessment Worksheet 1
It is essential for social workers to understand the needs of the community in order to develop an effective proposal that addresses social health issues. This assignment will help you learn this skill.
For this assignment, you will assess culture and subculture in your selected community. For instance, you may decide to select your neighborhood community. Some students may select the community here at GCU or another university campus.
Answer the following prompts to assist you:
Topic 1: Social Issues
After reading the “Mock Community” case study, list the social issues this community is dealing with. Describe the target population and characteristics of this population (racial/ethnic, cultural, socioeconomic status, age, etc.).
Problems with family separation, unemployment, housing insecurity, and child care are only some of this population’s social and economic challenges. Illegal immigrants in Arizona are not allowed to form a community focus group. Half of the people living in poverty in the country are in this city. In the last ten years, Mexicans have accounted for almost 51 percent of the country’s total population between the ages of 24 and 45. Only 24% have completed high school, but most children (over 90%) and young adults (only 8%) are enrolled in formal education. They will probably have trouble interacting with us verbally. A third of these people live in poverty even though about half have jobs. Seven percent of the unemployed (39% of the total) are directly reliant on government assistance in unemployment insurance.
Using the Risk and Protective Factors page on the Community Toolbox website, describe the risk and protective factors in the “Mock Community” that might contribute to the social issues presented in this case study. (50-75 words)
Substance addiction, drug availability, and poverty are just a few of the risk and protective factors prevalent in this neighborhood that may play a role in the societal problems described in the case study. Most Arizona undocumented immigrants live below the poverty line because they cannot work legally. In addition, some members of this neighborhood engage in drug dealing to make ends meet. As an outcome, there is a lot of drug and alcohol misuse here.
What are the unique characteristics of the community in the case study? (30-50 words)
High poverty and unemployment rates are only two distinctive features of this Arizona neighborhood. Most of its residents are between the ages of 25 and 44, and most are immigrants from Mexico. Even though they have been American residents for at least ten years, most still cannot speak the language fluently. Despite this, a sizable portion of them may be experiencing cash-flow problems.
Describe any resources available for the target population presented in the mock community. Are they easily accessible? Explain whether or not there is a resource gap. (50-75 words)
It is possible to rent office space, use the locker room, and get medical care all under one roof. Most people who are imprisoned and terrified of being removed utilize these readily available methods to ensure their safety and avoid detection. These are impressive services, but they lack essentials like medical attention, information, and financial aid, as discussed before.
Explain whether or not the community recognizes the social issues and the need for programs or resources that address these social issues. (50-75 words)
Taking into account social concerns prevents them from moving in search of work. They are familiar with the services provided, and when difficulties concerning the needs of the staff or company stakeholders occur, they inform social workers. However, to date, little has been accomplished.
Assessing Your Selected Community
First, describe the social issue you have selected for your proposal. (20-30 words)
My hometown’s shortage of exciting things to do and lack of clean water supply are the social issues I have decided to focus on.
Explain which level of analysis you have selected and why. (30-40 words)
For this reason, I have decided to do a mezzo level, where I will address a proposed solution to alleviate the water shortage. More maintenance on the water system is required for leak repairs.
Describe the target population/client affected by your selected social issue. (20-30 words)
I intend to reach out to the 6,240 locals whose drinking water has been tainted by dirty sewage. To avoid getting sick, they should only drink clean water.
Next, use the Strategic Prevention Framework in the Community Toolbox website, to guide you in assessing your community.
Although you will not be able to utilize all the information presented in the Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF), you will be able to use it as a guide. Summarize the first step (in the Community Toolbox website) in the Strategic Prevention Framework (40-50 words).
The evaluation of ideas begins with this stage, during which we delve into the ideas’ complexity and determine whether or not they are helpful to the group as a whole. We’ll identify the issue, look into potential fixes, and implement them.
How will you utilize this information when planning your proposal? (40-50 words)
Before I can investigate the source of the problem, I need to ensure that my community has access to safe drinking water. I can make use of this data.
Next, access and review your county public health website. Review existing prevention programs and resources that address your selected social issue. List possible prevention or evidence-based treatment strategies for target populations/clients dealing with the social issue you have selected. (30-50 words)
In 2013, algae began to be discovered in the water distribution system. My city received $500,000 that year. We had no choice but to substitute plastic bottles for it.
Explain the social issues your community deals with. Using the Risk and Protective Factors information in the Community Toolbox website, describe what risk factors might be driving patterns and behaviors related to your community and your selected social issue. What are some of the protective factors that might reduce the effects of the risk factors? (100-150 words)
Socioeconomic problems plague our community due to a lack of access to safe drinking water. We’re going to need to buy bottled water soon. No matter how often we scrub the tub, we will never be free of the algae that have colonized it. After cleaning the aqueducts, we claimed the water was potable again, causing a three-day drought in 2019. For some time, before we could use it again, it had a chlorine odor. They informed us of the situation once they learned it was still vulnerable. Money to fix it may be forthcoming, but in the meantime, we must manage it closely.
Access and read the “Community Profiles” article by Henderson et al. (2012). Explain how the authors used neighborhood profile data to conduct their community assessment. (150-200 words)
One central premise of the paper is that Latinos in the United States face healthcare disparities, especially regarding obesity and associated outcomes. The study’s overarching goal was to ascertain whether or not the public understands that environmental factors have a bearing on preventable health risks. This was the case because it has been argued that Latinos are disproportionately likely to reside in areas with poor public amenities, such as supermarkets and parks (Henderson et al., 2012). They evaluated the group with the help of questionnaires and personal interviews. Find out if the local population as a whole is overweight. Because of their extreme poverty, foods packed with saturated fat and salt are much more affordable than their healthier alternatives. Individuals in this area are generally overweight because of their low socioeconomic status. In contrast, they had access to healthy food and nearby sporting events because of the convenience stores in their region. The plan was to lure Latinos to cheaper locations with fewer services and stores. Online surveys were conducted when it was inevitable that the result would be accurate. Latinos make up the vast majority of the population of Pima County, Arizona’s 12 suburban municipalities.
Henderson, M. A., Sanchez, Z. C., Koegel, K. A., Zawacki, L., Martinez, G., & Ingram, M. (2012). Community Profiles. Californian Journal of Health Promotion, 10(SI-Latino), 37–51. https://doi.org/10.32398/cjhp.v10isi-latino.1481
Expanding the Pie: Integrative versus Distributive Bargaining Negotiation Strategies. Imagine that you’re
Expanding the Pie: Integrative versus Distributive Bargaining Negotiation Strategies.
Imagine that you’re buying a used car from its original owner. Of course, you want to get the best deal you can for your money, while your counterpart wants to maximize the value of his asset. After haggling with one another, each side finally arrives at a price point acceptable to both parties.
The above scenario is common in many transactional negotiations: You hold your cards close and share as little information as needed to achieve your goal. But imagine a different scenario, one in which both parties reveal their interests at the onset of a negotiation.
An article by Katie Johnston for Harvard Business School, “The Art of Haggling,” describes the difference between distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Getting to Yes, the seminal work from Harvard Law School professor and Program on Negotiation founder Roger Fisher and Harvard Negotiation Project Senior Fellow and Program on Negotiation cofounder William Ury, advocates for integrative bargaining. In integrative bargaining, each side seeks to create an agreement beneficial to both parties.
The integrative approach is taught in most professional schools because some situations that initially look like win-lose negotiations can often be turned into opportunities for mutual gain and value creation.
Of course, the integrative approach has its limits, and negotiators are often cautious about revealing too much information, but integrative bargaining explicitly relies upon revealing preferences and interests.
1. Do you think integrative approach to negotiation is more effective that distributive approach? (250 words minimum)
2. Critically discuss hypothetical situations where either style of negotiation would not be effective within the context of cultural, ethics and communication variables. (250 words minimum)